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Vascular physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830100/photosynthetic-limitations-in-two-antarctic-vascular-plants-importance-of-leaf-anatomical-traits-and-rubisco-kinetic-parameters
#1
Patricia L Sáez, León A Bravo, Lohengrin A Cavieres, Valentina Vallejos, Carolina Sanhueza, Marcel Font-Carrascosa, Eustaquio Gil-Pelegrín, José Javier Peguero-Pina, Jeroni Galmés
Particular physiological traits allow the vascular plants Deschampsia antarctica Desv. and Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl. to inhabit Antarctica. The photosynthetic performance of these species was evaluated in situ, focusing on diffusive and biochemical constraints to CO2 assimilation. Leaf gas exchange, Chl a fluorescence, leaf ultrastructure, and Rubisco catalytic properties were examined in plants growing on King George and Lagotellerie islands. In spite of the species- and population-specific effects of the measurement temperature on the main photosynthetic parameters, CO2 assimilation was highly limited by CO2 diffusion...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829409/surgical-angiogenesis-in-porcine-tibial-allotransplantation-a-new-large-animal-bone-vascularized-composite-allotransplantation-model
#2
Dimitra Kotsougiani, Caroline A Hundepool, Joost I Willems, Patricia Friedrich, Alexander Y Shin, Allen T Bishop
Segmental bone loss resulting from trauma, infection malignancy and congenital anomaly remains a major reconstructive challenge. Current therapeutic options have significant risk of failure and substantial morbidity. Use of bone vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) would offer both a close match of resected bone size and shape and the healing and remodeling potential of living bone. At present, life-long drug immunosuppression (IS) is required. Organ toxicity, opportunistic infection and neoplasm risks are of concern to treat such non-lethal indications...
August 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822901/morphological-and-molecular-differences-in-corpus-luteum-of-pregnant-sows-from-divergent-genetic-groups
#3
Karine A Costa, Walmir da Silva, Renata Veroneze, José C Montes, Lucas L Verardo, Margareth E Botelho, Márcio S Duarte, Mariana M Neves, Paulo S Lopes, José D Guimarães, Susana A Teixeira, Laene Alcantara, Simone E F Guimarães
Comprehending mechanisms controlling corpus luteum (CL) angiogenesis and apoptosis in pregnant sows is essential to understand the physiological role of these processes in CL function, progesterone production and consequently in conceptus development and prenatal mortality. CL from 54 sows from two genetic groups, a commercial line (COM) and the local Piau breed (LPB), were obtained for gene expression (n = 3 COM; n = 6 LPB), histological and protein analysis (n = 3 COM; n = 3 LPB), divided in six gestational ages (seven, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days)...
July 29, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821752/hybrid-nitric-oxide-donor-and-its-carrier-for-the-treatment-of-peripheral-arterial-diseases
#4
Duong Q Le, Aneetta E Kuriakose, Dat X Nguyen, Kytai T Nguyen, Suchismita Acharya
Nitric oxide (NO) has been known to promote physiological angiogenesis to treat peripheral arterial diseases (PAD) by increasing the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level in endothelial cells (ECs) and preventing platelet adherence and leukocyte chemotaxis. However, the ongoing ischemic event during peripheral ischemia produces superoxide and diminishes the NO bioavailability by forming toxic peroxynitrite anion. Here we disclose an efficacious hybrid molecule 4-(5-Amino-1,2,3-oxadiazol-3-yl)-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinol (SA-2) containing both antioxidant and NO donor functionalities that provide a therapeutic level of NO necessary to promote angiogenesis and to protect ECs against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820870/controversies-in-the-identification-and-management-of-acute-pulmonary-hypertension-in-preterm-neonates
#5
REVIEW
Regan E Giesinger, Kiran More, Jodie Odame, Amish Jain, Robert P Jankov, Patrick J McNamara
It is increasingly recognized that the abnormal physiologic consequences of pulmonary hypertension (PH) may contribute to poor cardiopulmonary health in premature babies. Conflicting literature has led to clinical uncertainty, pathological misinterpretation and variability in treatment approaches among practitioners. There are several disorders with overlapping and interrelated presentations and other disorders with a similar clinical phenotype but diverse pathophysiological contributors. In this review, we provide a diagnostic approach for acute HRF in the preterm neonate, outline the pathophysiological conditions that may present as acute PH and discuss the implications of high pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) on the cardiovascular system...
August 18, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820609/cardio-pulmonary-interactions-physiologic-basis-and-clinical-applications
#6
Michael R Pinsky
The hemodynamic effects of ventilation can be grouped into three concepts: 1) spontaneous ventilation is exercise; 2) changes in lung volume alter autonomic tone, pulmonary vascular resistance, and can compress the heart in the cardiac fossa; 3) spontaneous inspiratory efforts decrease intrathoracic pressure (ITP) increasing venous return and impeding left ventricular (LV) ejection; whereas positive pressure ventilation decreases venous return and unloads LV ejection. Spontaneous inspiratory efforts may induce acute LV failure and cardiogenic pulmonary edema...
August 18, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820074/exploring-the-cardio-metabolic-relevance-of-t-cadherin-a-pleiotropic-adiponectin-receptor
#7
Jaime Lynn Clark, Carla Gwen Taylor, Peter Zahradka
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: T cadherin is a unique member of the cadherin family and is primarily expressed in the cardiovascular system. T cadherin has not been abundantly studied, but the studies conducted to date have explored the impact of this protein on health and the function of organs involved in metabolic regulation. METHODS: This article examines the recent knowledge of the ligand partners for T cadherin and the potential contribution(s) of T-cadherin to cardio-metabolic function...
August 18, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818665/irf-5-accelerates-leukocyte-adhesion-to-endothelial-cells-in-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-regulating-the-transcription-of-vcam-1
#8
Hongbin Cai, Zhuhua Yao, Wenting Li
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) has been implicated in many pathological conditions, including cardiovascular diseases. Adhesion of leukocytes to the surface of endothelial cells has been considered as one of the principle steps in the pathological cascade of inflammatory tissue damage during IRI. The role of the transcriptional factor interferon regulatory factor-5 (IRF-5) in endothelial physiology remains unknown. Here, we report that IRF-5 is expressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and is rapidly upregulated in response to IRI, mediated by the JAK2/STAT3 pathway...
August 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818274/the-affection-of-the-disturbance-of-the-hydrodynamics-of-blood-in-case-of-stress-on-pathological-increase-of-level-of-low-density-lipoproteins-in-blood-the-formation-of-cylindrical-plaques-and-their-participation-in-the-development-of-acute-ischemic-disorders
#9
S E Rusanov
In this article is given the new insight about the affection of stress on the increase of level of low density lipoproteins (LDL) in the blood, which is connected with the disturbance of hydrodynamics in the bloodstream, the attention was paid to the cylindrical cholesterol plaque, and it's classification. The disturbance of hydrodynamics of blood under the stress leads to the formation of a cylindrical cholesterol plaque, which repeats the contour of the vessel, and leads to the ischemic disorders of the heart and brain...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818232/review-of-the-endothelial-pathogenic-mechanism-of-tie2-related-venous-malformation
#10
REVIEW
Zhong Du, JiaWei Zheng, ZhiYuan Zhang, YanAn Wang
BACKGROUND: Venous malformation (VM) is a type of disease involving vascular morphogenesis in humans. Clinically, VM can be sporadic or inherited. TIE2, also known as TEK or HYK, is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily and is highly conserved among species. In 1996, an arginine-to-tryptophan substitution at position 849 (R849W) in TIE2 was found to induce hereditary VM. Additional alterations in TIE2 involved in the pathogenesis of inherited or sporadic VM have since been reported...
September 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817646/genetic-dissection-of-endothelial-transcriptional-activity-of-zebrafish-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptors-ahrs
#11
Wade W Sugden, Roberto C Leonardo-Mendonça, Darío Acuña-Castroviejo, Arndt F Siekmann
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor conserved across phyla from flies to humans. Activated by a number of endogenous ligands and environmental toxins, studies on AHR function and gene regulation have largely focused on a toxicological perspective relating to aromatic hydrocarbons generated by human activities and the often-deleterious effects of exposure on vertebrates mediated by AHR activation. A growing body of work has highlighted the importance of AHR in physiologic processes, including immune cell differentiation and vascular patterning...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816087/small-diameter-vascular-graft-with-fibroblast-cells-and-electrospun-poly-l-lactide-co-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-scaffolds-cell-matrix-engineering
#12
Bong Seok Jang, Ja Young Cheon, Soo Hyun Kim, Won Ho Park
Electrospun scaffolds have been widely used in tissue engineering due to their similar structure to native extracellular matrices (ECM). However, one of the obstacles limiting the application of electrospun scaffolds for tissue engineering is the nano-sized pores, which inhibit cell infiltration into the scaffolds. To overcome this limitation, we approached to make layers which are consisted of cells onto the electrospun sheet and then tubular structure was constructed by rolling. We called this as "Cell Matrix Engineering" because the electrospun sheets were combined with the cells to form one matrix...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814528/physician-training-protocol-within-the-web-intrasaccular-therapy-web-it-study
#13
Adam Arthur, Daniel Hoit, Alexander Coon, Josser E Delgado Almandoz, Lucas Elijovich, Saruhan Cekirge, David Fiorella
INTRODUCTION: The WEB Intra-saccular Therapy (WEB-IT) trial is an investigational device exemption study to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of the WEB device for the treatment of wide-neck bifurcation aneurysms. The neurovascular replicator (Vascular Simulations, Stony Brook, New York, USA) creates a physical environment that replicates patient-specific neurovascular anatomy and hemodynamic physiology, and allows devices to be implanted under fluoroscopic guidance. OBJECTIVE: To report the results of a unique neurovascular replicator-based training program, which was incorporated into the WEB-IT study to optimize technical performance and patient safety...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814440/mechanical-hormonal-and-metabolic-influences-on-blood-vessels-blood-flow-and-bone
#14
Rhonda D Prisby
Bone tissue is highly vascularized due to the various roles bone blood vessels play in bone and bone marrow function. For example, the vascular system is critical for bone development, maintenance and repair, and provides O2, nutrients, waste elimination, systemic hormones, and precursor cells for bone remodeling. Further, bone blood vessels serve as egress and ingress routes for blood and immune cells to and from the bone marrow. It is becoming increasingly clear that the vascular and skeletal systems are intimately linked in metabolic regulation and physiological and pathological processes...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814331/circulating-levels-of-soluble-fas-scd95-are-associated-with-risk-for-development-of-a-nonresolving-acute-kidney-injury-subphenotype
#15
Pavan K Bhatraju, Cassianne Robinson-Cohen, Carmen Mikacenic, Susanna Harju-Baker, Victoria Dmyterko, Natalie S J Slivinski, W Conrad Liles, Jonathan Himmelfarb, Susan R Heckbert, Mark M Wurfel
BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) can be divided into two subphenotypes, resolving or nonresolving, on the basis of the trajectory of serum creatinine. It is unknown if the biology underlying these two AKI recovery patterns is different. METHODS: We measured eight circulating biomarkers in plasma obtained from a cohort of patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) (n = 1241) with systemic inflammatory response syndrome...
August 17, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814306/blood-acid-base-status-in-impala-aepyceros-melampus-immobilised-and-maintained-under-total-intravenous-anaesthesia-using-two-different-drug-protocols
#16
Gareth E Zeiler, Leith C R Meyer
BACKGROUND: In mammals, homeostasis and survival are dependent on effective trans-membrane movement of ions and enzyme function, which are labile to extreme acid-base changes, but operate efficiently within a narrow regulated pH range. Research in patients demonstrating a pH shifts outside the narrow regulated range decreased the cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance and altered the oxygen binding to haemoglobin. These cardiopulmonary observations may be applicable to the risks associated with anaesthesia and performance of wildlife ungulates on game farms...
August 16, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812213/heterogeneity-in-the-beta-cell-population-a-guided-search-into-its-significance-in-pancreas-and-in-implants
#17
REVIEW
Daniel Pipeleers, Ines De Mesmaeker, Thomas Robert, Freya Van Hulle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intercellular differences in function have since long been noticed in the pancreatic beta-cell population. Heterogeneity in cellular glucose responsiveness is considered of physiological and pathological relevance. The present review updates evidence for the physiologic significance of beta-cell heterogeneity in the pancreas. It also briefly discusses what this role would imply for beta-cell implants in diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the past 3 years, functionally different beta cells have been related to mechanisms that may underlie their heterogeneity in the pancreas, such as the stage in their life cycle and the degree of their clustering to islets with varying vascularization...
August 15, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811171/molecular-sensors-of-blood-flow-in-endothelial-cells
#18
REVIEW
Sara Baratchi, Khashayar Khoshmanesh, Owen L Woodman, Simon Potocnik, Karlheinz Peter, Peter McIntyre
Mechanical stress from blood flow has a significant effect on endothelial physiology, with a key role in initiating vasoregulatory signals. Disturbances in blood flow, such as in regions of disease-associated stenosis, arterial branch points, and sharp turns, can induce proatherogenic phenotypes in endothelial cells. The disruption of vascular homeostasis as a result of endothelial dysfunction may contribute to early and late stages of atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of coronary artery disease. In-depth knowledge of the mechanobiology of endothelial cells is essential to identifying mechanosensory complexes involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis...
August 12, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810961/resuscitation-of-hypotensive-traumatic-brain-injured-animals-with-spray-dried-plasma-does-not-adversely-alter-physiology-and-improves-blood-brain-barrier-function
#19
Steven McDaniel, Stephanie Golla, Anthony N Moore, Joe DaCorta, Arthur Bode, Shibani Pati, Pramod K Dash, Jing Zhao
INTRODUCTION: According to the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center and the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, the number of soldiers who have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) has risen dramatically over the past decade. Studies have shown that brain damage can be exacerbated if blood loss occurs (often occurring in polytrauma). As blood supply is critical for brain function and survival, TBI patients must be properly resuscitated to maintain blood volume, blood pressure, and cerebral perfusion...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807985/inhaled-carbon-monoxide-from-toxin-to-therapy
#20
Dean R Hess
Carbon monoxide (CO) is usually recognized as a toxic gas that can be used to assess lung function in the pulmonary function laboratory. The toxicity of CO relates to its high affinity for hemoglobin and other heme molecules, producing carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO). Despite that blood HbCO levels are commonly measured in patients with CO poisoning, the clinical presentation often does not correlate with the HbCO level, and clinical improvement in the patient's condition does not correlate with HbCO clearance. In patients with CO poisoning, administration of 100% O2 is standard practice...
August 14, 2017: Respiratory Care
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