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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212641/local-constraints-to-access-appropriate-malaria-treatment-in-the-context-of-parasite-resistance-in-cambodia-a-qualitative-study
#1
Jesse Verschuere, Tom Decroo, Dara Lim, Jean-Marie Kindermans, Chea Nguon, Rekol Huy, Yasmine Alkourdi, Koen Peeters Grietens, Charlotte Gryseels
BACKGROUND: Despite emerging drug resistance in Cambodia, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is still the most efficacious therapy. ACT is available free of charge in the Cambodian public sector and at a subsidized rate in the private sector. However, un- and mistreated cases in combination with population movements may lead to the further spread of resistant parasites, stressing the importance of understanding how the perceived aetiology of malaria and associated health-seeking behaviour may delay access to appropriate treatment...
February 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211310/morphologic-and-doppler-findings-from-hepatic-ultrasonography-of-normal-cynomolgus-monkeys-macaca-fascicularis
#2
Kyo Won Lee Chan Woo Cho Ji Eun Lee Hyojun Park Gyu-Seong Choi Woo Kyoung Jeong Jae Berm Park And Sungjoo Kim
The present study evaluated the anatomic and ultrasonographic features of the liver in normal cynomolgus monkeys (Macacafascicularis). Healthy, male, cynomolgus monkeys from Cambodia (n = 25; mean age, 58.1 mo) were sedated with ketamine (7mg/kg) and examined by using 2D and Doppler ultrasonography. We measured the diameters of the vascular structures and bile duct, determined the velocities of the hepatic artery and portal vein, and calculated the resistance index of the hepatic artery. Vessel diameters were: proper hepatic artery, 1...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209281/association-among-father-involvement-partner-violence-and-paternal-health-un-multi-country-cross-sectional-study-on-men-and-violence
#3
Ko Ling Chan, Clifton R Emery, Emma Fulu, Richard M Tolman, Patrick Ip
INTRODUCTION: The influence of father involvement on intimate partner violence (IPV) and men's health is poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of six aspects of father involvement in delivery and child care, and to explore their individual associations with IPV against women and paternal health in an Asia-Pacific context. METHODS: This study analyzed data from the 2011-2012 UN Multi-Country Cross-Sectional Study on Men and Violence, which surveyed >10,000 men from Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and Sri Lanka...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193876/vulnerability-of-primitive-human-placental-trophoblast-to-zika-virus
#4
Megan A Sheridan, Dinar Yunusov, Velmurugan Balaraman, Andrei P Alexenko, Shinichiro Yabe, Sergio Verjovski-Almeida, Danny J Schust, Alexander W Franz, Yoel Sadovsky, Toshihiko Ezashi, R Michael Roberts
Infection of pregnant women by Asian lineage strains of Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to brain abnormalities in their infants, yet it is uncertain when during pregnancy the human conceptus is most vulnerable to the virus. We have examined two models to study susceptibility of human placental trophoblast to ZIKV: cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast derived from placental villi at term and colonies of trophoblast differentiated from embryonic stem cells (ESC). The latter appear to be analogous to the primitive placenta formed during implantation...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193647/piperaquine-population-pharmacokinetics-and-cardiac-safety-in-cambodia
#5
Pattaraporn Vanachayangkul, Chanthap Lon, Michele Spring, Sommethy Sok, Winita Ta-Aksorn, Chanikarn Kodchakorn, Sut-Thang Pann, Soklyda Chann, Mali Ittiverakul, Sabaithip Sriwichai, Nillawan Buathong, Worachet Kuntawunginn, Mary So, Theng Youdaline, Erin Milner, Mariusz Wojnarski, Charlotte Lanteri, Jessica Manning, Satharath Prom, Mark Haigney, Louis Cantilena, David Saunders
Despite rising resistance, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) remains a first line therapy for uncomplicated malaria in many parts of Cambodia. While generally well-tolerated as a 3-day regimen, compressed 2-day regimens were associated with treatment-limiting cardiac repolarization effects in a recent clinical trial. To better estimate the risks of piperaquine concentration on QT interval prolongation, we pooled data from 3 randomized clinical trials between 2010 and 2014 in northern Cambodia. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed to compare exposure-response relationships between 2-day (2DP) and 3-day (3DP) regimens while accounting for differences in regimen and sample collection times between studies...
February 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192434/adverse-effects-of-mefloquine-for-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-malaria-in-thailand-a-pooled-analysis-of-19-850-individual-patients
#6
Sue J Lee, Feiko O Ter Kuile, Ric N Price, Christine Luxemburger, François Nosten
Mefloquine (MQ) has been used for the treatment of malaria since the mid-1980s, first as monotherapy or as fixed combination with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (MSP) and since the mid-1990s in combination with artesunate. There is a renewed interested in MQ as part of a triple therapy for the treatment of multi-drug resistance P. falciparum malaria. The widespread use of MQ beyond south-East Asia has been constrained by reports of poor tolerability. Here we present the side effect profile of MQ for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria on the Thai-Myanmar/Cambodia borders...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167599/genotypic-distribution-of-rotavirus-in-phnom-penh-cambodia-an-association-of-g9-with-more-severe-diseases
#7
Sasikorn Silapong, Pimmada Sakpaisal, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Paphavee Lertsethtakarn, Orntipa Sethabutr, Ket Vansith, Chhour Y Meng, Brett E Swierczewski, Carl J Mason
Rotavirus causes significant morbidity and mortality among children worldwide. Stool samples from a previous hospital-based surveillance study to detect diarrhea etiology at the National Pediatric Hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, by Meng and others in 2011 were tested for rotavirus by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting vp6 gene and characterized for G- and P-genotypes of positive samples based on vp7 and vp4 genes, respectively. Rotavirus was detected in 159/531 (30%) of children with diarrhea and none was detected in 287 nondiarrhea controls...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162047/design-of-a-patient-information-leaflet-in-a-surgical-centre-in-cambodia
#8
Alexander Thomas Schade, Thomas Mendes da Costa, Jim Gollogly, Fergal Monsell
Hand deformities cause a large surgical burden on Cambodian society. They significantly affect the quality of life, limit hand function and can cause severe mental health issues. The visited surgical centre provides free rehabilitative surgery in Phnom Penh for those unable to afford private or public healthcare. As part of the postoperative care provided, a team of local Khmer physiotherapists help patients with early mobilisation, passive and active movements, and functional exercises. Leaflets are widespread in high-income countries, but are scarce in low-income countries...
January 1, 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161669/impact-of-health-financing-policies-in-cambodia-a-20-year-experience
#9
Tim Ensor, Chhim Chhun, Ton Kimsun, Barbara McPake, Ijeoma Edoka
Improving financial access to services is an essential part of extending universal health coverage in low resource settings. In Cambodia, high out of pocket spending and low levels of utilisation have impeded the expansion of coverage and improvement in health outcomes. For twenty years a series of health financing policies have focused on mitigating costs to increase access particularly by vulnerable groups. Demand side financing policies including health equity funds, vouchers and community health insurance have been complemented by supply side measures to improve service delivery incentives through contracting...
January 26, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161569/the-spread-of-artemisinin-resistant-plasmodium-falciparum-in-the-greater-mekong-subregion-a-molecular-epidemiology-observational-study
#10
Mallika Imwong, Kanokon Suwannasin, Chanon Kunasol, Kreepol Sutawong, Mayfong Mayxay, Huy Rekol, Frank M Smithuis, Tin Maung Hlaing, Kyaw M Tun, Rob W van der Pluijm, Rupam Tripura, Olivo Miotto, Didier Menard, Mehul Dhorda, Nicholas P J Day, Nicholas J White, Arjen M Dondorp
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that the PfKelch13 mutations that confer artemisinin resistance in falciparum malaria have multiple independent origins across the Greater Mekong subregion, which has motivated a regional malaria elimination agenda. We aimed to use molecular genotyping to assess antimalarial drug resistance selection and spread in the Greater Mekong subregion. METHODS: In this observational study, we tested Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Myanmar, northeastern Thailand, southern Laos, and western Cambodia for PfKelch13 mutations and for Pfplasmepsin2 gene amplification (indicating piperaquine resistance)...
February 1, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143518/submicroscopic-plasmodium-prevalence-in-relation-to-malaria-incidence-in-20-villages-in-western-cambodia
#11
Rupam Tripura, Thomas J Peto, Christianne C Veugen, Chea Nguon, Chan Davoeung, Nicola James, Mehul Dhorda, Richard J Maude, Jureeporn Duanguppama, Krittaya Patumrat, Mallika Imwong, Lorenz von Seidlein, Martin P Grobusch, Nicholas J White, Arjen M Dondorp
BACKGROUND: Cambodia has seen a marked reduction in the incidence of Plasmodium falciparum over the past decade without a corresponding decline in Plasmodium vivax incidence. It is unknown to what extent local transmission is sustained by a chain of clinical and sub-clinical infections or by continued re-introduction via migration. Using an ultrasensitive molecular technique, 20 villages in western Cambodia were surveyed to detect the low season prevalence of P. falciparum and P. vivax and local treatment records were reviewed...
January 31, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139185/pesticide-exposure-and-cholinesterase-levels-in-migrant-farm-workers-in-thailand
#12
Anamai Thetkathuek, Pornthip Yenjai, Wanlop Jaidee, Patchana Jaidee, Poonsak Sriprapat
In this study we examined the effects of pesticides in migrant farm workers from Cambodia after workplace exposure on fruit plantations in eastern Thailand. We studied 891 migrant farm workers employed on pineapple, durian, and rambutan plantations in Thailand. Data were collected via a detailed questionnaire survey and measurements of serum cholinesterase level (SChE). The majority of subjects was male (57.7%), with an average age of 30.3 years. Most subjects (76.8%) were moderately aware of good industrial hygiene practices...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Agromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130306/development-and-implementation-of-a-training-of-trainers-program-for-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-in-neonatal-and-pediatric-patients-in-five-low-and-middle-income-countries
#13
Patrick T Wilson, Megan M Benckert, Rachel T Moresky, Marilyn C Morris
We describe a pragmatic training-of-trainers program for the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for neonatal and pediatric patients. The program is designed for medical professionals working in low- and middle-income countries and involves 2 days of in-class training followed by 1 day of in-service training. The program was created after training in Cambodia, Ghana, Honduras, Kenya and Rwanda and addresses the issues of resource availability, cultural context and local buy-in and partnership in low- and middle-income countries...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129255/cluster-of-hiv-infections-associated-with-unsafe-injection-practices-in-a-rural-village-in-cambodia
#14
Vonthanak Saphonn, Masami Fujita, Sovannarith Samreth, Sodara Chan, Francois Rouet, Vohith Khol, Sovatha Mam, Chandara Mom, Sovannary Tuot, Linh-Vi Le, Penh Sun Ly, Laurent Ferradini, Chhi Vun Mean
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 27, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128012/sociocultural-influences-on-the-transmission-of-hiv-from-husbands-to-wives-in-cambodia
#15
Youngran Yang, Sopheak Thai
The purpose of the study was to explore, within cultural and societal contexts, the factors of spousal HIV transmission as described by the experiences of HIV-positive Cambodian men. Using qualitative research methods, the researchers collected data from in-depth interviews with 15 HIV-positive Cambodian men of seroconcordant couples recruited from an HIV/AIDS clinic in Phnom Penh. Using a model of HIV transmission from husbands to wives, the questions were designed to elicit the men's perspectives on the topics of promiscuity, masculinity, condom use in marriage, the image of the ideal Cambodian woman, and attitudes toward sex and marriage...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122653/delivery-as-trauma-a-prospective-time-cohort-study-of-maternal-and-perinatal-mortality-in-rural-cambodia
#16
Chandy Houy, Sam Ol Ha, Margit Steinholt, Eystein Skjerve, Hans Husum
OBJECTIVE: The majority of maternal and perinatal deaths are preventable, but still women and newborns die due to insufficient Basic Life Support in low-resource communities. Drawing on experiences from successful wartime trauma systems, a three-tier chain-of-survival model was introduced as a means to reduce rural maternal and perinatal mortality. METHODS: A study area of 266 villages in landmine-infested Northwestern Cambodia were selected based on remoteness and poverty...
January 26, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122505/estimating-the-size-of-the-homeless-adolescent-population-across-seven-cities-in-cambodia
#17
Lindsay Stark, Beth L Rubenstein, Kimchoeun Pak, Rosemary Taing, Gary Yu, Sok Kosal, Leslie Roberts
BACKGROUND: The Government of Cambodia has committed to supporting family care for vulnerable children, including homeless populations. Collecting baseline data on the numbers and characteristics of homeless adolescents was prioritized to illuminate the scope of the issue, mobilize resources and direct the response. METHODS: Administrative zones across seven cities were purposively selected to cover the main urban areas known to have homeless populations in Cambodia...
January 26, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116869/investigation-of-smallholder-farmer-biosecurity-and-implications-for-sustainable-foot-and-mouth-disease-control-in-cambodia
#18
J R Young, S Suon, L Olmo, C Bun, C Hok, K Ashley, R D Bush, P A Windsor
In Cambodia, the majority of the population is rural and reliant on subsistence agriculture, with cattle raised by smallholder farmers using traditional practices, resulting in low productivity and vulnerability to foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). As FMD causes deleterious impacts on rural livelihoods, known FMD risk factors were reviewed, using knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) surveys of smallholders (n = 240) from four regions. The study aimed to understand current biosecurity threats to smallholder livelihoods and investigate the hypothesis that smallholder farmers practising FMD risk management should be associated with higher incomes from cattle...
January 24, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106232/author-s-reply-developing-a-sustainable-hip-service-in-cambodia
#19
James J Aird, Jim G Gollogly, Ou C Ngiep
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 20, 2017: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100811/the-molecular-speciation-of-soil-transmitted-helminth-eggs-collected-from-school-children-across-six-endemic-countries
#20
Santosh George, Peter Geldhof, Marco Albonico, Shaali M Ame, Jeffrey M Bethony, Dirk Engels, Zeleke Mekonnen, Antonio Montresor, Sopheak Hem, Louis-Albert Tchuem-Tchuenté, Nguyen Thu Huong, Gagandeep Kang, Jozef Vercruysse, Bruno Levecke
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs; Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworms) is traditionally based on the demonstration of eggs in stool using microscopic techniques. While molecular techniques are more appropriate to speciate STH species they are seldom applied. In this study we speciated STH eggs from stool using molecular techniques to gain insights into the distribution of both human and animal STH species in the human host. METHODS: We speciated 207 STH egg isolates from stool collected during the baseline survey of six drug efficacy trials conducted in Brazil, Cambodia, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Tanzania and Vietnam applying a PCR - restriction fragment length polymorphisms based approach...
January 18, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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