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Chronic malnutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910791/inflammation-and-protein-energy-wasting-in-the-uremic-milieu
#1
Magdalena Jankowska, Gabriela Cobo, Bengt Lindholm, Peter Stenvinkel
Inflammation is normally a protective and physiological response to harmful stimuli, but typically becomes an uncontrolled, maladaptive, and persistent process in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Through a deleterious cascade of poorly controlled reactions mediated by biologically active molecules (also called middle molecular weight uremia retention solutes), inflammation associates with a range of complications including cardiovascular disease and protein-energy wasting (PEW). Persistent inflammation, which is central to the conceptual etiological models of PEW and the malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis syndrome, induces and reignites processes leading to PEW in a number of ways including stimulation of both direct and indirect mechanisms of muscle proteolysis...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905004/gastroenteritis-aggressive-versus-slow-treatment-for-rehydration-gastro-a-pilot-rehydration-study-for-severe-dehydration-who-plan-c-versus-slower-rehydration
#2
Kirsty A Houston, Jack G Gibb, Ayub Mpoya, Nchafatso Obonyo, Peter Olupot-Olupot, Margeret Nakuya, Jennifer A Evans, Elizabeth C George, Diana M Gibb, Kathryn Maitland
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) rehydration management guidelines (Plan C) for children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and severe dehydration are widely practiced in resource-poor settings, yet have never been formally evaluated in a clinical trial. A recent audit of outcome of AGE at Kilifi County Hospital, Kenya noted that 10% of children required high dependency care (20% mortality) and a number developed fluid-related complications. The fluid resuscitation trial, FEAST, conducted in African children with severe febrile illness, demonstrated higher mortality with fluid bolus therapy and raised concerns regarding the safety of rapid intravenous rehydration therapy...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902925/tyrosine-phosphorylation-of-kv1-5-is-upregulated-in-intrauterine-growth-retardation-rats-with-exaggerated-pulmonary-hypertension
#3
L C Fu, Y Lv, Y Zhong, Q He, X Liu, L Z Du
Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with the development of adult-onset diseases, including pulmonary hypertension. However, the underlying mechanism of the early nutritional insult that results in pulmonary vascular dysfunction later in life is not fully understood. Here, we investigated the role of tyrosine phosphorylation of voltage-gated potassium channel 1.5 (Kv1.5) in this prenatal event that results in exaggerated adult vascular dysfunction. A rat model of chronic hypoxia (2 weeks of hypoxia at 12 weeks old) following IUGR was used to investigate the physiological and structural effect of intrauterine malnutrition on the pulmonary artery by evaluating pulmonary artery systolic pressure and vascular diameter in male rats...
September 12, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886855/effect-of-ablation-for-atrial-fibrillation-on-heart-failure-readmission-rates
#4
Parijat Saurav Joy, Rakesh Gopinathannair, Brian Olshansky
Atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) cause numerous hospital admissions. We investigated if AF increases readmissions in patients with HF and whether AF ablation alters readmissions for HF exacerbations. The 2013 Nationwide Readmissions Database was analyzed for all-cause 90-day readmissions, after discharge for HF exacerbation. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to compare hazard rates for readmissions due to HF exacerbation, after recent ablation versus no ablation. There were 885,270 admissions for HF exacerbation of which 364,447 had coexisting AF...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886038/diagnoses-infections-and-injuries-in-northern-syrian-children-during-the-civil-war-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Gerlant van Berlaer, Abdallah Mohamed Elsafti, Mohammad Al Safadi, Saad Souhil Saeed, Ronald Buyl, Michel Debacker, Atef Redwan, Ives Hubloue
BACKGROUND: The civil war in Syria including the deliberate targeting of healthcare services resulted in a complex humanitarian emergency, seriously affecting children's health. The objectives of this study are to document diagnoses and disease categories in Northern Syrian children after four years of conflict, and to document infectious diseases and injuries in this vulnerable population. METHODS: In a prospective cross-sectional observational sample study conducted in May 2015, healthcare workers registered demographics, comorbidities, and diagnoses (categorised according to the International Classification of Diseases version 10) in children visited at home and in internally displaced persons camps in four Syrian governorates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869011/-nutrition-and-dietary-supplement-in-chronic-inflammatory-bowel-diesease
#6
Christian Lodberg Hvas, Mette Borre, Janne Ladefoged Fassov
Nutrition and food items may improve or worsen symptoms in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Protein malnutrition and vitamin and mineral deficiencies are common, particularly deficiency of iron and vitamin D. Dietary fibres and omega-3 fatty acids are safe, but no evidence supports their use as treatment. The use of probiotics is not encouraged in patients with Crohn's disease, but it may maintain remission in ulcerative colitis. Curcumin, chamomile, and other herbal extracts are promising in the treatment of mild ulcerative colitis, but validation of products and monitoring of side effects are insufficient...
July 31, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862722/associations-of-physical-activity-energy-expenditure-with-nutritional-inflammatory-markers-in-hemodialysis-patients
#7
Clarcson P Santos, Luciana F Silva, Marcelo B Lopes, Márcia T S Martins, Angiolina C Kraychete, Fernanda A Silva, Maria T S Martins, Cácia M Matos, Gildete B Lopes, Antonio A Lopes
BACKGROUND: Sedentariness, high inflammation status and malnutrition are highly prevalent in end-stage kidney disease patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). This study investigated associations of weekly physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) with clinical and anthropometric markers of nutrition and inflammation. METHODS: The analysis was performed using baseline cross-sectional data of 640 patients enrolled in the prospective cohort "The Prospective Study of the Prognosis of Patients Treated Chronically by Hemodialysis" (PROHEMO) developed in Salvador, BA, Brazil...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857059/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-the-unfinished-agenda-in-the-world-health-organization-south-east-asia-region
#8
Indira Chakravarty, Animesh Bhattacharya, Saurabh K Das
Access to adequate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) is essential for the health, well-being and dignity of all people. The World Health Organization South-East Asia Region has made considerable progress in WASH provision during the past two decades. However, compared with increases in coverage of improved drinking water, in some parts of the region, access to adequate sanitation remains low, with continued prevalence of open defecation. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have set ambitious targets for WASH services to be achieved by 2030...
September 2017: WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837523/predictors-of-early-readmission-in-hospitalized-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
Kaci E Christian, Guruprasad D Jambaulikar, Matilda N Hagan, Ali M Syed, Jessica A Briscoe, Sara A Brown, Earl V Campbell, Akash B Gadani, Raymond K Cross
BACKGROUND: Readmissions are being increasingly used as an indicator of quality of care. We sought to identify risk factors for 30-day readmission in hospitalized patients with inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease hospitalized between 2004 and 2013 at the University of Maryland were identified. Demographic and clinical information were extracted from the medical record for each admission. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the association between these variables and readmission...
August 22, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834362/is-high-volume-online-hemodiafiltration-associated-with-malnutrition
#10
Nicolás Macías, Almudena Vega, Soraya Abad, Alba Santos, Santiago Cedeño, Tania Linares, Ana María García-Prieto, Inés Aragoncillo, Claudia Yuste, Juan Manuel López-Gómez
Chronic malnutrition is a common problem in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis. Some studies have reported albumin loss into dialysis fluid during postdilution online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF). The aim of the study was to assess the nutritional status of patients on high-volume OL-HDF and to demonstrate that higher convective clearances are not associated with malnutrition due to possible loss of nutrients with ultrafiltration. Demographic and clinical data, corporal composition with bioimpedance spectroscopy, dialysis features, albumin loss into dialysis fluid and laboratory parameters were collected in twenty-eight patients with ESRD undergoing postdilution OL-HDF with stable convective volumes over 28 L/session...
August 2017: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831332/development-of-a-universal-nutritional-screening-platform-for-plastic-surgery-patients
#11
Melissa Roy, Paul Hunter, Julie A Perry, Karen M Cross
Plastic surgeons routinely see patients with complex or chronic wounds of all etiology. In a previous study, we found that up to 1 in 4 of these patients is at risk for malnutrition, which may be influencing their ability to heal. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a universal screening protocol that would be fast and accurate and allow for effective intervention and optimization of nutrition before plastic surgery. METHODS: To accomplish these goals, we adopted a 2-part screening algorithm using the Canadian Nutritional Screening Tool (CNST) to triage patients in our outpatient clinics and then further screened those identified as being at risk using the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) tool and blood work...
July 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830665/the-intersection-of-immune-responses-microbiota-and-pathogenesis-in-giardiasis
#12
REVIEW
Marc Y Fink, Steven M Singer
Giardia lamblia is one of the most common infectious protozoans in the world. Giardia rarely causes severe life-threatening diarrhea, and may even have a slight protective effect in this regard, but it is a major contributor to malnutrition and growth faltering in children in the developing world. Giardia infection also appears to be a significant risk factor for postinfectious irritable bowel and chronic fatigue syndromes. In this review we highlight recent work focused on the impact of giardiasis and the mechanisms that contribute to the various outcomes of this infection, including changes in the composition of the microbiota, activation of immune responses, and immunopathology...
August 19, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816919/enteral-nutrition-practices-in-critically-ill-children-requiring-noninvasive-positive-pressure-ventilation
#13
Matthew K Leroue, Ryan J Good, Heather E Skillman, Angela S Czaja
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the practice of providing enteral nutrition in critically ill children requiring noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: PICU within a quaternary care children's hospital. PATIENTS: PICU patients older than 30 days requiring noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for greater than or equal to 24 hours from August 2014 to June 2015. Invasive mechanical ventilation prior to noninvasive positive pressure ventilation and inability to receive enteral nutrition at baseline were additional exclusionary criteria...
August 12, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814218/diagnosis-and-management-of-pancreatic-exocrine-insufficiency
#14
Mehrdad Nikfarjam, Jeremy S Wilson, Ross C Smith
In 2015, the Australasian Pancreatic Club (APC) published the Australasian guidelines for the management of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (http://pancreas.org.au/2016/01/pancreatic-exocrine-insufficiency-guidelines). Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) occurs when normal digestion cannot be sustained due to insufficient pancreatic digestive enzyme activity. This may be related to a breakdown, at any point, in the pancreatic digestive chain: pancreatic stimulation; synthesis, release or transportation of pancreatic enzymes; or synchronisation of secretions to mix with ingested food...
August 21, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804497/subjective-global-assessment-and-handgrip-strength-as-predictive-factors-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#15
Maria Ciocîrlan, Andreea Ruxandra Cazan, Mihaela Barbu, Mircea Mănuc, Mircea Diculescu, Mihai Ciocîrlan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Malnutrition is common in patients with chronic liver disease. We aimed to evaluate malnutrition assessment tools in predicting severity and survival of patients with liver cirrhosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We examined patients with liver cirrhosis. Nutritional evaluation was performed on admission, using subjective global assessment (SGA), handgrip strength (HGS), and anthropometry. Patients were followed up for 6 months. RESULTS: We included 100 patients, 72 men, with mean age of 59...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802091/a-cyclic-and-intermittent-very-low-protein-diet-can-have-beneficial-effects-against-advanced-diabetic-nephropathy-in-wistar-fatty-fa-fa-rats-an-animal-model-of-type-2-diabetes-and-obesity
#16
Munehiro Kitada, Yoshio Ogura, Taeko Suzuki, Itaru Monnno, Keizo Kanasaki, Ai Watanabe, Daisuke Koya
A low-protein diet (LPD), particularly, very low-protein diet (VLPD) is expected for reno-protection in advanced chronic kidney disease, including diabetic nephropathy. We previously also demonstrated that a VLPD clearly improved advanced diabetic nephropathy in a type 2 diabetes and obesity rat. However, clinically, an everyday long-term VLPD contributes to poor adherence, which may be related to controvertial results of an LPD on the suppression for diabetic nephropathy, and has nutritional issues, such as sarcopenia or protein-energy wasting...
August 12, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795884/results-of-directly-applied-activated-carbon-cloth-in-chronic-wounds-a-preliminary-study
#17
H S Scheer, M Kaiser, U Zingg
OBJECTIVE: Activated carbon (AC) has been used in wound therapy as an active substance inside dressings. Applying AC directly on a wound is a new concept. The aim of this study was to analyse the outcomes of chronic wounds which were managed with directly applied activated carbon knitted cloth (ACC, Zorflex) in Swiss patients. METHOD: A retrospective analysis of the records of all patients with chronic wounds treated with ACC between 1 October 2013 and 31 December 2015 in an outpatient wound clinic...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791243/an-overview-of-the-health-status-of-syrian-refugee-children-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-turkey
#18
Ibrahim Hakan Bucak, Habip Almis, Samet Benli, Mehmet Turgut
OBJECTIVE: Migration is a problem affecting all family members, but particularly children. Child refugees are the highest risk group for the health systems of receiving countries. We investigated the health of 104 Syrian child refugees presenting to a tertiary hospital in Turkey. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A retrospective study was conducted in the pediatric clinic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical files of Syrian refugee children (0-18 years) presenting to Adiyaman University Hospital, Pediatric Clinic between 01 and 30 November 2015, were investigated...
July 2017: Avicenna Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768291/a-requiem-for-bmi-in-the-clinical-setting
#19
Maria Cristina Gonzalez, Maria Isabel T D Correia, Steven B Heymsfield
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Quetelet reported in the nineteenth century that body weight varies across adults with the square of height. Quetelet's index, now known as BMI, is accepted by most health organizations as a first-level measure of body fat and as a screening tool for diagnosing excess adiposity. Modern imaging methods now, however, indicate that BMI has limited predictive value for estimating body fat and lean mass at the individual level. The use of BMI as a measure of body composition in the clinical setting should therefore be challenged...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755901/protein-energy-wasting-syndrome-in-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease-prevalence-and-specific-clinical-characteristics
#20
Almudena Pérez-Torres, M Elena González Garcia, Belén San José-Valiente, M Auxiliadora Bajo Rubio, Olga Celadilla Diez, Ana M López-Sobaler, Rafael Selgas
INTRODUCTION: Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is associated with increased mortality and differs depending on the chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage and the dialysis technique. The prevalence in non-dialysis patients is understudied and ranges from 0 to 40.8%. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the nutritional status of a group of Spanish advanced CKD patients by PEW criteria and subjective global assessment (SGA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 186 patients (101 men) with a mean age of 66...
July 26, 2017: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
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