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Vascular physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049911/in-human-subject-specific-evaluation-of-a-control-theoretic-plasma-volume-regulation-model
#1
Ramin Bighamian, Michael Kinsky, George Kramer, Jin-Oh Hahn
The goal of this study was to conduct a subject-specific evaluation of a control-theoretic plasma volume regulation model in humans. We employed a set of clinical data collected from nine human subjects receiving fluid bolus with and without co-administration of an inotrope agent, including fluid infusion rate, plasma volume, and urine output. Once fitted to the data associated with each subject, the model accurately reproduced the fractional plasma volume change responses in all subjects: the error between actual versus model-reproduced fractional plasma volume change responses was only 1...
October 9, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048687/sp1-promotes-tumor-angiogenesis-and-invasion-by-activating-vegf-expression-in-an-acquired-trastuzumab%C3%A2-resistant-ovarian-cancer-model
#2
Feng Su, Jing Geng, Xinying Li, Chuan Qiao, Longlong Luo, Jiannan Feng, Xinjun Dong, Ming Lv
Ovarian cancer is one of the most common gynecologic cancers and the leading cause of mortality in women worldwide. HER2/neu is overexpressed in various types of cancers and is most commonly associated with decreased survival. Trastuzumab is a humanized anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody for the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancers. However, primary and/or acquired resistance occurs in up to 62% patients during the first year of treatment. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a well‑known angiogenesis factor involved in many physiological and pathological processes...
September 25, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047100/mitochondrial-and-metabolic-drivers-of-pulmonary-vascular-endothelial-dysfunction-in-pulmonary-hypertension
#3
Qiujun Yu, Stephen Y Chan
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a deadly and increasingly prevalent vascular disease characterized by excessive pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricular dysfunction which leads to right heart failure, multiorgan dysfunction, and premature death. The cause of the vascular remodeling in PH remains elusive, and thus current treatments are marginally effective and prognosis of PH remains poor. Increasing evidence indicates the pathogenic importance of endothelial dysfunction in PH. However, the underlying mechanisms of such dysfunction are not well described...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047089/redox-mechanisms-influencing-cgmp-signaling-in-pulmonary-vascular-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#4
Dhara Patel, Anand Lakhkar, Michael S Wolin
The soluble form of guanylate cyclase (sGC) and cGMP signaling are major regulators of pulmonary vasodilation and vascular remodeling that protect the pulmonary circulation from hypertension development. Nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, thiol and heme redox, and heme biosynthesis control mechanisms regulating the production of cGMP by sGC. In addition, a cGMP-independent mechanism regulates protein kinase G through thiol oxidation in manner controlled by peroxide metabolism and NADPH redox. Multiple aspects of these regulatory processes contribute to physiological and pathophysiological regulation of the pulmonary circulation, and create potentially novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of pulmonary vascular disease...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047085/redox-dependent-calpain-signaling-in-airway-and-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling-in-copd
#5
Laszlo Kovacs, Yunchao Su
The calcium-dependent cytosolic, neutral, thiol endopeptidases, calpains, perform limited cleavage of their substrates thereby irreversibly changing their functions. Calpains have been shown to be involved in several physiological processes such as cell motility, proliferation, cell cycle, signal transduction, and apoptosis. Overactivation of calpain or mutations in the calpain genes contribute to a number of pathological conditions including neurodegenerative disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, and lung diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047077/adventitial-fibroblast-nox4-expression-and-ros-signaling-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#6
Scott A Barman, David Fulton
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease arising from remodeling and narrowing of pulmonary arteries (PA) resulting in high pulmonary arterial blood pressure and ultimately right ventricular failure. Elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), a constitutively active enzyme, has been associated with oxygen sensing, vasomotor control, cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, apoptosis, senescence, fibrosis, and angiogenesis. Further, elevated expression of Nox4 has been reported in a number of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac failure, ischemic stroke, and PAH...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045952/-progress-in-diagnosis-and-management-of-syncope-in-children
#7
W R Xu, Y Liao, H F Jin, Q Y Zhang, C S Tang, J B DU
Syncope is a common emergency of children and adolescents, which has serious influence on the quality of life. Neurally-mediated syncope, including postural tachycardia syndrome, vasovagal syncope, orthostatic hypotension and orthostatic hypertension, is the main cause of syncope in children and adolescents. The main manifestations of neurally-mediated syncope are diverse, such as dizziness, headache, chest tightness, chest pain, pale complexion, fatigue, pre-syncope and syncope. Although the clinical manifestations are similar, each subtype of syncope has its hemodynamic feature and optimal treatment option...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045803/chitosan-based-trilayer-scaffold-for-multitissue-periodontal-regeneration
#8
E M Varoni, S Vijayakumar, E Canciani, A Cochis, L De Nardo, G Lodi, L Rimondini, M Cerruti
Periodontal regeneration is still a challenge for periodontists and tissue engineers, as it requires the simultaneous restoration of different tissues-namely, cementum, gingiva, bone, and periodontal ligament (PDL). Here, we synthetized a chitosan (CH)-based trilayer porous scaffold to achieve periodontal regeneration driven by multitissue simultaneous healing. We produced 2 porous compartments for bone and gingiva regeneration by cross-linking with genipin either medium molecular weight (MMW) or low molecular weight (LMW) CH and freeze-drying the resulting scaffolds...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044618/ultrasonographic-screening-for-subclinical-osteochondrosis-of-the-femoral-trochlea-in-foals-28-166-days-old-a-prospective-farm-study
#9
G Martel, D Crowley, J Olive, J Halley, S Laverty
BACKGROUND: Extensive osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions of the lateral ridge of the trochlea of the femur (LRTF), the most common OCD- affected site in the stifle, have a poor outcome with surgical debridement and can be career ending. The early detection of osteochondrosis lesions and their conservative management holds the promise to enhance outcome. We hypothesise that ultrasonography is a valuable field screening tool to detect and monitor early subclinical LRTF osteochondrosis...
October 17, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043853/microvascular-network-and-its-endothelial-cells-in-the-human-iris
#10
Hongfang Yang, Paula K Yu, Stephen J Cringle, Xinghuai Sun, Dao-Yi Yu
PURPOSE: The iris allows effective delivery of nutrients into the aqueous humor supplying the surrounded avascular tissues. However, possible underlying mechanisms of the iris vasculature have not been well established. This study aims to quantitatively assess the human iris vascular network, endothelial cell morphometries, and characterize endothelial junctions to better understand the properties of the iris vasculature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The irises from human donor eyes were dissected and short fixed before float staining for VE-cadherin and claudin-5, f-actin and nuclei and flat-mounted for confocal imaging...
October 18, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040781/further-insights-into-the-components-of-resistance-to-ophiostoma-novo-ulmi-in-ulmus-minor-hydraulic-conductance-stomatal-sensitivity-and-bark-dehydration
#11
Pilar Pita, Jesús Rodríguez-Calcerrada, David Medel, Luis Gil
Dutch elm disease (DED) is a vascular disease that has killed over 1 billion elm trees. The pathogen spreads throughout the xylem network triggering vessel blockage, which results in water stress, tissue dehydration and extensive leaf wilting in susceptible genotypes. We investigated the differences between four Ulmus minor Mill. clones of contrasting susceptibility to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier regarding morphological, anatomical and physiological traits affecting water transport, in order to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying DED susceptibility...
October 13, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040221/thermoeffector-responses-at-a-fixed-rate-of-heat-production-in-heart-failure-patients
#12
Bryce N Balmain, Ollie Jay, Norman R Morris, Kenji Shiino, Glenn M Stewart, Rohan Jayasinghe, Jonathan Chan, Surendran Sabapathy
PURPOSE: Heart failure (HF) patients appear to exhibit altered thermoregulatory responses during exercise in the heat. However, the extent to which these responses are altered due to physiological impairments independently of biophysical factors associated with differences in metabolic heat production (Hprod), evaporative heat balance requirements (Ereq) and/or body size, is presently unclear. Therefore, we examined thermoregulatory responses in 10 HF and 10 age-matched controls (CON) similar in body size during exercise at a fixed rate of Hprod, and therefore Ereq in a 30°C environment...
October 16, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039895/effects-of-copaiba-oil-in-the-healing-process-of-urinary-bladder-in-rats
#13
Denilson José Silva Feitosa, Luan Teles Ferreira de Carvalho, Ingrid Rodrigues de Oliveira Rocha, Camila Noura de Brito, Rodrigo Alencar Moreira, Charles Alberto Villacorta de Barros
INTRODUCTION: The appropriate closure of the urinary bladder is important to many urologic procedures to avoid the formation of fistulas and strictures by excessive fibrosis. This paper presents the alterations in the bladder healing process of rats after the topical use of Copaiba oil (Copaifera reticulata). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten male Wistar rats were used and randomly divided into two groups: Control group (CG): injected 1ml/kg of saline solution on the suture line; and Copaiba group (CpG): 0...
October 17, 2017: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039529/inhibitory-effect-of-1%C3%A2-tetradecanol-on-helicobacter%C3%A2-pylori%C3%A2-induced-production-of-interleukin%C3%A2-8-and-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-gastric-epithelial-cells
#14
Green Kim, Jae-Eun Kim, Min-Jung Kang, Ah-Ra Jang, Young Ran Kim, Sunoh Kim, Kyu-Tae Chang, Jung Joo Hong, Jong-Hwan Park
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection activates pro‑inflammatory mediators, including interleukin (IL)‑8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in gastric epithelial cells. 1‑Tetradecanol (1‑TD) has been purified from Dendropanax morbifera Leveille; its physiological activities are poorly understood. The present study assessed whether 1‑TD has an effect on H. pylori‑mediated inflammation in AGS gastric epithelial cells. 1‑TD reduced IL‑8 production by AGS cells in response to H...
October 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036811/sildenafil-improves-vascular-and-metabolic-function-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Min Sheng, Hanzhang Lu, Peiying Liu, Yang Li, Harshan Ravi, Shin-Lei Peng, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Michael D Devous, Kyle B Womack
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of degenerative dementia in the aging population. Patients with AD have alterations in cerebral hemodynamic function including reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate. Therefore, improved cerebrovascular function may be an attractive goal for pharmaceutical intervention in AD. OBJECTIVE: We wished to observe the acute effects of sildenafil on cerebrovascular function and brain metabolism in patients with AD...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036337/a-collection-of-mutants-for-cle-peptide-encoding-genes-in-arabidopsis-generated-by-crispr-cas9-mediated-gene-targeting
#16
Yasuka L Yamaguchi, Takashi Ishida, Mika Yoshimura, Yuko Imamura, Chie Shimaoka, Shinichiro Sawa
The ligand-receptor-mediated intercellular communication system plays important roles in coordinating developmental and physiological events in multicellular organisms. In plants, CLE peptides and their cognate receptors are thought to be involved in various aspects of the plant life cycle. Although the importance of this communication is broadly recognized, most CLE peptides are yet to be functionally characterized. A major problem in research on small signaling peptide-encoding genes is the limited number of loss-of-function mutants available due to their small gene size...
September 25, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035589/the-activity-of-nintedanib-in-an-animal-model-of-allogenic-left-lung-transplantation-resembling-aspects-of-allograft-rejection
#17
Marietta von Suesskind-Schwendi, Elke Boxhammer, Stephan W Hirt, Stephan Schreml, Christof Schmid, Lutz Wollin, Karla Lehle
AIM OF THE STUDY: The prevention and treatment of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) after lung transplantation (LTx) remain unsatisfactory. Growth factors may play an important role in the development of CLAD. This study evaluated the effects of nintedanib, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in the treatment of CLAD after experimental LTx. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A rat model of left lung allo-transplantation (Fisher 344 to Wistar Kyoto) was used to evaluate the effect of nintedanib (50 mg/kg per day) on the development of CLAD...
October 16, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035553/construction-of-antithrombotic-tissue-engineered-blood-vessel-via-reduced-graphene-oxide-based-dual-enzyme-biomimetic-cascade
#18
Da Huo, Ge Liu, Yanzhao Li, Yuxin Wang, Ge Guan, Mingcan Yang, Keyu Wei, Jingyuan Yang, Lingqin Zeng, Gang Li, Wen Zeng, Chuhong Zhu
Thrombosis is one of the biggest obstacles in the clinical application of small-diameter tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs). The implantation of an unmodified TEBV will lead to platelet aggregation and further activation of the coagulation cascade, in which the high concentration of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) that is released by platelets plays an important role. Inspired by the phenomenon that endothelial cells continuously generate endogenous antiplatelet substances via enzymatic reactions, we designed a reduced graphene oxide (RGO) based dual-enzyme biomimetic cascade to successively convert ADP into adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and AMP into adenosine...
October 16, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033580/the-influence-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-a-and-matrix-metalloproteinase-2-and-9-in-angiogenesis-metastasis-and-prognosis-of-endometrial-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Anna M Mahecha, Hongbo Wang
Angiogenesis (the growth of new blood vessels) is essential in most of the body's physiological processes, such as in the normal functioning of the endometrium during and after the menstrual cycle. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) are the mostly expressed angiogenic factors, especially, during the process of endometrial degeneration and remodeling. In carcinogenesis, tumor hypoxia-induced factors, through the process of "angiogenic switch", stimulate the production of angiogenic factors, particularly VEGF and MMP...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031715/angptl8-promotes-the-ability-of-angptl3-to-bind-and-inhibit-lipoprotein-lipase
#20
Xun Chi, Emily C Britt, Hannah W Shows, Alexander J Hjelmaas, Shwetha K Shetty, Emily M Cushing, Wendy Li, Alex Dou, Ren Zhang, Brandon S J Davies
OBJECTIVE: Several members of the angiopoietin-like (ANGPTL) family of proteins, including ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL8, regulate lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. Deficiency in either ANGPTL3 or ANGPTL8 reduces plasma triglyceride levels and increases LPL activity, whereas overexpression of either protein does the opposite. Recent studies suggest that ANGPTL8 may functionally interact with ANGPTL3 to alter clearance of plasma triglycerides; however, the nature of this interaction has remained elusive...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
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