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Oral chagas

Alejandro G Schijman
Chagas disease, caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, affects millions of people, most of them neglected populations. The different phases of the disease, the transmission mode and the high genetic variability of the parasite determine that molecular detection methods display different degree of success. Molecular diagnostic tests may be employed during epidemiological surveys of transmission, for early diagnosis of congenital transmission and acute infections due to oral transmission, transfusion or transplantation routes, reactivation due to immunosuppression and monitoring of treatment response in chronically infected patients receiving trypanocidal chemotherapy...
February 21, 2018: Acta Tropica
Beatriz Grinsztejn, Brenda Hoagland, Ronaldo I Moreira, Esper G Kallas, Jose V Madruga, Silvia Goulart, Iuri C Leite, Lucilene Freitas, Luana M S Martins, Thiago S Torres, Ricardo Vasconcelos, Raquel B De Boni, Peter L Anderson, Albert Liu, Paula M Luz, Valdiléa G Veloso
BACKGROUND: PrEP Brasil was a demonstration study to assess feasibility of daily oral tenofovir diphosphate disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine provided at no cost to men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women at high risk for HIV within the Brazilian public health system. We report week 48 pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) retention, engagement, and adherence, trends in sexual behaviour, and incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections in this study cohort. METHODS: PrEP Brasil was a 48 week, open-label, demonstration study that assessed PrEP delivery at three referral centres for HIV prevention and care in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Fundação Oswaldo Cruz), and São Paulo, Brazil (Universidade de São Paulo and Centro de Referência e Treinamento em DST e AIDS)...
February 16, 2018: Lancet HIV
Alexander Vargas, Juliane Maria Alves Siqueira Malta, Veruska Maia da Costa, Leandro Del Grande Cláudio, Renato Vieira Alves, Gilmar da Silva Cordeiro, Lúcia Maria Abrantes Aguiar, Jadher Percio
The aim of this article was to confirm and describe an outbreak of acute Chagas disease involving oral transmission in the western region of Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. This was a descriptive case series study in which the data sources were medical records and interviews with suspected cases from September 16 to November 19, 2015. An entomological investigation was conducted in the probable sites of infection for acute Chagas disease cases. Eighteen cases of acute Chagas disease were confirmed in residents of four municipalities (counties) in Rio Grande do Norte State...
February 5, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Faustino Torrico, Joaquim Gascon, Lourdes Ortiz, Cristina Alonso-Vega, María-Jesús Pinazo, Alejandro Schijman, Igor C Almeida, Fabiana Alves, Nathalie Strub-Wourgaft, Isabela Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a major neglected vector-borne disease. In this study, we investigated the safety and efficacy of three oral E1224 (a water-soluble ravuconazole prodrug) regimens and benznidazole versus placebo in adult chronic indeterminate Chagas disease. METHOD: In this proof-of-concept, double-blind, randomised phase 2 clinical trial, we recruited adults (18-50 years) with confirmed diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection from two outpatient units in Bolivia...
January 15, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
E Aldasoro, E Posada, A Requena-Méndez, A Calvo-Cano, N Serret, A Casellas, S Sanz, D Soy, M J Pinazo, J Gascon
Background: Benznidazole is one of the two most effective antiparasitic drugs for Chagas' disease treatment. However, knowledge about its toxicity profile is mostly based on post-marketing observational studies. Objectives: Our study combines data from two prospective clinical trials designed to assess the safety of the drug newly produced by ELEA Laboratories (Abarax®). Methods: Eligible participants were selected using a consecutive sampling strategy in the CINEBENZ and BIOMARCHA studies between 2013 and 2016 (EUDRACT 2011-002900-34 and 2012-002645-38, respectively, and clinicaltrials...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Gerson Zanusso Junior, Miyoko Massago, Danielle Kian, Max Jean de Ornelas Toledo
Chagas disease (CD), caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, remains a serious public health problem. One of the causes of the high morbidity and mortality in patients is the lack of an effective drug therapy. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum alone and in combination with benznidazole (BZ) in mice orally inoculated with strain of T. cruzi IV obtained from oral CD outbreak occurred in Western Brazilian Amazonia. All the animals inoculated with metacyclic trypomastigote forms (AM14 strain, BZ resistant), derived from the insect Rhodnius robustus, became infected and there was no difference in the mortality rate between the experimental groups...
January 3, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
L S Lara, C S Moreira, C M Calvet, G C Lechuga, R S Souza, S C Bourguignon, V F Ferreira, D Rocha, M C S Pereira
The limited efficacy of benznidazole (Bz) indicated by failures of current Phase II clinical trials emphasizes the urgent need to identify new drugs with improved safety and efficacy for treatment of Chagas disease (CD). Herein, we analyzed the efficacy of a series of 2-hydroxy-3-phenylsulfanylmethyl-[1,4]-naphthoquinones against different Trypanosoma cruzi discrete type units (DTUs) of relevant clinical forms of CD. Cytotoxic and trypanocidal effect of naphthoquinone derivatives were assessed in mammalian cells, trypomastigotes and intracellular amastigotes using, luminescent assays (CellTiter-Glo and T...
December 16, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
A S G Nefertiti, M M Batista, P B Da Silva, D G J Batista, C F Da Silva, R B Peres, E C Torres-Santos, E F Cunha-Junior, E Holt, D W Boykin, R Brun, T Wenzler, M N C Soeiro
Therapies for human African trypanosomiasis and Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi , respectively, are limited, providing minimal therapeutic options for the millions of individuals living in very poor communities. Here the effects of 10 novel quinolines are evaluated in silico and by phenotypic studies using in vitro and in vivo models. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) properties revealed that most molecules did not infringe on Lipinski's rules, which is a prediction of good oral absorption...
February 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Caroline Arruda, Daniele de Souza Eugênio, Monique Rodrigues Moreira, Guilherme Venâncio Símaro, Jairo Kenupp Bastos, Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins, Márcio Luís Andrade Silva, Rodrigo Cássio Sola Veneziani, Paula Bruzadelle Vieira, Sérgio R Ambrósio
The biotransformation of the lignan (-)-cubebin by filamentous fungi Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus niger is an efficient bioprocess for obtaining (-)-hinokinin and (-)-parabenzlactone. The relevance of getting (-)-hinokinin is due to its promising effect against oral pathogens, especially S. sanguinis (both MIC and MBC 12.5 μg/mL), and other previous reported effects against Chagas disease and as anti-inflammatory. The advantage of using fungal transformation is the use of non-toxic and/or non-pollutant reagents and/or solvents in comparison with semi-synthesis...
October 6, 2017: Natural Product Research
Higo Fernando Santos Souza, Daniel Real, Darío Leonardi, Sandra Carla Rocha, Victoria Alonso, Esteban Serra, Ariel Mariano Silber, Claudio Javier Salomon
OBJECTIVES: To develop an alcohol-free solution suitable for children of benznidazole, the drug of choice for treatment of Chagas disease. METHODS: In a quality-by-design approach, a systematic optimisation procedure was carried out to estimate the values of the factors leading to the maximum drug concentration. The formulations were analysed in terms of chemical and physical stability and drug content. The final preparation was subjected to an in vivo palatability assay...
December 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Bianca Zingales
The genetic diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan agent of Chagas disease, is widely recognized. At present, T. cruzi is partitioned into seven discrete typing units (DTUs), TcI-TcVI and Tcbat. This article reviews the present knowledge on the parasite population structure, the evolutionary relationships among DTUs and their distinct, but not exclusive ecological and epidemiological associations. Different models for the origin of hybrid DTUs are examined, which agree that genetic exchange among T. cruzi populations is frequent and has contributed to the present parasite population structure...
September 20, 2017: Acta Tropica
Mauro Bafutto, Alejandro Ostermayer Luquetti, Salustiano Gabriel Neto, Felix Andre Sanches Penhavel, Enio Chaves Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Constipation is the main symptom of acquired chagasic megacolon. However, a number of patients with Chagas disease without colon involvement also have the same complain. This study evaluated the role of small bowel in constipated patients with Chagas disease with and without megacolon. METHODS: Orocecal transit time (OCTT) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in constipated non-chagasic and chagasic patients with and without megacolon were performed...
August 2017: Gastroenterology Research
Simone S Grecco, Thais A Costa-Silva, Gerold Jerz, Fernanda S de Sousa, Vinicius S Londero, Mariana K Galuppo, Marta L Lima, Bruno J Neves, Carolina H Andrade, Andre G Tempone, João Henrique G Lago
Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which affects more than eight million people in Tropical and Subtropical countries especially in Latin America. Current treatment is limited to nifurtimox and benznidazole, both with reduced effectiveness and high toxicity. In this work, the n-hexane extract from leaves of Nectandra leucantha (Lauraceae) displayed in vitro antitrypanosomal activity against T. cruzi. Using several chromatographic steps, four related neolignans were isolated and chemically characterized as dehydrodieugenol B (1), 1-(8-propenyl)-3-[3'-methoxy-1'-(8-propenyl)-phenoxy]-4,5-dimethoxybenzene (2), 1-[(7S)-hydroxy-8-propenyl]-3-[3'-methoxy-1'-(8'-propenyl)-phenoxy]-4-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzene (3), and 1-[(7S)-hydroxy-8-propenyl]-3-[3'-methoxy-1'-(8'-propenyl)-phenoxy]-4,5-dimethoxybenzene (4)...
November 1, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
Stephen Brand, Eun Jung Ko, Elisabet Viayna, Stephen Thompson, Daniel Spinks, Michael Thomas, Lars Sandberg, Amanda F Francisco, Shiromani Jayawardhana, Victoria C Smith, Chimed Jansen, Manu De Rycker, John Thomas, Lorna MacLean, Maria Osuna-Cabello, Jennifer Riley, Paul Scullion, Laste Stojanovski, Frederick R C Simeons, Ola Epemolu, Yoko Shishikura, Sabrinia D Crouch, Tania S Bakshi, Christopher J Nixon, Iain H Reid, Alan P Hill, Tim Z Underwood, Sean J Hindley, Sharon A Robinson, John M Kelly, Jose M Fiandor, Paul G Wyatt, Maria Marco, Timothy J Miles, Kevin D Read, Ian H Gilbert
Chagas' disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is the most common cause of cardiac-related deaths in endemic regions of Latin America. There is an urgent need for new safer treatments because current standard therapeutic options, benznidazole and nifurtimox, have significant side effects and are only effective in the acute phase of the infection with limited efficacy in the chronic phase. Phenotypic high content screening against the intracellular parasite in infected VERO cells was used to identify a novel hit series of 5-amino-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxamides (ATC)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Luiz Eduardo Mateus Brandão, Diana Aline Morais Ferreira Nôga, Aline Lima Dierschnabel, Clarissa Loureiro das Chagas Campêlo, Ywlliane da Silva Rodrigues Meurer, Ramón Hypolito Lima, Rovena Clara Galvão Januário Engelberth, Jeferson Souza Cavalcante, Clésio Andrade Lima, Murilo Marchioro, Charles Dos Santos Estevam, José Ronaldo Santos, Regina Helena Silva, Alessandra Mussi Ribeiro
Passiflora cincinnata Masters is a Brazilian native species of passionflower. This genus is known in the American continent folk medicine for its diuretic and analgesic properties. Nevertheless, few studies investigated possible biological effects of P. cincinnata extracts. Further, evidence of antioxidant actions encourages the investigation of possible neuroprotective effects in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. This study investigates the effect of the P. cincinnata ethanolic extract (PAS) on mice submitted to a progressive model of Parkinson's disease (PD) induced by reserpine...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
B S Chagas, A P A D Gurgel, S S L Paiva Júnior, R C P Lima, M N Cordeiro, R R Moura, A V C Coelho, K C G Nascimento, J C Silva Neto, S Crovella, A C Freitas
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered a risk factor for cervical cancer. Even if the high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) infection is necessary, environmental co-factors and genetic susceptibility also play an important role in cervical cancer development. In this study, a possible association of rs1695 GSTP1 polymorphisms, HR-HPV infection, and oral contraceptive use with cancer lesion development in women was investigated. The study population comprised 441 Brazilian women from the Northeast region including 98 HPV-infected women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 77 HPV-infected women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 266 HPV-negative women with no lesion, used as a control...
August 17, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Belkisyolé Alarcón de Noya, Gladymar Pérez-Chacón, Zoraida Díaz-Bello, Sonia Dickson, Arturo Muñoz-Calderón, Carlos Hernández, Yadira Pérez, Luciano Mauriello, Eyleen Moronta
We describe the eleventh major outbreak of foodborne Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in urban Venezuela, including evidence for vertical transmission from the index case to her fetus. After confirming fetal death at 24 weeks of gestation, pregnancy interruption was performed. On direct examination of the amniotic fluid, trypomastigotes were detected. T. cruzi specific-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) also proved positive when examining autopsied fetal organs. Finally, microscopic fetal heart examination revealed amastigote nests...
August 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Fernando Salvador, Adrián Sánchez-Montalvá, Elena Sulleiro, Cristina Berastegui, Alberto Jauregui, Teresa Pont, Ibai Los-Arcos, Óscar Len, Joan Gavaldà, Israel Molina
The increasing shortage of organs for transplantation has prompted transplant programs to investigate the use of extended criteria donors, such as those with transmissible infectious diseases. Successful cases of organ transplantation (mostly kidney and liver) from Trypanosoma cruzi seropositive donors to seronegative recipients have been reported. We present a case of lung transplantation from a donor serologically positive for Chagas disease to a seronegative recipient, and provide a review of the literature...
October 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
R M Marcello-Machado, F Faot, A J Schuster, A M Bielemann, O L Chagas Júnior, A A Del Bel Cury
This longitudinal clinical study investigated the differences in the masticatory function (MF), satisfaction and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) between atrophic patients (AP) and non-atrophic patients (NAP) before and after rehabilitation with mandibular overdenture (MO). Twenty-six complete denture (CD) wearers were categorised into two groups, according to the mandibular bone atrophy (MBA) degree. MF was evaluated before and after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of the MO loading via 2 standardised tests: (i) MP, masticatory performance (MP_X50, MPB, ME 5·6, ME 2·8) and (ii) ST, swallowing threshold (time, number of cycles, ST_X50, STB, ME 5·6, ME 2·8)...
November 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
Victor Aquino Wanderley, Frederico Sampaio Neves, Monikelly Carmo Chagas Nascimento, Gabriela Queiroz de Melo Monteiro, Natália Siqueira Lobo, Matheus Lima Oliveira, Joao Batista Sobrinho Nascimento Neto, Luciane Farias Araujo
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to compare different high-resolution cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging protocols in the diagnosis of incomplete root fractures of endodontically treated teeth. METHODS: Twenty single-rooted human teeth were endodontically treated, and an incomplete root fracture was induced. The teeth were scanned with the CBCT unit PreXion 3D (Teracom, San Mateo, CA) operating at 2 different protocols: high resolution/standard (HI-STD) (19 seconds and 512 basis images) and high resolution/high density (HI-HI) (37 seconds and 1024 basis images)...
October 2017: Journal of Endodontics
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