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Vascular physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667150/topical-application-of-omega-3-omega-6-and-omega-9-rich-oil-emulsions-for-cutaneous-wound-healing-in-rats
#1
Wan Maznah Wan Ishak, Haliza Katas, Ng Pei Yuen, Maizaton Atmadini Abdullah, Mohd Hanif Zulfakar
Wound healing is a physiological event that generates reconstitution and restoration of granulation tissue that ends with scar formation. As omega fatty acids are part of membrane phospholipids and participate in the inflammatory response, we investigated the effects of omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids in the form of oils on wound healing. Linseed (LO), evening primrose (EPO), and olive oils (OO) rich in omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids were formulated into emulsions and were topically applied on rats with excision wounds...
April 17, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663995/-risk-factors-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-critical-ill-patients
#2
Jianyu Fu, Hongying Bi, Yunsong Xia, Hui Fang, Xu Liu, Yan Tang, Difen Wang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical features of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients, and to explore the correlation between the routine detection index and the new-onset AF and to find out risk factors for new AF in critically ill patients. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted. The patients with AF admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of the Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University from March 2016 to June 2017 were enrolled. The patients were divided into new-onset AF group and past-existed AF group according to their past history of AF (including persistent AF, paroxysmal AF or permanent AF)...
April 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661689/cardiometabolic-risk-and-female-sexuality-part-ii-understanding-and-overcoming-gender-differences-the-key-role-of-an-adequate-methodological-approach
#3
REVIEW
Elisa Maseroli, Irene Scavello, Linda Vignozzi
INTRODUCTION: Although basic science and clinical research indicate that the vascular physiopathology of male and female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is similar, to date the association between FSD and cardiovascular (CV) diseases has been only marginally explored. AIM: To discuss the potential reasons for differences in the role of CV diseases and risk factors in sexual function in women vs men in the 2nd part of a 2-part review. METHODS: A thorough literature search of peer-reviewed publications on the topic was performed using the PubMed database...
April 13, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660141/carbonic-anhydrase-is-not-a-relevant-nitrite-reductase-or-nitrous-anhydrase-in-the-lung
#4
Philipp A Pickerodt, Sebastian Kronfeldt, Martin Russ, Adrian Gonzalez-Lopez, Philipp Lother, Elvira Steiner, Katja Vorbrodt, Thilo Busch, Willehad Boemke, Roland C E Francis, Erik R Swenson
The carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors, acetazolamide and its structurally similar analogue, methazolamide prevent or reduce hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) in dogs and humans in vivo, by a mechanism unrelated to CA inhibition. In rodent blood and isolated blood vessels, Aamand et al. (2009) reported that inhibition of CA led to increased generation of nitric oxide (NO) from nitrite and vascular relaxation in vitro. We tested the physiological relevance of augmented NO generation by CA from nitrite with acetazolamide in anaesthetized pigs during alveolar hypoxia in vivo...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660112/evaluation-of-membrane-bound-and-soluble-forms-of-hla-g-in-systemic-sclerosis
#5
Paola Contini, Simone Negrini, Giuseppe Murdaca, Matteo Borro, Francesco Puppo
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a complex disease characterized by immune dysregulation, extensive vascular damage and wide-spread fibrosis. Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is a non-classic class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule characterized by complex immuno-modulating properties. HLA-G is expressed on the membrane of different cell lineages in both physiological and pathological conditions. HLA-G is also detectable in soluble form (sHLA-G) deriving from the shedding of surface isoforms (sHLA-G1) or the secretion of soluble isoforms (HLA-G5)...
April 16, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659033/gna11-differentially-mediates-fgf2-and-vegfa-induced-cellular-responses-in-human-fetoplacental-endothelial-cells
#6
Qing-Yun Zou, Ying-Jie Zhao, Hua Li, Xiang-Zhen Wang, Ai-Xia Liu, Xin-Qi Zhong, Qin Yan, Yan Li, Chi Zhou, Jing Zheng
During pregnancy, fetoplacental angiogenesis is dramatically increased in association with rapidly elevated blood flows. Any disruption of fetoplacental angiogenesis may lead to pregnancy complications such as intrauterine growth restriction. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) are crucial regulators of fetoplacental angiogenesis. G protein α subunits q (GNAq) and 11 (GNA11), two members of Gαq/11 subfamily are involved in mediating vascular growth and basal blood pressure...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658944/an-in-vivo-model-of-functional-and-vascularized-human-brain-organoids
#7
Abed AlFatah Mansour, J Tiago Gonçalves, Cooper W Bloyd, Hao Li, Sarah Fernandes, Daphne Quang, Stephen Johnston, Sarah L Parylak, Xin Jin, Fred H Gage
Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to small brain-like structures known as brain organoids offers an unprecedented opportunity to model human brain development and disease. To provide a vascularized and functional in vivo model of brain organoids, we established a method for transplanting human brain organoids into the adult mouse brain. Organoid grafts showed progressive neuronal differentiation and maturation, gliogenesis, integration of microglia, and growth of axons to multiple regions of the host brain...
April 16, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657098/inflammatory-responses-and-barrier-function-of-endothelial-cells-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#8
Oleh V Halaidych, Christian Freund, Francijna van den Hil, Daniela C F Salvatori, Mara Riminucci, Christine L Mummery, Valeria V Orlova
Several studies have reported endothelial cell (EC) derivation from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). However, few have explored their functional properties in depth with respect to line-to-line and batch-to-batch variability and how they relate to primary ECs. We therefore carried out accurate characterization of hiPSC-derived ECs (hiPSC-ECs) from multiple (non-integrating) hiPSC lines and compared them with primary ECs in various functional assays, which included barrier function using real-time impedance spectroscopy with an integrated assay of electric wound healing, endothelia-leukocyte interaction under physiological flow to mimic inflammation and angiogenic responses in in vitro and in vivo assays...
April 9, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656339/role-of-ampk-in-atherosclerosis-via-autophagy-regulation
#9
REVIEW
Hanxiao Ou, Chuhao Liu, Wenjie Feng, Xinwen Xiao, Shengsong Tang, Zhongcheng Mo
Atherosclerosis is characterized by the accumulation of lipids and deposition of fibrous elements in the vascular wall, which is the primary cause of cardiovascular diseases. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic sensor of energy metabolism that regulates multiple physiological processes, including lipid and glucose metabolism and the normalization of energy imbalances. Overwhelming evidence indicates that AMPK activation markedly attenuates atherosclerosis development. Autophagy inhibits cell apoptosis and inflammation and promotes cholesterol efflux and efferocytosis...
April 12, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652619/circulating-cytokine-chemokine-concentrations-respond-to-ionizing-radiation-doses-but-not-radiation-dose-rates-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-and-interleukin-18
#10
Juliann G Kiang, Joan T Smith, Sara R Hegge, Natalia I Ossetrova
Exposure to ionizing radiation is a crucial life-threatening factor in nuclear and radiological incidents. It is known that ionizing radiation affects cytokine/chemokine concentrations in the blood of B6D2F1 mice. It is not clear whether radiation dose rates would vary the physiological response. Therefore, in this study we utilized data from two experiments using B6D2F1 female mice exposed to six different dose rates ranging from low to high rates. In one experiment, mice received a total dose of 8 Gy (LD0/30 ) of 60 Co gamma radiation at four dose rates: 0...
April 13, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652545/strategies-for-optimal-cardiovascular-aging
#11
Douglas R Seals, Vienna E Brunt, Matthew J Rossman
This review summarizes the opening keynote presentation overview of the American Physiological Society conference on Cardiovascular Aging: New Frontiers and Old Friends held in Westminster, CO, in August 2017. Age is the primary risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Without effective intervention, increased numbers of older adults in the future will translate to greater prevalence of CVD and related disorders. Advancing age increases the risk of CVD partly via direct effects on the heart and through increases in blood pressure; however, much of the risk is mediated by arterial dysfunction, including large elastic artery stiffening and both macro- and micro-vascular endothelial dysfunction...
April 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651108/3d-artificial-round-section-micro-vessels-to-investigate-endothelial-cells-under-physiological-flow-conditions
#12
Riccardo Sfriso, Shengye Zhang, Colette Andrea Bichsel, Oliver Steck, Alain Despont, Olivier Thierry Guenat, Robert Rieben
In the context of xenotransplantation, in ischemia/reperfusion injury as well as in cardiovascular research, the study of the fascinating interplay between endothelial cells (EC) and the plasma cascade systems often requires in vitro models. Blood vessels are hardly reproducible with standard flat-bed culture systems and flow-plate assays are limited in their low surface-to-volume ratio which impedes the study of the anticoagulant properties of the endothelial cells. According to the 3R regulations (reduce, replace and refine animal experimentation) we developed a closed circuit microfluidic in vitro system in which endothelial cells are cultured in 3D round section microchannels and subjected to physiological, pulsatile flow...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650408/normothermic-ex-vivo-preservation-with-the-portable-organ-care-system-lung-device-for-bilateral-lung-transplantation-inspire-a-randomised-open-label-non-inferiority-phase-3-study
#13
Gregor Warnecke, Dirk Van Raemdonck, Michael A Smith, Gilbert Massard, Jasleen Kukreja, Federico Rea, Gabriel Loor, Fabio De Robertis, Jayan Nagendran, Kumud K Dhital, Francisco Javier Moradiellos Díez, Christoph Knosalla, Christian A Bermudez, Steven Tsui, Kenneth McCurry, I-Wen Wang, Tobias Deuse, Guy Lesèche, Pascal Thomas, Igor Tudorache, Christian Kühn, Murat Avsar, Bettina Wiegmann, Wiebke Sommer, Arne Neyrinck, Marco Schiavon, Fiorella Calebrese, Nichola Santelmo, Anne Olland, Pierre-Emanuel Falcoz, Andre R Simon, Andres Varela, Joren C Madsen, Marshall Hertz, Axel Haverich, Abbas Ardehali
BACKGROUND: Severe primary graft dysfunction (PGD) of grade 3 (PGD3) is a common serious complication following lung transplantation. We aimed to assess physiological donor lung preservation using the Organ Care System (OCS) Lung device compared with cold static storage. METHODS: In this non-inferiority, randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 3 trial (INSPIRE) recipients were aged 18 years or older and were registered as standard criteria primary double lung transplant candidates...
April 9, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650336/acute-physiological-responses-to-low-intensity-blood-flow-restriction-cycling
#14
H J Thomas, B R Scott, J J Peiffer
OBJECTIVES: Blood flow restriction (BFR) during interval cycling may stimulate aerobic and anaerobic adaptations. However, acute physiological responses to BFR interval cycling have not been extensively investigated. DESIGN: Eighteen males completed low-intensity (LI), low-intensity with BFR (LIBFR ) and high-intensity (HI) interval cycling sessions in randomised and counterbalanced order. These included a standardised warm-up and three two-min intervals interspersed with two-min recovery...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648891/muscular-and-vascular-issues-induced-by-prolonged-standing-with-different-work-rest-cycles-with-active-or-passive-breaks
#15
Maria-Gabriela Garcia, Thomas Läubli, Bernard J Martin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-lasting motor, behavioral, physiological, and perceptual effects of prolonged standing work in three work-rest cycle conditions including passive or active rest breaks. BACKGROUND: Muscle fatigue has been evidenced after prolonged standing work through physiological and neuromotor measures. It has been postulated that muscle fatigue induced by prolonged work could be attenuated by appropriate scheduling of work and rest periods...
April 1, 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644895/%C3%AE-1-subunit-of-the-calcium-sensitive-potassium-channel-modulates-the-pulmonary-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-response-to-hypoxia
#16
Elizabeth A Barnes, Lori Lee, Shayna L Barnes, Robert Brenner, Cristina M Alvira, David N Cornfield
Accessory subunits associated with the calcium-sensitive potassium channel (BKCa ), a major determinant of vascular tone, confer functional and anatomical diversity. The β1 subunit increases Ca2+ -, and voltage-sensitivity of the BKCa channel and is expressed exclusively in smooth muscle cells (SMC). Evidence supporting the physiologic significance of the β1 subunit includes the observations that murine models with deletion of the β1 subunit are hypertensive and that humans with a gain-of-function β1 mutation are at decreased risk of diastolic hypertension, However, whether the β1 subunit of the BKCa channel contributes to the low tone that characterizes the normal pulmonary circulation or modulates the pulmonary vascular response to hypoxia remains unknown...
April 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644886/effects-of-a-thermosensitive-in-situ-gel-containing-mometasone-furoate-on-a-rat-allergic-rhinitis-model
#17
Ebru Altuntaş, Gülgün Yener, Remzi Doğan, Fadlullah Aksoy, Mehmet Şerif Aydın, Ersin Karataş
Background Mometasone furoate, one of the second generation intranasal corticosteroids, is currently used in suspension form due to its poor solubility. However, this is not favorable for nasal application because of the rapid elimination of the instilled drug from the nasal cavity by mucociliary clearance and delayed onset of action due to the slow dissolution of drug in suspension. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the antiallergic effects of mucoadhesive thermosensitive in situ gel containing mometasone furoate that we developed previously to prolong the contact between the drug and nasal mucosa and to prevent drainage of the formulation in an ovalbumin-induced rat model of allergic rhinitis...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644226/nitric-oxide-and-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#18
REVIEW
Adrian H Chester, Magdi H Yacoub, Salvador Moncada
The pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension remains undefined. Changes in the expression and effects mediated by a number of vasoactive factors have been implicated to play a role in the onset and progression of the disease. The source of many of these mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin and endothelin-1 (ET-1), is the pulmonary endothelium. This article focus in the role of nitric oxide in PAH, reviewing the evidence for its involvement in regulation of pulmonary a vascular tone under physiological conditions, the mechanisms by which it can contribute to the pathological changes seen in PAH and strategies for the use of NO as a therapy for treatment of the disease...
June 30, 2017: Global Cardiology Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642728/tunnelling-a-midline-catheter-when-the-traffic-light-shifts-from-yellow-to-green
#19
Adam Fabiani, Lorella Dreas, Gianfranco Sanson
INTRODUCTION: A safe, largely used practice for difficult venous access patients is positioning a catheter in deeper veins under ultrasound guide. However, the risk of complications is increased when there is a high catheter-to-vein ratio or when the insertion site is in a zone with particular anatomical/physiological characteristics. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 60-year-old woman admitted to a post-operative intensive care unit after cardiac surgery had a complicated post-operative course...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642694/integrated-quadruple-stress-echocardiography
#20
Eugenio Picano, Doralisa Morrone, Maria C Scali, Alda Huqi, Katia Coviello, Quirino Ciampi
Stress Echocardiography (SE) is an established diagnostic technique. For 40 years, the cornerstone of the technique has been the detection of regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA), due to the underlying physiologically-relevant epicardial coronary artery stenosis. In the last decade, three new parameters (more objective than RWMA) have shown the potential to integrate and comple- ment RWMA: 1- B-lines, also known as ultrasound lung comets, as a marker of extra-vascular lung water, measured using lung ultrasound with the 4-site simplified scan symmetrically of the antero- lateral thorax on the third intercostal space, from mid-axillary to anterior axillary and mid- clavicular line; 2-left ventricular contractile reserve (LVCR), assessed as the peak stress/rest ratio of left ventricular force, also known as elastance (systolic arterial pressure by cuff sphygmomanome- ter/end-systolic volume from 2D echocardiography); 3- coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) on left anterior descending coronary artery, calculated as peak stress/rest ratio of diastolic peak flow velocity assessed using pulsed-wave Doppler...
April 11, 2018: Minerva Cardioangiologica
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