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Vascular physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535521/fibroblast-growth-factor-23-mineral-metabolism-and-beyond
#1
Alexander Grabner, Sandro Mazzaferro, Giuseppe Cianciolo, Stefanie Krick, Irene Capelli, Silverio Rotondi, Claudio Ronco, Gaetano La Manna, Christian Faul
Patients affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit a high risk of cardiovascular mortality that is poorly explained by traditional risk factors. There is a growing awareness about the role of derangement of mineral metabolism that is currently accepted as a trigger and sustainer of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in CKD patients. The synthetic definition of CKD mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) split the concept that the indexes of mineral metabolism extend their effects beyond the bone until the vascular wall and metabolic milieu of CKD patients through complex pathways...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535520/phosphate-in-chronic-kidney-disease-progression
#2
Mario Cozzolino, Denis Foque, Paola Ciceri, Andrea Galassi
A direct and independent association between serum phosphate (P) levels and mortality has been reported. High circulating P concentrations, still within the normal range, was associated with unfavourable outcomes in normal subjects as well as in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Experimental data support the notion that P overload may hamper survival expectancy, directly inducing vascular, skeletal, and renal ageing. The balance of P results from dietary intake, intestinal absorption, glomerular filtration, tubular resorption, and hormonal asset...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535253/endothelial-glycocalyx-the-battleground-for-complications-of-sepsis-and-kidney-injury
#3
Jong Wook Song, Joseph Zullo, Mark Lipphardt, Matthew Dragovich, Frank X Zhang, Bingmei Fu, Michael S Goligorsky
After briefly discussing endothelial glycocalyx and its role in vascular physiology and renal disease, this overview focuses on its degradation very early in the course of microbial sepsis. We describe our recently proposed mechanism for glycocalyx degradation induced by exocytosis of lysosome-related organelles and release of their cargo. Notably, an intermediate in nitric oxide synthesis, NG-hydroxy-l-arginine, shows efficacy in curtailing exocytosis of these organelles and improvement in animal survival...
May 23, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534432/gastrointestinal-microphysiological-systems
#4
Sarah E Blutt, James R Broughman, Winnie Zou, Xi-Lei Zeng, Umesh C Karandikar, Julie In, Nicholas C Zachos, Olga Kovbasnjuk, Mark Donowitz, Mary K Estes
Gastrointestinal diseases are a significant health care and economic burden. Prevention and treatment of these diseases have been limited by the available human biologic models. Microphysiological systems comprise organ-specific human cultures that recapitulate many structural, biological, and functional properties of the organ in smaller scale including aspects of flow, shear stress and chemical gradients. The development of intestinal microphysiological system platforms represents a critical component in improving our understanding, prevention, and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532901/long-term-surveillance-of-zinc-implant-in-murine-artery-surprisingly-steady-biocorrosion-rate
#5
Adam Drelich, Shan Zhao, Roger J Guillory, Jaroslaw W Drelich, Jeremy Goldman
Metallic zinc implanted into the abdominal aorta of rats out to 6 months has been demonstrated to degrade while avoiding responses commonly associated with the restenosis of vascular implants. However, major questions remain regarding whether a zinc implant would ultimately passivate through the production of stable corrosion products or via a cell mediated fibrous encapsulation process that prevents the diffusion of critical reactants and products at the metal surface. Here, we have conducted clinically relevant long term in vivo studies in order to characterize late stage zinc implant biocorrosion behavior and products to address these critical questions...
May 19, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532218/flow-chamber-and-microfluidic-approaches-for-measuring-thrombus-formation-in-genetic-bleeding-disorders
#6
Rogier M Schoeman, Marcus Lehmann, Keith B Neeves
Platelet adhesion and aggregation, coagulation, fibrin formation, and fibrinolysis are regulated by the forces and flows imposed by blood at the site of a vascular injury. Flow chambers designed to observe these events are an indispensable part of doing hemostasis and thrombosis research, especially with human blood. Microfluidic methods have provided the flexibility to design flow chambers with complex geometries and features that more closely mimic the anatomy and physiology of blood vessels. Additionally, microfluidic systems with integrated optics and/or pressure sensors and on-board signal processing could transform what have been primarily research tools into clinical assays...
May 22, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531771/preventive-effect-of-l-carnitine-and-its-derivatives-on-endothelial-dysfunction-and-platelet-aggregation
#7
REVIEW
Mohammad Mohammadi, Azita Hajhossein Talasaz, Mohammad Alidoosti
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Oxidative stress plays an important role in platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction. Exogenous and endogenous reactive oxygen species are associated with platelet activation and vascular dysfunction. Antioxidants have been shown to attenuate oxidative stress and consequently endothelial dysfunction by preventing inflammation, regulating vascular tone, and promoting antiadhesive and antithrombotic properties. l-carnitine and its derivatives have been demonstrated to improve endothelial and platelet function against oxidative stress by several mechanisms, some of which cannot be found in other antioxidants...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530543/using-properties-of-tumor-microenvironments-for-controlling-local-on-demand-delivery-from-biopolymer-based-nanocarriers
#8
Abdullah K Alshememry, Suleiman S El-Tokhy, Larry D Unsworth
BACKGROUND: The 'tumor microenvironment' comprised of tumor cells, non-malignant stromal tissues, signaling molecules and the extracellular matrix. Tumor microenvironment has unique physical and physiological characteristics including vascular abnormalities, hypoxia, acidic pH, specific enzymes and growth factors upregulation and high reducing potential. It is these endogenous properties of the tumor environment that can be used to trigger the release of cancer therapeutics both locally and as a function of disease state...
May 21, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530480/ultrasonographic-and-histological-evaluation-of-the-effects-of-long-term-carotid-catheterization-on-cardiac-function-in-nmri-mice
#9
Anne C Teilmann, Morten B Thomsen, Elizabeth A Ihms, Nathan Pate, Jann Hau, Klas Abelson
Catheterization of laboratory mice is commonly performed in biomedical research to infuse substances and for blood sampling. One approach is to catheterize the right common carotid artery and advance the catheter until the tip is positioned in the aorta or the proximal brachiocephalic trunk. Owing to the small body size of the mouse, a catheter tends to occupy a great part of even the larger vessel lumens, and this may increase vascular resistance with potential pathophysiological impacts on the heart. The present study compared cardiac function of catheterized mice, with catheter tip placement in the brachiocephalic trunk, with sham-operated mice and non-operated control mice...
January 1, 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529485/hydrostatin-sn1-a-sea-snake-derived-bioactive-peptide-reduces-inflammation-in-a-mouse-model-of-acute-lung-injury
#10
Guosheng Wu, Junjie Wang, Pengfei Luo, An Li, Song Tian, Hailong Jiang, Yongjun Zheng, Feng Zhu, Yiming Lu, Zhaofan Xia
Snake venom has been used for centuries as a traditional Chinese medicine. Hydrostatin-SN1 (H-SN1), a bioactive peptide extracted from the Hydrophis cyanocinctus venom gland T7 phage display library, was reported to have the ability to reduce inflammation in a dextran sulfate sodium-induced murine colitis model. In this study, we sought to investigate the inhibitory potential of H-SN1 on inflammation in a murine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI), and elucidate the anti-inflammatory mechanism in LPS-stimulated RAW 264...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529128/role-of-gper-in-the-activation-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase
#11
Natalie C Fredette, Matthias R Meyer, Eric R Prossnitz
Estrogens are potent regulators of vascular tone, yet underlying receptor- and ligand-specific signaling pathways remain poorly characterized. The primary physiological estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2), a non-selective agonist of classical nuclear estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) as well as the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), stimulates formation of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) in endothelial cells. Here, we studied the contribution of GPER signaling in E2-dependent activation of endothelial NO formation and subsequent vasodilation...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528061/real-time-computed-tomography-highlights-pulmonary-parenchymal-evolution-during-ex%C3%A2-vivo-lung-reconditioning
#12
Edouard Sage, Julien De Wolf, Philippe Puyo, Pierre Bonnette, Matthieu Glorion, Nicolas Salley, Antoine Roux, Ngai Liu, Alain Chapelier
Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has been developed as a method to reassess and recondition marginal lungs. However, evaluation during procedures is limited to a combination of physiologic variables such as gas exchange, pulmonary mechanics, and pulmonary vascular resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility of real-time computed tomographic (CT) imaging to improve the evaluation of the lung during EVLP procedures.
June 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527699/at1-receptor-signaling-pathways-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#13
REVIEW
Tatsuo Kawai, Steven J Forrester, Shannon O'Brien, Ariele Baggett, Victor Rizzo, Satoru Eguchi
The importance of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology has been well described whereas the detailed molecular mechanisms remain elusive. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 receptor) is one of the key players in the renin angiotensin aldosterone system. The AT1 receptor promotes various intracellular signaling pathways resulting in hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodeling and end organ damage. Accumulating evidence shows the complex picture of AT1 receptor-mediated signaling; AT1 receptor-mediated heterotrimeric G protein-dependent signaling, transactivation of growth factor receptors, NADPH oxidase and ROS signaling, G protein-independent signaling, including the β-arrestin signals and interaction with several AT1 receptor interacting proteins...
May 17, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527569/estrogen-hormone-biology
#14
Katherine J Hamilton, Sylvia C Hewitt, Yukitomo Arao, Kenneth S Korach
The hormone estrogen is involved in both female and male reproduction, as well as numerous other biological systems including the neuroendocrine, vascular, skeletal, and immune systems. Therefore, it is also implicated in many different diseases and conditions such as infertility, obesity, osteoporosis, endometriosis, and a variety of cancers. Estrogen works through its two distinct nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). Various transcriptional regulation mechanisms have been identified as the mode of action for estrogen, mainly the classical mechanism with direct DNA binding but also a nongenomic mode of action and one using tethered or indirect binding...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527110/a-review-of-the-hemodynamic-factors-believed-to-contribute-to-vascular-access-dysfunction
#15
Connor V Cunnane, Eoghan M Cunnane, Michael T Walsh
A vascular access (VA) is used to facilitate hemodialysis in patients that suffer from end-stage renal disease. However, they suffer from high failure rates due to non-maturation and venous stenosis, with intimal hyperplasia (IH) the underlying cause of both conditions. Abnormal hemodynamic profiles, which arise following VA creation, are believed to lead to the development of IH. However, the exact physiological response that initiates this process is unknown. This review evaluates the different hemodynamic parameters that are hypothesised to correlate with the development of IH...
May 19, 2017: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526859/evaluation-of-arteriolar-smooth-muscle-cell-function-in-an-ex-vivo-microvascular-network-model
#16
Jessica M Motherwell, Mohammad S Azimi, Kristine Spicer, Natascha G Alves, Nicholas A Hodges, Jerome W Breslin, Prasad V G Katakam, Walter L Murfee
An emerging challenge in tissue engineering biomimetic models is recapitulating the physiological complexity associated with real tissues. Recently, our laboratory introduced the rat mesentery culture model as an ex vivo experimental platform for investigating the multi-cellular dynamics involved in angiogenesis within an intact microvascular network using time-lapse imaging. A critical question remains whether the vessels maintain their functionality. The objective of this study was to determine whether vascular smooth muscle cells in cultured microvascular networks maintain the ability to constrict...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526082/proof-of-concept-non-invasive-estimation-of-peripheral-venous-oxygen-saturation
#17
Musabbir Khan, Chris G Pretty, Alexander C Amies, Joel Balmer, Houda E Banna, Geoffrey M Shaw, J Geoffrey Chase
BACKGROUND: Pulse oximeters continuously monitor arterial oxygen saturation. Continuous monitoring of venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) would enable real-time assessment of tissue oxygen extraction (O2E) and perfusion changes leading to improved diagnosis of clinical conditions, such as sepsis. METHODS: This study presents the proof of concept of a novel pulse oximeter method that utilises the compliance difference between arteries and veins to induce artificial respiration-like modulations to the peripheral vasculature...
May 19, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525819/combination-of-flow-and-micropattern-alignment-affecting-flow-resistant-endothelial-cell-adhesion
#18
Xianghui Gong, Jie Yao, Hongping He, Xixi Zhao, Xiaoyi Liu, Feng Zhao, Yan Sun, Yubo Fan
Assuring cell adhesion to an underlying biomaterial surface under blood flow is vital to functional vascular grafts design. In vivo endothelial cells (ECs) are located under the microenvironment of both surface topography of the basement membrane and the mechanical loading resulting from blood flow. Both topographical and mechanical factors should thus be considered when designing vascular grafts to enhance the flow-resistant EC adhesion. This study aims to investigate effects of integrating biomaterial surface topography and flow on EC adhesion, which was a deficit in previous studies...
May 2, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523529/s-nitrosylation-regulates-cell-survival-and-death-in-the-central-nervous-system
#19
Yoshiki Koriyama, Ayako Furukawa
Nitric oxide (NO), which is produced from nitric oxide synthase, is an important cell signaling molecule that is crucial for many physiological functions such as neuronal death, neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity, and vascular homeostasis. This diffusible gaseous compound functions as an effector or second messenger in many intercellular communications and/or cell signaling pathways. Protein S-nitrosylation is a posttranslational modification that involves the covalent attachment of an NO group to the thiol side chain of select cysteine residues on target proteins...
May 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522896/shear-stress-counteracts-endothelial-cx3cl1-induction-and-monocytic-cell-adhesion
#20
Aaron Babendreyer, Lisa Molls, Daniela Dreymueller, Stefan Uhlig, Andreas Ludwig
Flow conditions critically regulate endothelial cell functions in the vasculature. Reduced shear stress resulting from disturbed blood flow can drive the development of vascular inflammatory lesions. On endothelial cells, the transmembrane chemokine CX3CL1/fractalkine promotes vascular inflammation by functioning as a surface-expressed adhesion molecule and by becoming released as soluble chemoattractant for monocytic cells expressing the receptor CX3CR1. Here, we report that endothelial cells from human artery, vein, or microvasculature constitutively express CX3CL1 when cultured under static conditions...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
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