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Oral chagas

Maria Elena Ferreira, Antonieta Rojas de Arias, Gloria Yaluff, Ninfa Vera de Bilbao, Hector Nakayama, Susana Torres, Alicia Schinini, Susana Torres, Elva Serna, Ana Claudia Torrecilhas, Alain Fournet, Gerardo Cebrián-Torrejón
The present study pretends to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of the crude chloroform bark extract of Helietta apiculata, then the activity will be compared with the reference drug, benznidazole, in acute Trypanosoma cruzi infected mice when administered by oral route. The chloroformic extract of Helieta apiculata was administered by oral route at 5, 10 and 50 mg/kg daily for two weeks. This study has shown a moderate efficacy of the H. apiculata bark extract in reducing T. cruzi parasitaemia in 42 to 54% after a monitoring of 60 days post-infection and when compared with control groups...
May 10, 2018: Natural Product Research
Valéria Regina Cavalcante Dos Santos, Juliana de Meis, Wilson Savino, Jorge Alberto Azevedo Andrade, José Ricardo Dos Santos Vieira, José Rodrigues Coura, Angela Cristina Verissimo Junqueira
Acute Chagas disease (ACD) has a distinct epidemiological profile in the Amazon Region, with cases and outbreaks of Trypanosoma cruzi infection being possibly related to the ingestion of contaminated food. Data on ACD in the state of Pará retrieved from 2000 to 2016 from the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) were evaluated. During this period, 2,030 of the 16,807 reported cases were confirmed, with a higher incidence between the months of August and December, thus characterising a seasonal pattern of acute infection, and coinciding with the higher production of "açaí", one fruit likely involved in the oral transmission of the disease...
2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
J R P T Castanheira, R E P Castanho, H Rocha, C Pagliari, M I S Duarte, A L S Therezo, E F B Chagas, L P A Martins
Trypanosoma cruzi infection stimulates inflammatory mediators which cause oxidative stress, and the use of antioxidants can minimize the sequelae of Chagas disease. In order to evaluate the efficacy of vitamin C in minimizing oxidative damage in Chagas disease, we orally administered ascorbic acid to Swiss mice infected with 5.0 × 104 trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi QM2 strain. These animals were treated for 60 days to investigate the acute phase and 180 days for the chronic phase. During the acute phase, the animals in the infected and treated groups demonstrated lower parasitemia and inflammatory processes were seen in more mice in these groups, probably due to the higher concentration of nitric oxide, which led to the formation of peroxynitrite...
May 4, 2018: Parasitology International
Éverton José Ferreira de Araújo, Luís Mário Rezende-Júnior, Layana Karine Farias Lima, Marcelo Pereira da Silva-Júnior, Oskar Almeida Silva, Benedito Pereira de Sousa Neto, Antonia Amanda Cardoso de Almeida, Stanley Juan Chavez Gutierrez, Adriana da Rocha Tomé, Luciano da Silva Lopes, Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira, Francisco das Chagas Alves Lima
We have reported Riparin A as a promising antiparasitic molecule ​​against Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes. This work evaluated the acute oral toxicity of Riparin A and its anxiolytic effects using in vivo models and computational tools. Mice were submitted to acute oral toxicity tests (Guideline OECD 423). Later, anxiety assays with Riparin A (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg: elevated plus maze, light/dark box and marble burying) were performed. Theoretical calculations analyzed interaction of Riparin A with gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors...
April 24, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Mónica C García, Marisa Martinelli, Nicolás E Ponce, Liliana M Sanmarco, M Pilar Aoki, Rubén H Manzo, Alvaro F Jimenez-Kairuz
Interpolyelectrolyte complexes (IPEC) formulated as multiparticulate drug delivery systems (MDDS) are interesting carriers to improve drug' performance. Benznidazole (BZ) is the first-line drug for Chagas treatment; however, it presents side effects and toxicity, conditioning its efficacy and safety. The goal of this work was to obtain novel MDDS composed by IPEC based on different polymethacrylate carriers loaded with BZ and to investigate in vitro drug delivery performance for oral administration. Physicochemical characterizations were studied and preclinical studies in a murine model of acute Chagas disease were also performed...
April 26, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Ives Charlie-Silva, Rodrigo Giglioti, Pedro M Magalhães, Ilza M O Sousa, Mary Ann Foglio, Márcia C S Oliveira, Ana Carolina S Chagas
The present study evaluated whether a natural dietary additive, dried Artemisia annua leaves, may be useful to control Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus on naturally infested cattle. Twenty heifers of the Canchim breed, weighing around 250 kg, were divided into two equally sized experimental groups: 1) control animals and 2) animals receiving 200 g/day of dried A. annua leaves for two months. Before treatment began, the animals were homogeneously distributed in control and treatment groups based on their pre-treatment weight and tick infestation level...
April 11, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Camila Bezerra Melo Figueirêdo, Daniela Nadvorny, Amanda Carla Quintas de Medeiros Vieira, Giovanna Christinne Rocha de Medeiros Schver, José Lamartine Soares Sobrinho, Pedro José Rolim Neto, Ping I Lee, Monica Felts de La Roca Soares
Posaconazole (PCZ) and benznidazole (BNZ) are known to show synergetic effect in treating the acute and chronic phases of Chagas disease, a neglected parasitic disease. However, as both compounds are poorly water soluble, the development of amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) of a PCZ/BNZ fixed-dose combination in a water-soluble polymer becomes an attractive option to increase their apparent solubility and dissolution rate, potentially improving their oral bioavailability. The initial approach was to explore solvent evaporated solid dispertion (SD) systems for a PCZ/BNZ 50:50 (wt%) combination at several total drug loading levels (from SD with 10% to 50% drug loading) in water-soluble carriers, including polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K-30) and vinylpyrrolidone-vinyl acetate copolymer (PVPVA 64)...
April 18, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Patrícia Pimentel de Barros, Rodnei Dennis Rossoni, Fernanda Freire, Felipe de Camargo Ribeiro, Lucas Alexandre das Chagas Lopes, Juliana Campos Junqueira, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge
Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis are commensal microorganisms occurring in the oral cavity of approximately 50%-70% of healthy individuals. However, these microbes can become pathogenic through changes in the environment or weakened host immune system. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to evaluate the interaction between species of the genus Candida in the biofilm formation, filamentation, gene expression and virulence in Galleria mellonella. Coincubation of C. albicans with C. tropicalis cells after 48 h resulted in significant reduction of biofilm formation by decreasing viable cell counts, metabolic activity and hyphal growth...
March 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Alejandro G Schijman
Chagas disease, caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, affects millions of people, most of them neglected populations. The different phases of the disease, the transmission mode and the high genetic variability of the parasite determine that molecular detection methods display different degree of success. Molecular diagnostic tests may be employed during epidemiological surveys of transmission, for early diagnosis of congenital transmission and acute infections due to oral transmission, transfusion or transplantation routes, reactivation due to immunosuppression and monitoring of treatment response in chronically infected patients receiving trypanocidal chemotherapy...
February 21, 2018: Acta Tropica
Beatriz Grinsztejn, Brenda Hoagland, Ronaldo I Moreira, Esper G Kallas, Jose V Madruga, Silvia Goulart, Iuri C Leite, Lucilene Freitas, Luana M S Martins, Thiago S Torres, Ricardo Vasconcelos, Raquel B De Boni, Peter L Anderson, Albert Liu, Paula M Luz, Valdiléa G Veloso
BACKGROUND: PrEP Brasil was a demonstration study to assess feasibility of daily oral tenofovir diphosphate disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine provided at no cost to men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women at high risk for HIV within the Brazilian public health system. We report week 48 pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) retention, engagement, and adherence, trends in sexual behaviour, and incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections in this study cohort. METHODS: PrEP Brasil was a 48 week, open-label, demonstration study that assessed PrEP delivery at three referral centres for HIV prevention and care in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Fundação Oswaldo Cruz), and São Paulo, Brazil (Universidade de São Paulo and Centro de Referência e Treinamento em DST e AIDS)...
March 2018: Lancet HIV
Alexander Vargas, Juliane Maria Alves Siqueira Malta, Veruska Maia da Costa, Leandro Del Grande Cláudio, Renato Vieira Alves, Gilmar da Silva Cordeiro, Lúcia Maria Abrantes Aguiar, Jadher Percio
The aim of this article was to confirm and describe an outbreak of acute Chagas disease involving oral transmission in the western region of Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. This was a descriptive case series study in which the data sources were medical records and interviews with suspected cases from September 16 to November 19, 2015. An entomological investigation was conducted in the probable sites of infection for acute Chagas disease cases. Eighteen cases of acute Chagas disease were confirmed in residents of four municipalities (counties) in Rio Grande do Norte State...
February 5, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Faustino Torrico, Joaquim Gascon, Lourdes Ortiz, Cristina Alonso-Vega, María-Jesús Pinazo, Alejandro Schijman, Igor C Almeida, Fabiana Alves, Nathalie Strub-Wourgaft, Isabela Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a major neglected vector-borne disease. In this study, we investigated the safety and efficacy of three oral E1224 (a water-soluble ravuconazole prodrug) regimens and benznidazole versus placebo in adult chronic indeterminate Chagas disease. METHOD: In this proof-of-concept, double-blind, randomised phase 2 clinical trial, we recruited adults (18-50 years) with confirmed diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection from two outpatient units in Bolivia...
April 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
E Aldasoro, E Posada, A Requena-Méndez, A Calvo-Cano, N Serret, A Casellas, S Sanz, D Soy, M J Pinazo, J Gascon
Background: Benznidazole is one of the two most effective antiparasitic drugs for Chagas' disease treatment. However, knowledge about its toxicity profile is mostly based on post-marketing observational studies. Objectives: Our study combines data from two prospective clinical trials designed to assess the safety of the drug newly produced by ELEA Laboratories (Abarax®). Methods: Eligible participants were selected using a consecutive sampling strategy in the CINEBENZ and BIOMARCHA studies between 2013 and 2016 (EUDRACT 2011-002900-34 and 2012-002645-38, respectively, and clinicaltrials...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Gerson Zanusso Junior, Miyoko Massago, Danielle Kian, Max Jean de Ornelas Toledo
Chagas disease (CD), caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, remains a serious public health problem. One of the causes of the high morbidity and mortality in patients is the lack of an effective drug therapy. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum alone and in combination with benznidazole (BZ) in mice orally inoculated with strain of T. cruzi IV obtained from oral CD outbreak occurred in Western Brazilian Amazonia. All the animals inoculated with metacyclic trypomastigote forms (AM14 strain, BZ resistant), derived from the insect Rhodnius robustus, became infected and there was no difference in the mortality rate between the experimental groups...
February 2018: Experimental Parasitology
L S Lara, C S Moreira, C M Calvet, G C Lechuga, R S Souza, S C Bourguignon, V F Ferreira, D Rocha, M C S Pereira
The limited efficacy of benznidazole (Bz) indicated by failures of current Phase II clinical trials emphasizes the urgent need to identify new drugs with improved safety and efficacy for treatment of Chagas disease (CD). Herein, we analyzed the efficacy of a series of 2-hydroxy-3-phenylsulfanylmethyl-[1,4]-naphthoquinones against different Trypanosoma cruzi discrete type units (DTUs) of relevant clinical forms of CD. Cytotoxic and trypanocidal effect of naphthoquinone derivatives were assessed in mammalian cells, trypomastigotes and intracellular amastigotes using, luminescent assays (CellTiter-Glo and T...
January 20, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
A S G Nefertiti, M M Batista, P B Da Silva, D G J Batista, C F Da Silva, R B Peres, E C Torres-Santos, E F Cunha-Junior, E Holt, D W Boykin, R Brun, T Wenzler, M N C Soeiro
Therapies for human African trypanosomiasis and Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi , respectively, are limited, providing minimal therapeutic options for the millions of individuals living in very poor communities. Here the effects of 10 novel quinolines are evaluated in silico and by phenotypic studies using in vitro and in vivo models. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) properties revealed that most molecules did not infringe on Lipinski's rules, which is a prediction of good oral absorption...
February 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Caroline Arruda, Daniele de Souza Eugênio, Monique Rodrigues Moreira, Guilherme Venâncio Símaro, Jairo Kenupp Bastos, Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins, Márcio Luís Andrade Silva, Rodrigo Cássio Sola Veneziani, Paula Bruzadelle Vieira, Sérgio R Ambrósio
The biotransformation of the lignan (-)-cubebin by filamentous fungi Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus niger is an efficient bioprocess for obtaining (-)-hinokinin and (-)-parabenzlactone. The relevance of getting (-)-hinokinin is due to its promising effect against oral pathogens, especially S. sanguinis (both MIC and MBC 12.5 μg/mL), and other previous reported effects against Chagas disease and as anti-inflammatory. The advantage of using fungal transformation is the use of non-toxic and/or non-pollutant reagents and/or solvents in comparison with semi-synthesis...
October 6, 2017: Natural Product Research
Higo Fernando Santos Souza, Daniel Real, Darío Leonardi, Sandra Carla Rocha, Victoria Alonso, Esteban Serra, Ariel Mariano Silber, Claudio Javier Salomon
OBJECTIVES: To develop an alcohol-free solution suitable for children of benznidazole, the drug of choice for treatment of Chagas disease. METHODS: In a quality-by-design approach, a systematic optimisation procedure was carried out to estimate the values of the factors leading to the maximum drug concentration. The formulations were analysed in terms of chemical and physical stability and drug content. The final preparation was subjected to an in vivo palatability assay...
December 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Bianca Zingales
The genetic diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan agent of Chagas disease, is widely recognized. At present, T. cruzi is partitioned into seven discrete typing units (DTUs), TcI-TcVI and Tcbat. This article reviews the present knowledge on the parasite population structure, the evolutionary relationships among DTUs and their distinct, but not exclusive ecological and epidemiological associations. Different models for the origin of hybrid DTUs are examined, which agree that genetic exchange among T. cruzi populations is frequent and has contributed to the present parasite population structure...
September 20, 2017: Acta Tropica
Mauro Bafutto, Alejandro Ostermayer Luquetti, Salustiano Gabriel Neto, Felix Andre Sanches Penhavel, Enio Chaves Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Constipation is the main symptom of acquired chagasic megacolon. However, a number of patients with Chagas disease without colon involvement also have the same complain. This study evaluated the role of small bowel in constipated patients with Chagas disease with and without megacolon. METHODS: Orocecal transit time (OCTT) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in constipated non-chagasic and chagasic patients with and without megacolon were performed...
August 2017: Gastroenterology Research
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