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Cardiovascular risk

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353335/leveraging-model-informed-approaches-for-drug-discovery-and-development-in-the-cardiovascular-space
#1
REVIEW
Marissa F Dockendorf, Ryan C Vargo, Ferdous Gheyas, Anne S Y Chain, Manash S Chatterjee, Larissa A Wenning
Cardiovascular disease remains a significant global health burden, and development of cardiovascular drugs in the current regulatory environment often demands large and expensive cardiovascular outcome trials. Thus, the use of quantitative pharmacometric approaches which can help enable early Go/No Go decision making, ensure appropriate dose selection, and increase the likelihood of successful clinical trials, have become increasingly important to help reduce the risk of failed cardiovascular outcomes studies...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353319/management-strategies-for-noncardiac-surgery-following-a-coronary-artery-event
#2
REVIEW
Thomas F Whayne, Sibu P Saha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronary artery event includes acute coronary syndrome (ACS), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Following such an event, risk of noncardiac surgery is increased. Of major concern is what can make this surgery safer? RECENT FINDINGS: High functional capacity improves cardiovascular (CV) risk; at least 4.0 metabolic equivalents (METs) on stress test are favorable. Risk scores can suggest need for further evaluation...
January 20, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353277/a-critical-review-of-the-consensus-statement-from-the-european-atherosclerosis-society-consensus-panel-2017
#3
Harumi Okuyama, Tomohito Hamazaki, Rokuro Hama, Yoichi Ogushi, Tetsuyuki Kobayashi, Naoki Ohara, Hajime Uchino
BACKGROUND: The Consensus Statement from the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) Consensus Panel 2017 concludes on the basis of 3 different types of clinical studies that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) causes atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). In Mendelian randomization studies, rare genetic mutations affecting LDL receptor function were found to cause higher or lower LDL-C levels, which are associated with correspondingly altered ASCVD risk. In prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of statins, a remarkably consistent log-linear association was demonstrated between the absolute magnitude of LDL-C exposure and ASCVD risk...
January 19, 2018: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353233/cardiovascular-safety-long-term-noncardiovascular-safety-and-efficacy-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-systemic-review-and-meta-analysis-with-trial-sequential-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Xin-Lin Zhang, Qing-Qing Zhu, Yu-Han Chen, Xue-Ling Li, Fu Chen, Jian-An Huang, Biao Xu
BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular and long-term noncardiovascular safety and efficacy of SGLT2 (sodium-glucose cotransporter 2) inhibitors have not been well documented. METHODS AND RESULTS: For cardiovascular outcomes, we performed a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis of randomized controlled trials and adjusted observational studies, each with a minimum of 26 weeks and 2000 patient-years of follow-up. For long-term noncardiovascular safety and efficacy outcome analyses, we included only randomized controlled trials with at least 2 years and 1000 patient-years of follow-up...
January 20, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353231/the-preterm-heart-in-childhood-left-ventricular-structure-geometry-and-function-assessed-by-echocardiography-in-6-year-old-survivors-of-periviable-births
#5
Lilly-Ann Mohlkert, Jenny Hallberg, Olof Broberg, Annika Rydberg, Cecilia Pegelow Halvorsen, Petru Liuba, Vineta Fellman, Magnus Domellöf, Gunnar Sjöberg, Mikael Norman
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity in adult life. We evaluated whether preterm birth is associated with deviating cardiac structure and function before school start. METHODS AND RESULTS: In total, 176 children aged 6 years and born extremely preterm (EXPT; gestational age of 22-26 weeks) and 134 children born at term (control [CTRL]) were studied. We used echocardiography to assess left heart dimensions, geometry, and functions...
January 20, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353228/association-of-lifelong-occupation-and-educational-level-with-subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-different-european-regions-results-from%C3%A2-the-improve-study
#6
Calogero C Tedesco, Fabrizio Veglia, Ulf de Faire, Sudhir Kurl, Andries J Smit, Rainer Rauramaa, Philippe Giral, Mauro Amato, Alice Bonomi, Alessio Ravani, Beatrice Frigerio, Samuela Castelnuovo, Daniela Sansaro, Elmo Mannarino, Steve E Humphries, Anders Hamsten, Elena Tremoli, Damiano Baldassarre
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to examine the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and subclinical atherosclerosis, as assessed by carotid intima-media-thickness (C-IMT) and to investigate whether the effect of social inequality on C-IMT is mediated by cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and whether it is dissimilar in men and women, and in different European countries. METHODS: We assessed the association of lifelong occupation and educational level with C-IMT in the IMPROVE study cohort including 3703 subjects (median age 64...
December 20, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353225/spectrum-of-mutations-in-index-patients-with-familial-hypercholesterolemia-in-singapore-single-center-study
#7
Sharon Li Ting Pek, Sanjaya Dissanayake, Jessie Choi Wan Fong, Michelle Xueqin Lin, Eric Zit Liang Chan, Justin I-Shing Tang, Chee Wan Lee, Hean Yee Ong, Chee Fang Sum, Su Chi Lim, Subramaniam Tavintharan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by the presence of high plasma low density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-c). Patients with FH, with mutation detected, are at increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease compared to those without mutations. The aim of the study was to assess the type of mutations in patients, clinically diagnosed with FH in Singapore. METHODS: Patients (probands) with untreated/highest on-treatment LDL-c>4...
December 27, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353224/coronary-microvascular-dysfunction-may-be-related-to-igf-1-in-acromegalic-patients-and-can-be-restored-by-therapy
#8
Sara Tellatin, Pietro Maffei, Elena Osto, Francesca Dassie, Giulia Famoso, Roberta Montisci, Chiara Martini, Francesco Fallo, Martina Perazzolo Marra, Roberto Mioni, Sabino Iliceto, Roberto Vettor, Francesco Tona
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acromegaly increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality. Data on the cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic acromegaly are limited. In particular, data on coronary microvascular abnormalities are lacking. We assessed coronary flow reserve (CFR) as a marker of coronary microvascular function in asymptomatic acromegaly. METHODS: We studied 40 acromegalic patients (23 male, age 52 ± 11 years) without clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease, and 40 control subjects matched for age and sex...
December 24, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353219/blocking-mitochondrial-cyclophilin-d-ameliorates-tsh-impaired-defensive-barrier-of-artery
#9
Xiaojing Liu, Heng Du, Qiang Chai, Qing Jia, Lu Liu, Meng Zhao, Jun Li, Hui Tang, Wenbin Chen, Lifang Zhao, Li Fang, Ling Gao, Jiajun Zhao
AIMS: Endothelial cells (ECs) constitute the defensive barrier of vasculature, which maintains the vascular homeostasis. Mitochondrial oxidative stress (mitoOS) in ECs significantly affects the initiation and progression of vascular diseases. The higher serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level is being recognized as a nonconventional risk factor responsible for the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). However, effects and underlying mechanisms of elevated TSH on ECs are still ambiguous...
January 9, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353190/characterization-of-acrylamide-induced-oxidative-stress-and-cardiovascular-toxicity-in-zebrafish-embryos
#10
Mengmeng Huang, Jingjing Jiao, Jun Wang, Zhidan Xia, Yu Zhang
Acrylamide (AA) is a high production volume chemical in industrial applications and widely found in baked or fried carbohydrate-rich foods. In this study, we unravelled that AA induced developmental toxicity associated with oxidative stress status and disordered lipid distribution in heart region of developing zebrafish. Treatment with AA caused a deficient cardiovascular system with significant heart malformation and dysfunction. We also found that AA could reduce the number of cardiomyocytes through the reduced capacity of cardiomyocyte proliferation rather than cell apoptosis...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353160/prediction-of-venous-thromboembolism-using-semantic-and-sentiment-analyses-of-clinical-narratives
#11
Susan Sabra, Khalid Mahmood Malik, Mazen Alobaidi
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the third most common cardiovascular disorder. It affects people of both genders at ages as young as 20 years. The increased number of VTE cases with a high fatality rate of 25% at first occurrence makes preventive measures essential. Clinical narratives are a rich source of knowledge and should be included in the diagnosis and treatment processes, as they may contain critical information on risk factors. It is very important to make such narrative blocks of information usable for searching, health analytics, and decision-making...
January 3, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353125/relationship-between-serum-trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-exposure-to-dioxin-like-pollutants
#12
Michael C Petriello, Richard Charnigo, Manjula Sunkara, Sony Soman, Marian Pavuk, Linda Birnbaum, Andrew J Morris, Bernhard Hennig
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a diet and gut microbiota-derived metabolite that has been linked to cardiovascular disease risk in human studies and animal models. TMAO levels show wide inter and intra individual variability in humans that can likely be accounted for by multiple factors including diet, the gut microbiota, levels of the TMAO generating liver enzyme Flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) and kidney function. We recently found that dioxin-like (DL) environmental pollutants increased FMO3 expression to elevate circulating diet-derived TMAO in mice, suggesting that exposure to this class of pollutants might also contribute to inter-individual variability in circulating TMAO levels in humans...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353099/cardiovascular-involvement-in-systemic-rheumatic-diseases-an-integrated-view-for-the-treating-physicians
#13
REVIEW
Kwang Seob Lee, Andreas Kronbichler, Michael Eisenhut, Keum Hwa Lee, Jae Il Shin
Systemic autoimmune diseases can affect various kinds of organs including the kidney, the skin, soft tissue and the bone. Among others, cardiovascular involvement in rheumatic diseases has been shown to affect myocardium, pericardium, cardiac vessels, conduction system and valves, eventually leading to mortality. In general, underlying chronic inflammation lead to premature atherosclerosis, but also other manifestations such as arrhythmia and heart failure may have a 'silent' progress. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors play a secondary role, while disease-specific factors (i...
January 15, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352861/erica-age-at-menarche-and-its-association-with-nutritional-status
#14
Bruna de Siqueira Barros, Maria Cristina Maria Caetano Kuschnir, Katia Vergetti Bloch, Thiago Luiz Nogueira da Silva
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the mean age at menarche and its association with nutritional status in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: The study sample included female adolescents aged 12-17 who participated in a multicenter, school-based, country-wide, cross-sectional study entitled The Study of Cardiovascular Risk in Adolescents (Estudo de Riscos Cardiovasculares em Adolescentes [ERICA]). Mean and median ages at menarche in Brazil were estimated. The association of age at menarche with sociodemographic data and nutritional status were described as means and their respective 95% confidence intervals...
January 18, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352859/is-selective-5-ht1f-receptor-agonism-an-entity-apart-from-that-of-the-triptans-in-antimigraine-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Eloísa Rubio-Beltrán, Alejandro Labastida-Ramírez, Carlos M Villalón, Antoinette MaassenVanDenBrink
Migraine is a neurovascular disorder that involves activation of the trigeminovascular system and cranial vasodilation mediated by release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). The gold standard for acute migraine treatment are the triptans, 5-HT1B/1D/(1F) receptor agonists. Their actions are thought to be mediated through activation of: (i) 5-HT1B receptors in cranial blood vessels with subsequent cranial vasoconstriction; (ii) prejunctional 5-HT1D receptors on trigeminal fibers that inhibit trigeminal CGRP release; and (iii) 5-HT1B/1D/1F receptors in central nervous system involved in (anti)nociceptive modulation...
January 17, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352693/the-association-between-estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-albuminuria-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-hospitalizations-and-all-cause-mortality-among-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#16
Gregory A Nichols, Anouk Déruaz-Luyet, Sibylle J Hauske, Kimberly G Brodovicz
AIMS: We evaluated the simultaneous effects of all clinically recognized categories of albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal observational study of 16,678 type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. From the first serum creatinine value from 2006 to 2012 and a urine-albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) recorded within 6months, we applied baseline Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) categories of eGFR and albuminuria...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352655/legume-consumption-and-risk-of-all-cause-cardiovascular-and-cancer-mortality-in-the-predimed-study
#17
Christopher Papandreou, Nerea Becerra-Tomás, Mònica Bulló, Miguel Ángel Martínez-González, Dolores Corella, Ramon Estruch, Emilio Ros, Fernando Arós, Helmut Schroder, Montserrat Fitó, Lluís Serra-Majem, José Lapetra, Miquel Fiol, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Jose V Sorli, Jordi Salas-Salvadó
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Limited prospective studies have examined the association between legumes consumption and mortality, whereas scarce, if at all, previous studies have evaluated such associations taking into consideration specific grain legumes. We aimed to investigate the association between total legumes consumption and grain legumes species (dry beans, chickpeas, lentils, and fresh peas) with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and other-cause mortality among elderly Mediterranean individuals at high CVD risk...
January 9, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352421/predictors-of-insulin-initiation-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-an-analysis-of-the-look-ahead-randomized-trial
#18
Scott J Pilla, Hsin-Chieh Yeh, Stephen P Juraschek, Jeanne M Clark, Nisa M Maruthur
BACKGROUND: The decision to initiate insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes is a challenging escalation of care that requires an individualized approach. However, the sociodemographic and clinical factors affecting insulin initiation are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify patient factors that were independent predictors of insulin initiation among participants in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) clinical trial. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a randomized clinical trial...
January 19, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352093/excessive-daytime-sleepiness-independently-predicts-increased-cardiovascular-risk-after-myocardial-infarction
#19
Jiang Xie, Fatima H Sert Kuniyoshi, Naima Covassin, Prachi Singh, Apoor S Gami, C Anwar A Chahal, Virend K Somers
BACKGROUND: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), a common symptom among patients with sleep-disordered breathing, is closely associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases, but its long-term prognostic value is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether EDS would be an independent prognostic factor after myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively recruited 112 post-myocardial infarction patients. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale was completed before polysomnography, and EDS was defined as a score ≥11...
January 19, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352092/incident-heart-failure-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#20
Usman Khalid, Alexander Egeberg, Ole Ahlehoff, Deirdre Lane, Gunnar H Gislason, Gregory Y H Lip, Peter R Hansen
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with a wide range of comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, but its association with heart failure (HF) is not fully clear. We investigated the risk of incident HF in a nationwide cohort of patients with RA. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study comprised the entire Danish population aged ≥18 years followed from January 1, 2008 until first hospitalization for HF, emigration, December 31, 2012, or death...
January 19, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
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