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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150362/prevalence-of-pediculus-capitis-in-schoolchildren-in-battambang-cambodia
#1
Chien-Wei Liao, Po-Ching Cheng, Ting-Wu Chuang, Kuan-Chih Chiu, I-Chen Chiang, Juo-Han Kuo, Yun-Hung Tu, Yu-Min Fan, Hai-Tao Jiang, Chia-Kwung Fan
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Pediculus capitis is the most common human ectoparasite. When it feeds on the blood through the scalp of its host, the anticoagulant in its saliva causes scalp inflammation and itching, and consequent scratching by the host causes further inflammation from bacterial infection. P. capitis infestation is currently a common parasitic dermatosis and a critical public health concern in underdeveloped countries. METHODS: Through naked eye inspection of P...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150282/artesunate-quercetin-luteolin-dual-drug-nanofacilitated-synergistic-treatment-for-malaria-a-plausible-approach-to-overcome-artemisinin-combination-therapy-resistance
#2
Nethravathi Puttappa, Raman Suresh Kumar, Karthik Yamjala
Malaria is one of the major global health challenge with 300 million new cases annually. The best regimen for treating Plasmodium falciparum induced malaria is based on artemisinin and its derivatives which were prescribed as artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). These are highly effective drugs resulting in rapid clearance of parasites even in severe P. falciparum induced malaria patients. However, from the past few years parasites resistant to ACT's have begun to emerge in various parts of the world such as Cambodia and Greater Mekong Subregion...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149313/how-do-health-workers-experience-and-cope-with-shocks-learning-from-four-fragile-and-conflict-affected-health-systems-in-uganda-sierra-leone-zimbabwe-and-cambodia
#3
Sophie Witter, Haja Wurie, Pamela Chandiwana, Justine Namakula, Sovannarith So, Alvaro Alonso-Garbayo, Freddie Ssengooba, Joanna Raven
This article is grounded in a research programme which set out to understand how to rebuild health systems post-conflict. Four countries were studied-Uganda, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe and Cambodia-which were at different distances from conflict and crisis, as well as having unique conflict stories. During the research process, the Ebola epidemic broke out in West Africa. Zimbabwe has continued to face a profound economic crisis. Within our research on health worker incentives, we captured insights from 128 life histories and in-depth interviews with a variety of staff that had remained in service...
November 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143707/effect-of-multi-micronutrient-fortified-rice-on-cognitive-performance-depends-on-premix-composition-and-cognitive-function-tested-results-of-an-effectiveness-study-in-cambodian-schoolchildren
#4
Marion Fiorentino, Marlène Perignon, Khuov Kuong, Richard de Groot, Megan Parker, Kurt Burja, Marjoleine A Dijkhuizen, Sek Sokhom, Chhoun Chamnan, Jacques Berger, Frank T Wieringa
OBJECTIVE: Even though current policy is strongly focused on the crucial first '1000 days', it might be still possible to enhance cognitive function during the pre-adolescent and adolescent years by improving micronutrient status. In Cambodia, nutritional status is poor. Provision of rice fortified with micronutrients through a school meal programme (SMP) could be a cost-effective strategy to help improve health and school performance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of three different micronutrient-fortified rice formulations on cognitive function in Cambodian children...
November 16, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136011/ten-year-experience-with-antiretroviral-treatment-in-cambodia-trends-in-patient-characteristics-and-treatment-outcomes
#5
Phirum Lay, Sokkab An, Sunpiseth Soeung, Pich Sovannary Srey, Sopheak Thai, Lutgarde Lynen, Johan van Griensven
BACKGROUND: Although HIV disease stage at ART initiation critically determines ART outcomes, few reports have longitudinally monitored this within Asia. Using prospectively collected data from a large ART program at Sihanouk Hospital Center of Hope in Cambodia, we report on the change in patient characteristics and outcomes over a ten-year period. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis including all adults (≥ 18 years old) starting ART from March 2003-March 2013 in a non-governmental hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133211/beta-lactam-resistance-among-enterobacteriaceae-in-cambodia-the-four-year-itch
#6
REVIEW
Yannick Caron, Rattanak Chheang, Puthea Nop, Soda Meng, Sébastien Boyer, Arnaud Tarantola, Alexandra Kerléguer
Although antibiotics are too often used inappropriately in Cambodia, few data have been published on antimicrobial resistance in this country. Epidemic dissemination and the transfer of resistance genes to other bacterial species put the population at risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and characteristics of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) isolated in consecutive samples tested at Institut Pasteur du Cambodge (IPC) over a four-year period (2012-2015)...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129947/microcredit-and-willingness-to-pay-for-environmental-quality-evidence-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-finance-for-sanitation-in-rural-cambodia
#7
Ariel Ben Yishay, Andrew Fraker, Raymond Guiteras, Giordano Palloni, Neil Buddy Shah, Stuart Shirrell, Paul Wang
Low willingness to pay (WTP) for environmental quality in developing countries is a key research question in environmental economics. One explanation is that missing credit markets may suppress WTP for environmental improvements that require large up-front investments. We test the impact of microloans on WTP for hygienic latrines via a randomized controlled trial in 30 villages in rural Cambodia. We find that microcredit dramatically raises WTP for improved latrines, with 60% of households in the Financing arm willing to purchase at an unsubsidized price, relative to 25% in the Non-financing arm...
November 2017: Journal of Environmental Economics and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126423/the-many-meanings-of-evidence-a-comparative-analysis-of-the-forms-and-roles-of-evidence-within-three-health-policy-processes-in-cambodia
#8
Helen Walls, Marco Liverani, Kannarath Chheng, Justin Parkhurst
BACKGROUND: Discussions within the health community routinely emphasise the importance of evidence in informing policy formulation and implementation. Much of the support for the evidence-based policy movement draws from concern that policy decisions are often based on inadequate engagement with high-quality evidence. In many such discussions, evidence is treated as differing only in quality, and assumed to improve decisions if it can only be used more. In contrast, political science scholars have described this as an overly simplistic view of the policy-making process, noting that research 'use' can mean a variety of things and relies on nuanced aspects of political systems...
November 10, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121985/incidence-of-dengue-and-chikungunya-viruses-in-mosquitoes-and-human-patients-in-border-provinces-of-vietnam
#9
Kim Lien Pham Thi, Laurence Briant, Laurent Gavotte, Pierrick Labbe, Marco Perriat-Sanguinet, Emmanuel Cornillot, Trong Duoc Vu, Thi Yen Nguyen, Vu Phong Tran, Van Soai Nguyen, Christian Devaux, Aneta Afelt, Chi Cuong Tran, Thi Nga Phan, Nhu Duong Tran, Roger Frutos
BACKGROUND: Dengue virus remains a major threat in Vietnam, while chikungunya virus is expected to become one. Surveillance was conducted from 2012 to 2014 in Vietnam to assess the presence of dengue and chikungunya viruses in patients hospitalized with acute fever in five Vietnam provinces neighboring Lao PDR and Cambodia. Surveillance was extended to mosquitoes present in the vicinity of the patients' households. RESULTS: A total 558 human serum samples were collected along with 1104 adult mosquitoes and 12,041 larvae from 2250 households...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121661/high-prevalence-of-non-communicable-diseases-and-associated-risk-factors-amongst-adults-living-with-hiv-in-cambodia
#10
Pheak Chhoun, Sovannary Tuot, Anthony D Harries, Nang Thu Thu Kyaw, Khuondyla Pal, Phalkun Mun, Carrine Brody, Gitau Mburu, Siyan Yi
BACKGROUND: With rapid expansion of antiretroviral therapy for HIV, there are rising life expectancies among people living with HIV. As a result, co-morbidity from non-communicable diseases in those living and aging with HIV is increasingly being reported. Published data on this issue have been limited in Cambodia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia and associated risk factors in adults living with HIV in Cambodia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107512/american-strain-of-zika-virus-causes-more-severe-microcephaly-than-an-old-asian-strain-in-neonatal-mice
#11
Feng Zhang, Hong-Jiang Wang, Qin Wang, Zhong-Yu Liu, Ling Yuan, Xing-Yao Huang, Guanghui Li, Qing Ye, Haozhen Yang, Lei Shi, Yong-Qiang Deng, Cheng-Feng Qin, Zhiheng Xu
Zika virus (ZIKV) has evolved from an overlooked mosquito-borne flavivirus into a global health threat due to its astonishing causal link to microcephaly and other disorders. ZIKV has been shown to infect neuronal progenitor cells of the fetal mouse brain, which is comparable to the first-trimester human fetal brain, and result in microcephaly. However, whether there are different effects between the contemporary ZIKV strain and its ancestral strain in the neonatal mouse brain, which is comparable with the second-trimester human fetal brain, is unclear...
October 20, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100696/long-term-trend-and-correlation-between-vegetation-greenness-and-climate-variables-in-asia-based-on-satellite-data
#12
Munkhnasan Lamchin, Woo-Kyun Lee, Seong Woo Jeon, Sonam Wangyel Wang, Chul Hee Lim, Cholho Song, Minjun Sung
Satellite data has been used to ascertain trends and correlations between climate change and vegetation greenness in Asia. Our study utilized 33-year (1982-2014) AVHRR-GIMMS (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer - Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies) NDVI3g and CRU TS (Climatic Research Unit Time Series) climate variable (temperature, rainfall, and potential evapotranspiration) time series. First, we estimated the overall trends for vegetation greenness, climate variables and analyzed trends during summer (April to October), winter (November to March), and the entire year...
October 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082000/leaving-no-one-behind-lessons-on-rebuilding-health-systems-in-conflict-and-crisis-affected-states
#13
REVIEW
Tim Martineau, Barbara McPake, Sally Theobald, Joanna Raven, Tim Ensor, Suzanne Fustukian, Freddie Ssengooba, Yotamu Chirwa, Sreytouch Vong, Haja Wurie, Nick Hooton, Sophie Witter
Conflict and fragility are increasing in many areas of the world. This context has been referred to as the 'new normal' and affects a billion people. Fragile and conflict-affected states have the worst health indicators and the weakest health systems. This presents a major challenge to achieving universal health coverage. The evidence base for strengthening health systems in these contexts is very weak and hampered by limited research capacity, challenges relating to insecurity and apparent low prioritisation of this area of research by funders...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081317/evaluation-of-a-low-fidelity-ear-surgery-simulator-in-a-low-resource-setting
#14
K Luu, L Straatman, D Nakku, B Westerberg, N Carter, M Clark
OBJECTIVE: The provision of healthcare education in developing countries is a complex problem that simulation has the potential to help. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a low-cost ear surgery simulator, the Ear Trainer. METHODS: The Ear Trainer was assessed in two low-resource environments in Cambodia and Uganda. Participants were video-recorded performing four specific middle-ear procedures, and blindly scored using a validated measurement tool...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078767/correction-to-prevalence-of-k13-mutation-and-day-3-positive-parasitaemia-in-artemisinin-resistant-malaria-endemic-area-of-cambodia-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Soy Ty Kheang, Siv Sovannaroth, Sovann Ek, Say Chy, Phally Chhun, Sokkieng Mao, Sokomar Nguon, Dy Soley Lek, Didier Menard, Neeraj Kak
After publication of the article [1], it has been brought to our attention that the funding acknowledgements for this article are incomplete. The authors would like to also include the following.
October 27, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070076/social-and-cultural-complexities-of-anti-malarial-drug-circulation-an-ethnographic-investigation-in-three-rural-remote-communes-of-cambodia
#16
Phasy Res
BACKGROUND: Anti-malarial medicine has a central role in malaria case management in Cambodia. It is, therefore, essential to study how anti-malarial drugs are distributed and consumed. This study aims to understand the socio-cultural complexity of anti-malarial drugs provision and usage practices. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews and observation were conducted in Cambodia at the communal, provincial, and national levels from January 2014 to January 2015. Health ministers, non-governmental officers, anti-malarial medicines distributors, village malaria volunteers and malaria patients were interviewed...
October 25, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067248/the-effect-of-text-message-support-on-diabetes-self-management-in-developing-countries-a-randomised-trial
#17
Josefien Van Olmen, Guy Kegels, Catherine Korachais, Jeroen de Man, Kristien Van Acker, Jean Clovis Kalobu, Maurits van Pelt, Grace Marie Ku, Heang Hen, Dominique Kanda, Billy Malombo, Christian Darras, François Schellevis
OBJECTIVE: mHealth interventions have the potential to facilitate self-management. This TEXT4DSM study implemented a mobile phone intervention in existing diabetes programmes in three low- and middle-income countries (Democratic Republic of Congo, Cambodia, and the Philippines). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Sub-studies with a similar randomised controlled trial design were conducted in three different countries. Each sub-study included 480 adults with diabetes. Subjects were randomised to receive either routine care or routine care plus text message self-management support...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062919/drama-as-a-community-engagement-strategy-for-malaria-in-rural-cambodia
#18
Renly Lim, Rupam Tripura, Thomas J Peto, Ma Sareth, Nou Sanann, Chan Davoeung, Chea Nguon, Phaik Yeong Cheah
Background: Countries in Southeast Asia are working to eliminate multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria, a major cause of mortality in tropical regions. Malaria is declining but transmission persists in many rural areas and among forest workers and isolated populations. In these remote communities, conventional health services and education are limited. Mobilising and educating these populations require new approaches as many people are illiterate and do not attend village meetings. This article describes a qualitative study to assess the feasibility of a drama project as a community engagement strategy...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061206/regional-population-differences-of-the-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens-st%C3%A3-l-in-cambodia-using-genotyping-by-sequencing
#19
M Matsukawa, Mikako Tasaki, Kazuyuki Doi, Kasumi Ito, Kazuhito Kawakita, Toshiharu Tanaka
The brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stål (BPH) can be found year-round in tropical region and causes severe damage to rice. Although there has been documented BPH damage to rice crops in the past decade in Cambodia, the extent of this epidemic is poorly understood. Here, we examined the time variation of BPH population in the abundance of morphotypes in 13 main rice-producing provinces (86 sites) by aspirator method and in the Takeo Province (five sites) by yellow sticky trap method. At least three generations were observed during the 3-month collection period in the rainy growing season...
October 24, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059195/strongyloides-stercoralis-is-associated-with-significant-morbidity-in-rural-cambodia-including-stunting-in-children
#20
Armelle Forrer, Virak Khieu, Fabian Schär, Jan Hattendorf, Hanspeter Marti, Andreas Neumayr, Meng Chuor Char, Christoph Hatz, Sinuon Muth, Peter Odermatt
BACKGROUND: Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted nematode that can replicate within its host, leading to long-lasting and potentially fatal infections. It is ubiquitous and highly prevalent in Cambodia. The extent of morbidity associated with S. stercoralis infection is difficult to assess due to the broad spectrum of symptoms and, thus, remains uncertain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clinical signs were compared among S. stercoralis infected vs. non-infected participants in a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2012 in eight villages of Northern Cambodia, and before and after treatment with a single oral dose of ivermectin (200μg/kg BW) among participants harboring S...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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