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Vascular physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453968/lipoprotein-lipase-biosynthesis-regulatory-factors-and-its-role-in-atherosclerosis-and-other-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Ping-Ping He, Ting Jiang, Xin-Ping OuYang, Ya-Qin Liang, Jie-Qiong Zou, Yan Wang, Qian-Qian Shen, Li Liao, Xi-Long Zheng
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes hydrolysis of the triglyceride (TG) core of circulating TG-rich lipoproteins including chylomicrons (CM), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). A variety of parenchymal cells can synthesize and secrete LPL. Recent studies have demonstrated that complicated processes are involved in LPL biosynthesis, secretion and transport. The enzyme activity of LPL is regulated by many factors, such as apolipoproteins, angiopoietins, hormones and miRNAs...
February 14, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453454/a-microvascularized-tumor-mimetic-platform-for-assessing-anti-cancer-drug-efficacy
#2
Shantanu Pradhan, Ashley M Smith, Charles J Garson, Iman Hassani, Wen J Seeto, Kapil Pant, Robert D Arnold, Balabhaskar Prabhakarpandian, Elizabeth A Lipke
Assessment of anti-cancer drug efficacy in in vitro three-dimensional (3D) bioengineered cancer models provides important contextual and relevant information towards pre-clinical translation of potential drug candidates. However, currently established models fail to sufficiently recapitulate complex tumor heterogeneity. Here we present a chip-based tumor-mimetic platform incorporating a 3D in vitro breast cancer model with a tumor-mimetic microvascular network, replicating the pathophysiological architecture of native vascularized breast tumors...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453306/acute-pressor-response-to-psychosocial-stress-is-dependent-on-endothelium-derived-endothelin-1
#3
Brandon M Fox, Bryan K Becker, Analia S Loria, Kelly A Hyndman, Chunhua Jin, Hannah Clark, Robin Johns, Masashi Yanagisawa, David M Pollock, Jennifer S Pollock
BACKGROUND: Acute psychosocial stress provokes increases in circulating endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in humans and animal models. However, key questions about the physiological function and cellular source of stress-induced ET-1 remain unanswered. We hypothesized that endothelium-derived ET-1 contributes to the acute pressor response to stress via activation of the endothelin A receptor. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adult male vascular endothelium-specific ET-1 knockout mice and control mice that were homozygous for the floxed allele were exposed to acute psychosocial stress in the form of cage switch stress (CSS), with blood pressure measured by telemetry...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452906/extracranial-arterial-wall-volume-is-increased-and-shows-relationships-with-vascular-mri-measures-in-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Stephen Ball, Sarah Al-Bachari, Laura M Parkes, Hedley C A Emsley, Charles N McCollum
OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, often complicated by dementia. Cardiovascular risk factors and spontaneous cerebral emboli (SCE) are strongly associated with Alzheimer's (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). We measured SCE in the middle cerebral artery and arterial wall volume in the extracranial arteries in patients with IPD and controls, and explored the relationships with structural and physiological MRI brain neurovascular measures...
February 10, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452832/delayed-endovascular-aortic-repair-is-associated-with-reduced-in-hospital-mortality-in-patients-with-blunt-thoracic-aortic-injury
#5
Christina L Marcaccio, Ryan P Dumas, Yanlan Huang, Wei Yang, Grace J Wang, Daniel N Holena
OBJECTIVE: The traditional approach to stable blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI) endorsed by the Society for Vascular Surgery is early (<24 hours) thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). Recently, some studies have shown improved mortality in stable BTAI patients repaired in a delayed manner (≥24 hours). However, the indications for use of delayed TEVAR for BTAI are not well characterized, and its overall impact on the patient's survival remains poorly understood. We sought to determine whether delayed TEVAR is associated with a decrease in mortality compared with early TEVAR in this population...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452265/characterizing-the-modulation-of-resting-state-fmri-metrics-by-baseline-physiology
#6
Powell P W Chu, Ali M Golestani, Jonathan B Kwinta, Yasha B Khatamian, J Jean Chen
The blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal is commonly used to assess functional connectivity across brain regions, particularly in the resting state (rs-fMRI). However, the BOLD fMRI signal is not merely a representation of neural activity, but a combination of neural activity and vascular response. These aspects of the BOLD signal are easily influenced by systemic physiology, potentially biasing BOLD-based functional connectivity measurements. In this work, we focus on the following physiological modulators of the BOLD signal: cerebral blood flow (CBF), venous blood oxygenation, and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR)...
February 13, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451373/regional-structural-and-functional-specialisations-in-the-urethra-of-the-female-rat-evidence-for-complex-physiological-control-systems
#7
Monica Eggermont, Stefan De Wachter, Jane Eastham, James Gillespie
The present study characterises the complex structural and functional elements of the female rat urethra that may be involved in controlling urethral closure and continence. Urethras were dissected from female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12) euthanized by pentobarbital overdose. Tissues were fixed (4% paraformaldehyde), frozen and sectioned (8μm) for light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Antibodies were used to detect immunoreactivity to calcitonin gene related peptide, nitric oxide synthase, vesicular acetylcholine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase...
February 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450394/update-on-retinal-vascular-caliber
#8
REVIEW
Alina Gabriela Dumitrescu, Liliana Voinea, Ioana Anca Badarau, Vanessa Andrada Paun, Marilena Schowe, Radu Ciuluvica
Retinal vessels are the only blood vessels that can be viewed directly, in vivo, repetitively and non-invasively. Retinal vessel caliber is influenced by physiological (age, sex, race, blood pressure, blood glucose, body mass index) and pathological (atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, smoking) determinants. There are studies on large population groups that demonstrate the associations between retinal vasculature and subclinical or clinical changes in systemic diseases (hypertension, diabetes, stroke, renal or cardiac diseases)...
July 2017: Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448283/-significance-of-endothelin-1-in-glaucoma-a-short-overview
#9
Konstantin Gugleta
This review article is focused on the various facets of possible endothelin's role in glaucoma; involvement of endothelin in other ocular, in particular vascular, diseases is not specifically discussed. Endothelin is an ubiquitous molecule that occurs in practically all ocular tissues. Its primary physiological function is regulation of the blood vessel diameter and hence regulation of the blood supply in tissues. It is secreted locally, and exerts its effect also predominantly locally. This limits the value of venous blood sampling for estimation of the endothelin function in a particular patient, or in study cohorts as well...
February 2018: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447763/scaling-of-bony-canals-for-encephalic-vessels-in-euarchontans-implications-for-the-role-of-the-vertebral-artery-and-brain-metabolism
#10
Doug M Boyer, Arianna R Harrington
Supplying the central nervous system with oxygen and glucose for metabolic activities is a critical function for all animals at physiologic, anatomical, and behavioral levels. A relatively proximate challenge to nourishing the brain is maintaining adequate blood flow. Euarchontans (primates, dermopterans and treeshrews) display a diversity of solutions to this challenge. Although the vertebral artery is a major encephalic vessel, previous research has questioned its importance for irrigating the cerebrum. This presents a puzzling scenario for certain strepsirrhine primates (non-cheirogaleid lemuriforms) that have reduced promontorial branches of the internal carotid artery and no apparent alternative encephalic vascular route except for the vertebral artery...
January 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445080/modeling-radiation-injury-induced-cell-death-and-countermeasure-drug-responses-in-a-human-gut-on-a-chip
#11
Sasan Jalili-Firoozinezhad, Rachelle Prantil-Baun, Amanda Jiang, Ratnakar Potla, Tadanori Mammoto, James C Weaver, Thomas C Ferrante, Hyun Jung Kim, Joaquim M S Cabral, Oren Levy, Donald E Ingber
Studies on human intestinal injury induced by acute exposure to γ-radiation commonly rely on use of animal models because culture systems do not faithfully mimic human intestinal physiology. Here we used a human Gut-on-a-Chip (Gut Chip) microfluidic device lined by human intestinal epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells to model radiation injury and assess the efficacy of radiation countermeasure drugs in vitro. Exposure of the Gut Chip to γ-radiation resulted in increased generation of reactive oxygen species, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and DNA fragmentation, as well as villus blunting, disruption of tight junctions, and compromise of intestinal barrier integrity...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444773/lung-function-inflammation-and-endothelin-1-in-congenital-heart-disease-associated-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#12
Andrew Low, Sarah George, Luke Howard, Nicholas Bell, Ann Millar, Robert M R Tulloh
BACKGROUND: Breathlessness is the most common symptom in people with pulmonary arterial hypertension and congenital heart disease (CHD-APAH), previously thought to be caused by worsening PAH, but perhaps also by inflammation and abnormalities of lung function. We studied lung function and airway inflammation in patients with CHD-APAH and compared the results with controls. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty people were recruited into the study: 20 CHD-APAH, 20 CHD controls, and 20 healthy controls...
February 14, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444138/voxel-level-quantification-of-11c-curb-a-radioligand-for-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-using-high-resolution-positron-emission-tomography
#13
Pablo M Rusjan, Dunja Knezevic, Isabelle Boileau, Junchao Tong, Romina Mizrahi, Alan A Wilson, Sylvain Houle
[11C]CURB is a novel irreversible radioligand for imaging fatty acid amide hydrolase in the human brain. In the present work, we validate an algorithm for generating parametric map images of [11C]CURB acquired with a high resolution research tomograph (HRRT) scanner. This algorithm applies the basis function method on an irreversible two-tissue compartment model (k4 = 0) with arterial input function, i.e., BAFPIC. Monte Carlo simulations are employed to assess bias and variability of the binding macroparameters (Ki and λk3) as a function of the voxel noise level and the range of basis functions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441713/human-expression-patterns-qualitative-and-quantitative-analysis-of-thrombospondin-1-under-physiological-and-pathological-conditions
#14
REVIEW
Chen Zhao, Jeffrey S Isenberg, Aleksander S Popel
Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a matricellular protein and one of the first endogenous anti-angiogenic molecules identified, has long been considered a potent modulator of human diseases. While the therapeutic effect of TSP-1 to suppress cancer was investigated in both research and clinical settings, the mechanisms of how TSP-1 is regulated in cancer remain elusive, and the scientific answers to the question of whether TSP-1 expressions can be utilized as diagnostic or prognostic marker for patients with cancer are largely inconsistent...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441571/arterial-and-microvascular-supply-of-cerebral-hemispheres-in-the-nude-mouse-revealed-using-corrosion-casting-and-scanning-electron-microscopy
#15
Simone Sangiorgi, Alessandro De Benedictis, Marcella Reguzzoni, Andrea Trezza, Silvia Cossu, Carlo Efisio Marras, Silvio Bellocchi, Alessandro Manelli, Marina Protasoni
Morphological analyses of cerebral vascularization are not only important for the characterization of the anatomical and physiological relationships between vascular and nervous tissue, but also required to understand structural modifications that occur in many pathological conditions affecting the brain. The aim of this study was to generate a three-dimensional vascular map of the cerebral hemispheres in the nude mouse brain, a widely used animal model for studying tumour biology. We used the corrosion casting (CC) technique to isolate blood vessels from 30 nude mouse brains...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441026/hemodynamic-functionality-of-transfused-red-blood-cells-in-the-microcirculation-of-blood-recipients
#16
REVIEW
Gregory Barshtein, Dan Arbell, Saul Yedgar
The primary goal of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is to supply oxygen to tissues and organs. However, due to a growing number of studies that have reported negative transfusion outcomes, including reduced blood perfusion, there is rising concern about the risks in blood transfusion. RBC are characterized by unique flow-affecting properties, specifically adherence to blood vessel wall endothelium, cell deformability, and self-aggregability, which define their hemodynamic functionality (HF), namely their potential to affect blood circulation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439388/inhibitory-effect-of-flavonolignans-on-the-p2y12-pathway-in-blood-platelets
#17
Michal Bijak, Rafal Szelenberger, Angela Dziedzic, Joanna Saluk-Bijak
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is the major platelet agonist, which is important in the shape changes, stability, and growth of the thrombus. Platelet activation by ADP is associated with the G protein-coupled receptors P2Y1 and P2Y12. The pharmacologic blockade of the P2Y12 receptor significantly reduces the risk of peripheral artery disease, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and vascular death. Recent studies demonstrated the inhibition of ADP-induced blood platelet activation by three major compounds of the flavonolignans group: silybin, silychristin, and silydianin...
February 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439093/dysregulated-genes-and-their-functional-pathways-in-luteinized-granulosa-cells-from-pcos-patients-after-cabergoline-treatment
#18
Hortensia Ferrero, Patricia Diaz-Gimeno, Patricia Sebastian-Leon, Amparo Faus, Raul Gómez, Antonio Pellicer
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive disorder frequently associated with a substantial risk factor for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Dopamine receptor 2 (D2) agonists, like Cabergoline (Cb2), have been used to reduce the OHSS risk. However, lutein granulosa cells (LGCs) from PCOS patients treated with Cb2 still show a deregulated dopaminergic tone (decreased D2 expression and low dopamine production) and increased vascularization compared to non-PCOS LGCs. Therefore, to understand the PCOS ovarian physiology, it is important to explore the mechanisms that underlie syndrome based on the therapeutic effects of Cb2...
February 9, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438895/piriformospora-indica-cell-wall-extract-as-the-best-elicitor-for-asiaticoside-production-in-centella-asiatica-l-urban-evidenced-by-morphological-physiological-and-molecular-analyses
#19
S Jisha, P R Gouri, K N Anith, K K Sabu
Vascular plants synthesise a multitude of organic molecules or phytochemicals, referred to as "secondary metabolites". These molecules are involved in a variety of roles in the life span of plants, ranging from structural ones to protection. Centella asiatica (L.) Urban has probably been used since prehistoric times and has been reported to have been used for various medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The plant contains several active constituents, of which the most important is asiaticoside, a triterpenoid. Asiaticoside content in C...
February 7, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438258/contribution-of-resident-and-recruited-macrophages-in-vascular-physiology-and-pathology
#20
Li Zhang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Macrophages are generally believed to originate entirely from the bone marrow; however, this paradigm is challenged by the discovery of yolk-sac-derived resident macrophages. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in the ontogeny and function of resident macrophages. RECENT FINDINGS: Macrophage precursors from three distinct embryonic sources (yolk sac, fetal liver and bone marrow) are found to colonize various tissues via the blood circulation early during embryogenesis until shortly after birth...
February 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
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