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Lucia L Prieto-Godino, Raphael Rytz, Benoîte Bargeton, Liliane Abuin, J Roman Arguello, Matteo Dal Peraro, Richard Benton
Pseudogenes are generally considered to be non-functional DNA sequences that arise through nonsense or frame-shift mutations of protein-coding genes. Although certain pseudogene-derived RNAs have regulatory roles, and some pseudogene fragments are translated, no clear functions for pseudogene-derived proteins are known. Olfactory receptor families contain many pseudogenes, which reflect low selection pressures on loci no longer relevant to the fitness of a species. Here we report the characterization of a pseudogene in the chemosensory variant ionotropic glutamate receptor repertoire of Drosophila sechellia, an insect endemic to the Seychelles that feeds almost exclusively on the ripe fruit of Morinda citrifolia...
October 24, 2016: Nature
Thomas Schmidt, Alan J Situ, Tobias S Ulmer
The solvation of membrane proteins by both lipids and water makes their membrane immersion difficult to predict and the choice of a membrane mimic challenging. To characterize protein-lipid contacts and bicelle membrane mimics, we examined protein-lipid cross-relaxation of integrin αIIb and β3(A711P) transmembrane helices in isotropic phospholipid bicelles (q=0.5 and 0.7). Long-chain bicelle lipids dominated contacts with central helix segments, whereas both short- and long-chain lipids contacted the terminal turns of each helix in corroboration of the mixed bicelle model...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Agata Swiatkowska, Paulina Zydowicz, Joanna Sroka, Jerzy Ciesiołka
The p53 tumour suppressor protein is one of the major factors responsible for cell cycle regulation and protection against cancer development. This is why it is often referred to as "the guardian of the genome". On the other hand, mutations in the p53 gene are connected with more than 50% of tumours of various types. The thirty-six years of extensive research on the p53 gene and its protein products have shown how sophisticated the p53-based cell system control is. An additional level of complexity of the p53 research is connected with at least twelve p53 isoforms which have been identified in the cell...
October 25, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Julia H Chariker, Donald M Miller, Eric C Rouchka
G-quadruplex structures (G4) are found throughout the human genome and are known to play a regulatory role in a variety of molecular processes. Structurally, they have many configurations and can form from one or more DNA strands. At the gene level, they regulate gene expression and protein synthesis. In this paper, chromosomal-level patterns of distribution are analyzed on the human genome to identify high-level distribution patterns potentially related to global functional processes. Here we show unique high density banding patterns on individual chromosomes that are highly correlated, appearing in a mirror pattern, across forward and reverse DNA strands...
2016: PloS One
Marc Argilés, Genís Cardona, Elisabet Pérez-Cabré, Ramon Pérez-Magrané, Bernardo Morcego, Joan Gispets
PURPOSE: To develop and test the sensitivity of an ultrasound-based sensor to assess the viewing distance of visual display terminals operators in real-time conditions. METHODS: A modified ultrasound sensor was attached to a computer display to assess viewing distance in real time. Sensor functionality was tested on a sample of 20 healthy participants while they conducted four 10-minute randomly presented typical computer tasks (a match-three puzzle game, a video documentary, a task requiring participants to complete a series of sentences, and a predefined internet search)...
October 22, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Moussa Biaye, Ewa Zbydniewska, Thierry Mélin, Dominique Deresmes, Guillaume Copie, Fabrizio Cleri, Neralagatta Sangeetha, Nicolas Decorde, Benoit Viallet, Jérémie Grisolia, Laurence Ressier, Heinrich Diesinger
Nanoparticle assemblies with thiol-terminated alkyl chains are studied by conducting atomic force microscopy (c-AFM) regarding their use as strain gauges for touch-sensitive panels. Current-force spectroscopy is used as a characterization tool complementary to the macroscopic setup since it allows a bias to be applied to a limited number of junctions, overcoming the Coulomb blockade energy and focusing on the contact electromechanics and the transport mechanism across the ligand. First, transition voltage spectroscopy is applied with varying force to target the underlying tunneling mechanism by observing whether the transition between the ohmic and exponential current-voltage behavior is force-dependent...
October 24, 2016: Nanotechnology
Hyemin Kim, Won Ho Kong, Keum-Yong Seong, Dong Kyung Sung, Hyeonseon Jeong, Jin Kon Kim, Seung Yun Yang, Sei Kwang Hahn
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been recognized as an excellent wound healing agent due to its therapeutic function stimulating skin cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. However, the transdermal delivery of EGF poses a significant challenge due to its short half-life and lack of efficient formulation. Here, to improve the transdermal delivery efficiency, EGF was conjugated to hyaluronate (HA), which was formulated into a patch-type film for skin wound healing. HA-EGF conjugate was synthesized by coupling reaction between aldehyde-modified HA and N-terminal amine group of EGF to minimize the loss of biological activities...
October 24, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Nicolas Unsain, Genevieve Dorval, JaeHyung Sheen, Philip A Barker
The Neurotrophin receptor associated death domain gene (Nradd/Nrh2/Plaidd) is a type I transmembrane protein with a unique and short N-terminal extracellular domain and a transmembrane and intracellular domain that bears high similarity to the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR/Ngfr). Initial studies suggested that NRADD regulates neurotrophin signaling but very little is known about its physiological roles. We have generated and characterized NRADD conditional and germ-line null mouse lines. These mice are viable and fertile and dońt show evident abnormalities...
October 24, 2016: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
Christopher Goldring, Daniel J Antoine, Frank Bonner, Jonathan Crozier, Chris Denning, Robert J Fontana, Neil A Hanley, David C Hay, Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg, Satu Juhila, Neil Kitteringham, Beatriz Silva-Lima, Alan Norris, Chris Pridgeon, James A Ross, Rowena Sison Young, Danilo Tagle, Belen Tornesi, Bob van de Water, Richard J Weaver, Fang Zhang, B Kevin Park
Current preclinical drug testing does not predict some forms of adverse drug reactions in humans. Efforts at improving predictability of drug-induced tissue injury in humans include using stem cell technology to generate human cells for screening for adverse effects of drugs in humans. The advent of induced pluripotent stem cells means that it may ultimately be possible to develop personalised toxicology to determine inter-individual susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. However, the complexity of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) means that no current single cell model, whether of primary liver tissue origin, from liver cell lines, or derived from stem cells, adequately emulates what is believed to occur during human DILI...
October 24, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Jennie Johnstone, Robin Parsons, Fernando Botelho, Jamie Millar, Shelly McNeil, Tamas Fulop, Janet E McElhaney, Melissa K Andrew, Stephen D Walter, P J Devereaux, Mehrnoush Malek, Ryan R Brinkman, Jonathan Bramson, Mark Loeb
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether immune phenotypes associated with immunosenescence are predictive of frailty and mortality within 1-year in elderly nursing home residents. DESIGN: Cross sectional study of frailty; prospective cohort study of mortality. SETTING: Thirty-two nursing homes in four Canadian cities between September 2009 and October 2011. PARTICIPANTS: Nursing home residents aged 65 and older (N = 1,072, median age 86, 72% female)...
October 24, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Vera L Tunitskaya, Olesja V Eliseeva, Vladimir T Valuev-Elliston, Daria A Tyurina, Natalia F Zakirova, Olga A Khomich, Martins Kalis, Oleg E Latyshev, Elizaveta S Starodubova, Olga N Ivanova, Sergey N Kochetkov, Maria G Isaguliants, Alexander V Ivanov
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a viroid-like blood-borne human pathogen that accompanies hepatitis B virus infection in 5% patients. HDV has been studied for four decades; however, the knowledge on its life-cycle and pathogenesis is still sparse. The studies are hampered by the absence of the commercially-available HDV-specific antibodies. Here, we describe a set of reproducible methods for the expression in E. coli of His-tagged small antigen of HDV (S-HDAg), its purification, and production of polyclonal anti-S-HDAg antibodies in rabbits...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Bethany L Mundy-Bosse, Steven D Scoville, Li Chen, Kathleen McConnell, Hsiaoyin C Mao, Elshafa H Ahmed, Nicholas Zorko, Sophia Harvey, Jordan Cole, Xiaoli Zhang, Stefan Costinean, Carlo M Croce, Karilyn Larkin, John C Byrd, Sumithira Vasu, William Blum, Jianhua Yu, Aharon G Freud, Michael A Caligiuri
Natural killer (NK) cells can have potent antileukemic activity following haplo-mismatched, T cell-depleted stem cell transplantations for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but they are not successful in eradicating de novo AML. Here, we have used a mouse model of de novo AML to elucidate the mechanisms by which AML evades NK cell surveillance. NK cells in leukemic mice displayed a marked reduction in the cytolytic granules perforin and granzyme B. Further, as AML progressed, we noted the selective loss of an immature subset of NK cells in leukemic mice and in AML patients...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Reddi Kamesh, Kalipatnapu Yamuna Rani
In this paper, a novel formulation for nonlinear model predictive control (MPC) has been proposed incorporating the extended Kalman filter (EKF) control concept using a purely data-driven artificial neural network (ANN) model based on measurements for supervisory control. The proposed scheme consists of two modules focusing on online parameter estimation based on past measurements and control estimation over control horizon based on minimizing the deviation of model output predictions from set points along the prediction horizon...
October 13, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Naeim Bahrami, Dev Sharma, Scott Rosenthal, Elizabeth M Davenport, Jillian E Urban, Benjamin Wagner, Youngkyoo Jung, Christopher G Vaughan, Gerard A Gioia, Joel D Stitzel, Christopher T Whitlow, Joseph A Maldjian
Purpose To examine the effects of subconcussive impacts resulting from a single season of youth (age range, 8-13 years) football on changes in specific white matter (WM) tracts as detected with diffusion-tensor imaging in the absence of clinically diagnosed concussions. Materials and Methods Head impact data were recorded by using the Head Impact Telemetry system and quantified as the combined-probability risk-weighted cumulative exposure (RWECP). Twenty-five male participants were evaluated for seasonal fractional anisotropy (FA) changes in specific WM tracts: the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF)...
October 24, 2016: Radiology
Xiao Wu, Michael North
A bimetallic aluminium(salphen) complex is reported as a sustainable, efficient and inexpensive catalyst for the synthesis of cyclic carbonates from epoxides and carbon dioxide. In the presence of this complex and tetrabutylammonium bromide, terminal and internal epoxides reacted at 50 °C and 10 bar carbon dioxide pressure to afford their corresponding cyclic carbonates in yields of 50-94 % and 30-71 % for terminal and internal cyclic carbonates, respectively. Mechanistic studies using deuterated epoxides and an analogous monometallic aluminium(salphen) chloride complex support a mechanism for catalysis by the bimetallic complex, which involves intramolecular cooperative catalysis between the two aluminium centres...
October 24, 2016: ChemSusChem
Alvar R Garrigues, Li Yuan, Lejia Wang, Simranjeet Singh, Enrique Del Barco, Christian A Nijhuis
In this work we present a comparative study of the temperature behavior of charge current in both single-molecule transistors and self-assembled monolayer-based tunnel junctions with symmetrical molecules of alkanethiolates functionalized with a ferrocene (Fc) unit. The Fc unit is separated from the electrodes with two equal alkyl chains of enough length to ensure weak coupling of the Fc unit with the electrodes. These junctions do not rectify charge current and display exponential dependence with temperature with moderate slopes, which can be directly associated to the thermal broadening of the electronic occupation Fermi distribution in the electrodes...
October 24, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Jinliang Liu, Hong Qian, Yi Jin, Chuping Wu, Jianhua Chen, Shuquan Yu, Xinliang Wei, Xiaofeng Jin, Jiajia Liu, Mingjian Yu
Understanding the relative importance of dispersal limitation and environmental filtering processes in structuring the beta diversities of subtropical forests in human disturbed landscapes is still limited. Here we used taxonomic (TBD) and phylogenetic (PBD), including terminal PBD (PBDt) and basal PBD (PBDb), beta diversity indices to quantify the taxonomic and phylogenetic turnovers at different depths of evolutionary history in disturbed and undisturbed subtropical forests. Multiple linear regression model and distance-based redundancy analysis were used to disentangle the relative importance of environmental and spatial variables...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xiaojie Liu, Yao Chen, Casey R Vickstrom, Yan Li, Andreu Viader, Benjamin F Cravatt, Qing-Song Liu
The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) mediates retrograde synaptic depression including depolarization-induced suppression of excitation (DSE) and inhibition (DSI). 2-AG is degraded primarily by monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), which is expressed in neurons and astrocytes. Using knockout mice in which MAGL is deleted globally or selectively in neurons or astrocytes, we investigated the relative contribution of neuronal and astrocytic MAGL to the termination of DSE and DSI in Purkinje cells (PCs) in cerebellar slices...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Tatiana V Tatarinova, Evgeny Chekalin, Yuri Nikolsky, Sergey Bruskin, Dmitry Chebotarov, Kenneth L McNally, Nickolai Alexandrov
We analyzed functionality and relative distribution of genetic variants across the complete Oryza sativa genome, using the 40 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) dataset from the 3,000 Rice Genomes Project (, the largest and highest density SNP collection for any higher plant. We have shown that the DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) are the most conserved group of genes, whereas kinases and membrane-localized transporters are the most variable ones. TFs may be conserved because they belong to some of the most connected regulatory hubs that modulate transcription of vast downstream gene networks, whereas signaling kinases and transporters need to adapt rapidly to changing environmental conditions...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lütfü Bekar, Muzaffer Katar, Mücahit Yetim, Oğuzhan Çelik, Hakan Kilci, Orhan Önalan
OBJECTIVE: Carboxy-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (PICP) is a marker of extracellular collagen synthesis. Fragmented QRS (fQRS) on a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) has been demonstrated as a marker of myocardial fibrosis. The present objective was to investigate the association between serum PICP concentration and presence of fQRS on ECG in hypertensive patients. METHODS: Consecutive patients with previously or newly diagnosed hypertension were included...
October 2016: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
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