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Vascular physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224105/nuclear-and-membrane-actions-of-estrogen-receptor-alpha-contribution-to-the-regulation-of-energy-and-glucose-homeostasis
#1
Maeva Guillaume, Alexandra Montagner, Coralie Fontaine, Françoise Lenfant, Jean-François Arnal, Pierre Gourdy
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) has been demonstrated to play a key role in reproduction but also to exert numerous functions in nonreproductive tissues. Accordingly, ERα is now recognized as a key regulator of energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism and mediates the protective effects of estrogens against obesity and type 2 diabetes. This chapter attempts to summarize our current understanding of the mechanisms of ERα activation and their involvement in the modulation of energy balance and glucose metabolism...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223817/elevated-inflammatory-lp-pla2-and-il-6-link-e-waste-pb-toxicity-to-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-preschool-children
#2
Xueling Lu, Xijin Xu, Yu Zhang, Yuling Zhang, Chenyang Wang, Xia Huo
Cardiovascular toxicity of lead (Pb) manifests primarily as an effect on blood pressure and eventual increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Therefore, we investigated vascular inflammatory biomarkers and cardiovascular effects of Pb-exposed children. A total of 590 children (3-7 years old) were recruited from Guiyu (n = 337), an electronic waste (e-waste)-exposed group, and Haojiang (n = 253), a reference group, from November to December 2016. We measured child blood Pb levels (BPbs), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222476/morphophysiological-mechanism-of-rice-yield-increase-in-response-to-optimized-nitrogen-management
#3
Wei Zhou, Tengfei Lv, Zhiping Yang, Tao Wang, Yong Fu, Yong Chen, Binhua Hu, Wanjun Ren
The yield-increasing mechanism of an optimized nitrogen fertilizer application (OFA) in rice was reported in this work through a three-year test. Results showed that the number of branches and spikelets increased, panicle length, the diameter and vascular bundle number of panicle-neck internode improved with OFA. Under the condition of OFA, high effective leaf areas, especially for the flag and the second upper leaf areas, increased, the net photosynthetic rate of the upper three leaves promoted, so the photosynthetic productivity went up by a large margin; moreover, the content of soluble protein and chlorophyll of leaf also increased, and the content of soluble sugar and malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased, as a result in slowing down the senescence speed in leaves, and increasing the photosynthetic time...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221954/total-particulate-matter-from-cigarette-smoke-disrupts-vascular-development-in-zebrafish-brain-danio-rerio
#4
Andrey Massarsky, G L Prasad, Richard T Di Giulio
Several studies have demonstrated zebrafish as a useful high-throughput in-vivo model to study the effects of cigarette smoke on early development. It has been shown previously that exposure of zebrafish to cigarette smoke total particulate matter (TPM) leads to several adverse physiological aberrations, including heart deformities and improper angiogenesis. Consequently, this study investigated the effects of TPM on cardiovascular development in zebrafish that were exposed to increasing concentrations of TPM based upon nicotine content from 6h post fertilization (hpf) up to 72hpf...
December 5, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220092/dose-rectification-of-an-unbalance-between-dpp4-and-glp-1-ameliorates-chronic-stress-related-vascular-aging-and-atherosclerosis
#5
Xian Wu Cheng, Megumi Narisawa, Enze Jin, Chenglin Yu, Wenhu Xu, Limei Piao
Exposure to psychosocial stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including vascular aging and regeneration. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) exerts many physiological and pharmacological functions by regulating its extremely abundant substrates [e.g., glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), stromal cell-derived factor-1α/ C-X-C chemokine receptor type-4, etc.]. Over the past decade, emerging data revealed unexpected roles for DPP-4 and GLP-1 in intracellular signaling, oxidative stress production, lipid metabolism, cell apoptosis, immune activation, insulin resistance, and inflammation...
December 8, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219627/non-oncotic-properties-of-albumin-a-multidisciplinary-vision-about-the-implications-for-critically-ill-patients
#6
Ricard Ferrer, Xavier Mateu, Emilio Maseda, Juan Carlos Yébenes, César Aldecoa, Candelaria De Haro, Juan Carlos Ruiz-Rodriguez, José Garnacho-Montero
Effective resuscitation with human albumin solutions is achieved with less fluid than with crystalloid solutions. However, the role of albumin in today's critical care unit is also linked to its multiple pharmacological effects. Areas covered: The potential clinical benefits of albumin in select populations of critically ill patients like sepsis seem related to immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects, antibiotic transportation and endothelial stabilization. Albumin transports many drugs used in critically ill patients...
December 8, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218644/cardiovascular-complications-of-marijuana-and-related-substances-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Amitoj Singh, Sajeev Saluja, Akshat Kumar, Sahil Agrawal, Munveer Thind, Sudip Nanda, Jamshid Shirani
The recreational use of cannabis has sharply increased in recent years in parallel with its legalization and decriminalization in several countries. Commonly, the traditional cannabis has been replaced by potent synthetic cannabinoids and cannabimimetics in various forms. Despite overwhelming public perception of the safety of these substances, an increasing number of serious cardiovascular adverse events have been reported in temporal relation to recreational cannabis use. These have included sudden cardiac death, vascular (coronary, cerebral and peripheral) events, arrhythmias and stress cardiomyopathy among others...
December 7, 2017: Cardiology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218384/is-it-possible-to-give-a-single-definition-of-the-rectosigmoid-junction
#8
Damien Massalou, David Moszkowicz, Daniela Mariage, Patrick Baqué, Olivier Camuzard, Nicolas Bronsard
AIM: The rectosigmoid junction is the limit separating the sigmoid colon and rectum. This transition zone has different definitions. We want to highlight different landmarks of the rectosigmoid junction (RSJ), to help the clinicians to adopt a consensual definition. METHOD: We reviewed anatomical, endoscopic, physiological and surgical points of view concerning the rectosigmoid junction (RSJ). RESULTS: The rectosigmoid junction has a different definition depending on who is studying it...
December 7, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217405/a-novel-perspective-to-calibrate-temporal-delays-in-cerebrovascular-reactivity-using-hypercapnic-and-hyperoxic-respiratory-challenges
#9
Allen A Champagne, Alex A Bhogal, Nicole S Coverdale, Clarisse I Mark, Douglas J Cook
Redistribution of blood flow across different brain regions, arising from the vasoactive nature of hypercapnia, can introduce errors when examining cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) response delays. In this study, we propose a novel analysis method to characterize hemodynamic delays in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response to hypercapnia, and hyperoxia, as a way to provide insight into transient differences in vascular reactivity between cortical regions, and across tissue depths. A pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling sequence was used to acquire BOLD and cerebral blood flow simultaneously in 19 healthy adults (12 F; 20 ± 2 years) during boxcar CO2 and O2 gas inhalation paradigms...
December 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216937/-significance-of-peripheral-perfusion-index-in-early-diagnosis-and-goal-directed-therapy-of-septic-shock-patients-a-prospective-single-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Yuanfeng Shi, Ruihong Yin, Yanli Wang, Jiguang Li, Xiaobing Chen, Yongpeng Xie, Caihong Gu, Xiuzhen Zou, Kexi Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the application of peripheral perfusion index (PPI) in early diagnosis and goal-directed therapy of septic shock, and to provide reference for the early clinical diagnosis and treatment of septic shock. METHODS: A prospective single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted. Adult patients with sepsis admitted to emergency medical department and intensive care unit (ICU) of the First People's Hospital of Lianyungang City in Jiangsu Province from January 2013 to December 2016 were enrolled...
December 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215951/regulation-of-aqueous-humor-dynamics-by-hydrogen-sulfide-potential-role-in-glaucoma-pharmacotherapy
#11
Sunny E Ohia, Jenaye Robinson, Leah Mitchell, Kalu K Ngele, Segewkal Heruye, Catherine A Opere, Ya Fatou Njie-Mbye
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous transmitter with well-known biological actions in a wide variety of tissues and organs. The potential involvement of this gas in physiological and pathological processes in the eye has led to several in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo studies to understand its pharmacological role in some mammalian species. Evidence from literature demonstrates that 4 enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of this gas (cystathionine β-synthase, CBS; cystathionine γ-lyase, CSE; 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase, 3MST; and d-amino acid oxidase) are present in the cornea, iris, ciliary body, lens, and retina...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215755/apelin-apj-system-a-critical-regulator-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell
#12
REVIEW
Xuling Luo, Jiaqi Liu, Hong Zhou, Linxi Chen
APJ, an orphan G protein-coupled receptor, is first identified through homology cloning in 1993. Apelin is endogenous ligand of APJ extracted from bovine stomach tissue in 1998. Apelin/APJ system is widely expressed in many kinds of cells such as endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, especially vascular smooth muscle cell. Vascular smooth muscle cell, an integral part of the vascular wall, takes part in many normal physiological processes. Our experiment firstly finds that apelin/APJ system enhances VSMC proliferation by ERK1/2-cyclin D1 signal pathway...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214994/human-liver-segments-role-of-cryptic-liver-lobes-and-vascular-physiology-in-the-development-of-liver-veins-and-left-right-asymmetry
#13
Jill P J M Hikspoors, Mathijs M J P Peeters, Nutmethee Kruepunga, Hayelom K Mekonen, Greet M C Mommen, S Eleonore Köhler, Wouter H Lamers
Couinaud based his well-known subdivision of the liver into (surgical) segments on the branching order of portal veins and the location of hepatic veins. However, both segment boundaries and number remain controversial due to an incomplete understanding of the role of liver lobes and vascular physiology on hepatic venous development. Human embryonic livers (5-10 weeks of development) were visualized with Amira 3D-reconstruction and Cinema 4D-remodeling software. Starting at 5 weeks, the portal and umbilical veins sprouted portal-vein branches that, at 6...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213310/xylan-epitope-profiling-an-enhanced-approach-to-study-organ-development-dependent-changes-in-xylan-structure-biosynthesis-and-deposition-in-plant-cell-walls
#14
Angelo G Peralta, Sivasankari Venkatachalam, Sydney C Stone, Sivakumar Pattathil
Background: Xylan is a major hemicellulosic component in the cell walls of higher plants especially in the secondary walls of vascular cells which are playing important roles in physiological processes and overall mechanical strength. Being the second most abundant cell wall polymer after cellulose, xylan is an abundant non-cellulosic carbohydrate constituent of plant biomass. Xylan structures have been demonstrated to contribute to plant biomass recalcitrance during bioenergy applications...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211980/when-cancer-cells-are-given-lemo-nh3-s-they-make-lemo-nh3-ade
#15
Mengrou Shan, Costas A Lyssiotis
In normal physiology, end-products of metabolism are excreted from the body. In tumors, these metabolic wastes accumulate due to deregulated metabolism and vascular insufficiency. Spinelli et al. (2017) show that breast cancer cells adapt to ammonia buildup by recycling it for amino acid synthesis, which can support cancer cell growth.
December 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203235/sensibility-and-specificity-of-laser-speckle-contrast-imaging-according-to-endo-pat-index-in-type-1-diabetes
#16
Alessandra S de M Matheus, Maria de Fátima Bevilacqua da Matta, Eliete Leão Silva Clemente, Maria de Lourdes Guimarães Rodrigues, Débora Cristina Torres Valença, Marília B Gomes
OBJECTIVES: To find out an normality value for microvascular response (physiological and pharmacological) assessed through laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) based on Endo-PAT, which identifies the ones with Endothelial Dysfunction (ED) in patients with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Patients with T1D, aged ≥12years underwent a clinical-epidemiological questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were obtained (lipid profile, glycemic control and levels of C-reactive protein)...
December 1, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202268/metal-loid-accumulation-in-aquatic-plants-of-a-mining-area-potential-for-water-quality-biomonitoring-and-biogeochemical-prospecting
#17
Paulo J C Favas, João Pratas, Nelson Rodrigues, Rohan D'Souza, Mayank Varun, Manoj S Paul
Aquatic bryophytes can accumulate extremely high levels of chemical elements because of their unique morphology and physiology which is markedly different from vascular plants. Four aquatic mosses-Fontinalis squamosa, Brachythecium rivulare, Platyhypnidium riparioides, Thamnobryum alopecurum-and a freshwater red alga Lemanea fluviatilis along with water samples from the streams of Góis mine region in Central Portugal were analyzed for 46 elements. Despite being below detection levels in the water samples, the elements Zr, V, Cr, Mo, Ru, Os, Rh, Ir, Pt, Ag, Ge and Bi were obtained in the plant samples...
November 23, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202103/early-changes-in-glioblastoma-metabolism-measured-by-mr-spectroscopic-imaging-during-combination-of-anti-angiogenic-cediranib-and-chemoradiation-therapy-are-associated-with-survival
#18
Ovidiu C Andronesi, Morteza Esmaeili, Ronald J H Borra, Kyrre Emblem, Elizabeth R Gerstner, Marco C Pinho, Scott R Plotkin, Andrew S Chi, April F Eichler, Jorg Dietrich, S Percy Ivy, Patrick Y Wen, Dan G Duda, Rakesh Jain, Bruce R Rosen, Gregory A Sorensen, Tracy T Batchelor
Precise assessment of treatment response in glioblastoma during combined anti-angiogenic and chemoradiation remains a challenge. In particular, early detection of treatment response by standard anatomical imaging is confounded by pseudo-response or pseudo-progression. Metabolic changes may be more specific for tumor physiology and less confounded by changes in blood-brain barrier permeability. We hypothesize that metabolic changes probed by magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging can stratify patient response early during combination therapy...
2017: NPJ Precision Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201918/the-role-of-insulin-receptor-isoforms-in-diabetes-and-its-metabolic-and-vascular-complications
#19
REVIEW
O Escribano, N Beneit, C Rubio-Longás, A R López-Pastor, A Gómez-Hernández
The insulin receptor (IR) presents by alternative splicing two isoforms: IRA and IRB. The differential physiological and pathological role of both isoforms is not completely known, and it is determinant the different binding affinity for insulin-like growth factor. IRB is more abundant in adult tissues and it exerts mainly the metabolic actions of insulin, whereas IRA is mainly expressed in fetal and prenatal period and exerts mitogenic actions. However, the change in the expression profile of both IR isoforms and its dysregulation are associated with the development of different pathologies, such as cancer, insulin resistance, diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201036/nitrogen-deposition-enhances-photosynthesis-in-moso-bamboo-but-increases-susceptibility-to-other-stress-factors
#20
Rui Zhang, Jiasheng Wu, Quan Li, Heikki Hänninen, Chunju Peng, Hang Yao, Xinzhang Song, Yeqing Ying
Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition can increase the susceptibility of vascular plants to other stresses, but the physiological basis of such a response remains poorly understood. This study was designed to clarify the physiological mechanisms and to evaluate bioindicators of N deposition impact on vascular plants. We evaluate multiple physiological responses to ~4 years of simulated additional N deposition (30-90 kg N ha-1 year-1) on three age-classes (1a, 3a, and 5a) of Moso bamboo. A saturating response to the additional N deposition was found both in foliar N concentration and in Pn...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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