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Alejandra M Wiedeman, Kyly C Whitfield, Kaitlin M March, Nancy N Chen, Hou Kroeun, Ly Sokhoing, Prak Sophonneary, Roger A Dyer, Zhaoming Xu, David D Kitts, Timothy J Green, Sheila M Innis, Susan I Barr
Choline has critical roles during periods of rapid growth and development, such as infancy. In human milk, choline is mostly present in water-soluble forms (free choline, phosphocholine, and glycerophosphocholine). It is thought that milk choline concentration is influenced by maternal choline intake, and the richest food sources for choline are of animal origin. Scarce information exists on milk choline from countries differing in animal-source food availability. In this secondary analysis of samples from previous trials, the concentrations of the water-soluble forms of choline were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in mature milk samples collected from lactating women in Canada ( n = 301) and in Cambodia ( n = 67)...
March 20, 2018: Nutrients
Ruchi Mishra, Saurabh Sharma, Radhey Shyam Sharma, Savita Singh, Milind Madhav Sardesai, Sadhna Sharma, Vandana Mishra
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Viscum articulatum Burm. f. (leafless mistletoe) has been used in traditional system of medicines in India, China, Taiwan, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, to treat blood-related diseases and various inflammatory and degenerative diseases including cancer. Anticancer activities of some phytomolecules purified from Viscum articulatum Burm. f. have been tested. However scientific evidence for the anticancerous potential of aqueous extract of V. articularum (VAQE) used in traditional medicine is lacking...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Junko Yasuoka, Keiko Nanishi, Kimiyo Kikuchi, Sumihiro Suzuki, Po Ly, Boukheng Thavrin, Tsutomu Omatsu, Tetsuya Mizutani
BACKGROUND: Maternal morbidity and mortality is still a major public health issue in low- and middle-income countries such as Cambodia. Improving access to antenatal care (ANC) services for pregnant women has been widely recognized as one of the most effective means of reducing maternal mortality and morbidity. As such, this study examined the barriers for pregnant women living in rural, agricultural villages to accessing ANC based on data collected in the Ratanakiri province, one of the least developed provinces in Cambodia, using a combination of a community-based cross-sectional survey and a geographic information system (GIS)...
2018: PloS One
Michelle H Chua, Raksmey Hong, Tytim Rydeth, Iv Vycheth, Sam Nang, Din Vuthy, Kee B Park
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, delivery of cost-effective "essential neurosurgery" in resource-limited communities has been recognized as an indispensable part of health care and a global health priority. The purpose of this study was to review outcomes from operative management of spine trauma at a resource limited government hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and to provide an epidemiologic report to guide prevention programs. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospective neurosurgical database was performed to identify risk factors for spine trauma and severe spinal cord injury (ASIA A or ASIA B) and to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of surgery for patients treated at Preah Kossamak Hospital for subaxial and thoracolumbar spine trauma from 2013 to 2016...
March 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Bindi Borg, Seema Mihrshahi, Mark Griffin, Daream Sok, Chamnan Chhoun, Arnaud Laillou, Jacques Berger, Frank T Wieringa
BACKGROUND: Existing ready-to-use supplementary and therapeutic foods (RUSFs and RUTFs) have had limited acceptance and effectiveness in Cambodia. This has hampered the treatment and prevention of child malnutrition. An innovative, locally produced, multiple micronutrient fortified lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) has been developed for use as an RUSF. Unlike most RUSFs, which contain milk, this product contains fish as the animal protein. Few RUSFs have been formulated using non-milk animal-source foods and they have not been widely tested...
March 16, 2018: Nutrition Journal
Sothy Touch, Jin-Kyoung Oh
BACKGROUND: There is little information concerning the preventive behaviors against cervical cancer among women in Cambodia, a country without organized cervical cancer screening programs and national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination policies. We aimed to examine the cervical cancer knowledge, attitudes, and practices as well as cervical cancer prevention methods among Cambodian women. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional survey on cervical cancer prevention was conducted...
March 15, 2018: BMC Cancer
G Ström, S Boqvist, A Albihn, L-L Fernström, A Andersson Djurfeldt, S Sokerya, T Sothyra, U Magnusson
Background: Administration of antimicrobials to food-producing animals is regarded as a major contributor to the overall emergence of resistance in bacteria worldwide. However, few data are available on global antimicrobial use and resistance (AMR) in livestock, especially from low- and middle-income countries. Methods: We conducted a structured survey of 91 small-scale pig farms in the urban and peri-urban areas of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, to assess the farmers' knowledge, attitudes and practices related to antimicrobial use in their pig production...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Khansoudaphone Phakhounthong, Pimwadee Chaovalit, Podjanee Jittamala, Stuart D Blacksell, Michael J Carter, Paul Turner, Kheng Chheng, Soeung Sona, Varun Kumar, Nicholas P J Day, Lisa J White, Wirichada Pan-Ngum
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is a re-emerging viral disease commonly occurring in tropical and subtropical areas. The clinical features and abnormal laboratory test results of dengue infection are similar to those of other febrile illnesses; hence, its accurate and timely diagnosis for providing appropriate treatment is difficult. Delayed diagnosis may be associated with inappropriate treatment and higher risk of death. Early and correct diagnosis can help improve case management and optimise the use of resources such as hospital staff, beds, and intensive care equipment...
March 13, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Kanjanee Phanphairoj, Ritzmond Loa
Background: Health is influenced by numerous factors that affect the health service system and health status of the people in every country. This article aims to compare the determinants of the health service system and the health status of the people in Thailand, the Lao PDR, Vietnam, and Cambodia; and to recommend policies that impact the population's health and the country's development. Methods: A comprehensive search of the literature from a variety of online search and academic databases, and synthesis of previous study was used in this paper...
December 2017: Current Psychiatry Reviews
Rupam Tripura, Thomas J Peto, Chea Nguon, Chan Davoeung, Mavuto Mukaka, Pasathorn Sirithiranont, Mehul Dhorda, Cholrawee Promnarate, Mallika Imwong, Lorenz von Seidlein, Jureeporn Duanguppama, Krittaya Patumrat, Huy Rekol, Martin P Grobusch, Nicholas P J Day, Nicholas J White, Arjen M Dondorp
Background: The increase in multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Southeast Asia suggests a need for acceleration of malaria elimination. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of mass drug administrations (MDA) to interrupt malaria transmission. Methods: Four malaria-endemic villages in western Cambodia were randomized to three rounds of MDA (a three-day course of dihydroartemisinin with piperaquine-phosphate), administered in either early or at the end of the study-period...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Laura M F Kuijpers, Panha Chung, Marjan Peeters, Marie-France Phoba, Chun Kham, Barbara Barbé, Octavie Lunguya, Jan Jacobs
BACKGROUND: In low resource settings, Salmonella serovars frequently cause bloodstream infections. This study investigated the diagnostic performance of immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), which detect Salmonella antigens, when applied to stored grown blood culture broth. MATERIAL/METHODS: The SD Bioline One Step Salmonella Typhi Ag Rapid Detection Kit (Standard Diagnostics, Republic of Korea), marketed for the detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) in stool and the Salmonella Ag Rapid Test (Creative Diagnostics, USA), marketed for the detection of all Salmonella serotypes in stool, were selected for evaluation based on a pre-test evaluation of six RDT products...
2018: PloS One
Susana Rostro-García, Jan F Kamler, Rachel Crouthers, Keo Sopheak, Sovanna Prum, Visattha In, Chanratana Pin, Anthony Caragiulo, David W Macdonald
We studied the Indochinese leopard ( Panthera pardus delacouri ) in eastern Cambodia, in one of the few potentially remaining viable populations in Southeast Asia. The aims were to determine the: (i) current leopard density in Srepok Wildlife Sanctuary (SWS) and (ii) diet, prey selection and predation impact of leopard in SWS. The density, estimated using spatially explicit capture-recapture models, was 1.0 leopard/100 km2 , 72% lower than an estimate from 2009 at the same site, and one of the lowest densities ever reported in Asia...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Joshua Rivenbark, Lily Martyn, Kathryn Whetten, Lavanya Vasudevan
Background: Globally, street children comprise a growing population of vulnerable children. Understanding how they interact with healthcare systems is fundamental to efforts to improve their health and well-being. Methods: We surveyed 75 street- and community-based children in Battambang, Cambodia regarding their healthcare-seeking practices and related stigma. Results: For demographically similar street and community children, hospitals and pharmacies were preferred healthcare institutions, with this choice being motivated by the caretaker's decision or cost...
March 1, 2018: International Health
Tola Khoun, Penelope E Malden, Bathsheba J Turton
BACKGROUND: Oral Health-Related Quality-of-Life (OHRQoL) measures have been developed and cross-culturally validated for use in many populations in recent years. Their use in children with cleft lip and/or palate (CLP), however, is not as well established. AIM: This study aimed to validate two OHRQoL instruments for use with Cambodian children and to describe the OHRQoL of a sample of Cambodian children with CLP, compared with other children in the same cohort. METHODS: A convenience sample of 133 children aged 2-8 years and their families was recruited from two NGO health services in urban and rural areas of Cambodia...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
Sébastien Boyer, Sergio Lopes, Didot Prasetyo, John Hustedt, Ay Sao Sarady, Dyna Doum, Sony Yean, Borin Peng, Sam Bunleng, Rithea Leang, Didier Fontenille, Jeffrey Hii
Dengue fever is a major public health concern, including 185,000 annual cases in Cambodia. Aedes aegypti is the primary vector for dengue transmission and is targeted with insecticide treatments. This study characterized the insecticide resistance status of Ae aegypti from rural and urban locations. The susceptibility to temephos, permethrin, and deltamethrin of Ae aegypti was evaluated in accordance with World Health Organization instructions. All the field populations showed lower mortality rate to temephos compared with the sensitive strain with resistance ratio 50 (RR50 ) varying from 3...
February 1, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
Youngran Yang, Roshna Thapa, Frances M Lewis
Developing effective and influential messages for HIV prevention in marriage has been difficult. We explored couple-based HIV prevention measures that would be socially and culturally suitable for Cambodia. Thirty in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with people living with HIV in the local Khmer language. Using thematic analysis, codes and themes were generated to get to the meanings of participant data. Male and female suggestions were analyzed together, and four themes emerged: (a) Safer practices, (b) Trustworthy relationships, (c) Sexual variety, and (d) Exemplar...
February 10, 2018: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
Rawadee Kumlert, Kittipong Chaisiri, Tippawan Anantatat, Alexandr A Stekolnikov, Serge Morand, Anchana Prasartvit, Benjamin L Makepeace, Sungsit Sungvornyothin, Daniel H Paris
BACKGROUND: Conventional gold standard characterization of chigger mites involves chemical preparation procedures (i.e. specimen clearing) for visualization of morphological features, which however contributes to destruction of the arthropod host DNA and any endosymbiont or pathogen DNA harbored within the specimen. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, a novel work flow based on autofluorescence microscopy was developed to enable identification of trombiculid mites to the species level on the basis of morphological traits without any special preparation, while preserving the mite DNA for subsequent genotyping...
2018: PloS One
Yoshiko Kudo, Ket Vansith, En Rin, Kohdai Uchida, Sumika Kodama, Takashi Fukui, Sho Masuda, Toshiyuki Masuzawa
INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis remains a major public health threat in Cambodia. In this study, we aimed at facilitating the development of preventive strategies against leptospirosis in Cambodia by conducting molecular epidemiological surveys of Leptospira infection among wild rodents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred sixty-three wild rodents were captured in the capital Phnom Penh and surrounding areas, and their kidneys and bladders were collected for analysis...
March 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Louise Vera Hilmer, Kee Bum Park, Iv Vycheth, Michael Wirsching
Introduction: Cerebral contusions are a common type of injury among the Cambodian population, mostly due to road traffic accidents. This article aims to assess various aspects around brain contusion focusing on the condition at admission, residing province, mechanism and time of injury, age and sex distribution with differing helmet wearing, and alcohol consumption patterns. Hospitalization-related data such as treatment and outcome were analyzed. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 406 cases who have been admitted during the period between May 2013 and May 2016...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Kimhaung Cheng, Supan Fucharoen, Kanokwan Sanchaisuriya, Goonnapa Fucharoen, Pattara Sanchaisuriya, Arunee Jetsrisuparb
Background: Severe thalassemia diseases are a major health problem in Southeast Asia. In Cambodia, there has never been a significant program for prevention or control of severe thalassemia. We, therefore, studied the effect of a health education program on severe thalassemia prevention and control in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods: A quasi-experimental study in several communities around Phnom Penh was done. The respective intervention and control group comprised 124 and 117 people, between 18 and 40 years of age, male and female...
2018: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
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