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Interventional oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803390/cancer-clonal-theory-immune-escape-and-their-evolving-roles-in-cancer-multi-agent-therapeutics
#1
REVIEW
Jonathan L Messerschmidt, Prianka Bhattacharya, Gerald L Messerschmidt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The knowledge base of malignant cell growth and resulting targets is rapidly increasing every day. Clonal theory is essential to understand the changes required for a cell to become malignant. These changes are then clues to therapeutic intervention strategies. Immune system optimization is a critical piece to find, recognize, and eliminate all cancer cells from the host. Only by administering (1) multiple therapies that counteract the cancer cell's mutational and externally induced survival traits and (2) by augmenting the immune system to combat immune suppression processes and by enhancing specific tumor trait recognition can cancer begin to be treated with a truly targeted focus...
August 12, 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801395/the-involvement-of-early-stage-breast-cancer-patients-during-oncology-consultations-in-italy-a-multi-centred-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-question-prompt-sheet-versus-question-listing
#2
Alessandro Bottacini, Claudia Goss, Maria Angela Mazzi, Alberto Ghilardi, Chiara Buizza, Annamaria Molino, Elena Fiorio, Rolando Nortilli, Vito Amoroso, Lucia Vassalli, Richard F Brown
OBJECTIVES: To investigate, prior to an oncology consultation, the use of a pre-prepared list of evidence based questions, Question Prompt Sheet (QPS), compared with a Question List (QL), a patient self-generated list of questions. DESIGN: Multi-centred, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Secondary-care patients attending three outpatient oncology clinics in Northern Italy. PARTICIPANTS: 308 women completed the study...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800057/experiences-of-gynecological-cancer-patients-receiving-care-from-specialist-nurses-a-qualitative-systematic-review
#3
Olivia Cook, Meredith McIntyre, Katrina Recoche, Susan Lee
BACKGROUND: The care needs of women with gynecological cancer are complex and change over the course of their cancer journey. Specialist nurses are well positioned to play a role in meeting the needs of women with gynecological cancer although their role and scope of practice have not been well defined. As patients are a key stakeholder, understanding their experience of care is an important step in better defining the role and scope of practice of specialist nurses in gynecological oncology in Australia and New Zealand...
August 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797519/treatment-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia-in-the-next-decade-towards-real-time-functional-testing-and-personalized-medicine
#4
REVIEW
Stephen Sze-Yuen Lam, Alex Bai-Liang He, Anskar Yu-Hung Leung
Information arising from next generation sequencing of leukemia genome has shed important light on the heterogeneous and combinatorial driver events in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It has also provided insight into its intricate signaling pathways operative in the disease pathogenesis. These have also become biomarkers and targets for therapeutic intervention. Emerging evidence from in vitro drug screening has demonstrated its potential value in predicting clinical drug responses in specific AML subtypes. However, the best culture conditions and readouts have yet to be standardized and the drugs included in these screening exercises frequently revised in view of the rapid emergence of new therapeutic agents in the oncology field...
August 4, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789725/demoralization-in-medical-illness-feasibility-and-acceptability-of-a-pilot-educational-intervention-for-inpatient-oncology-nurses
#5
Benjamin W Brewer, Jennifer M Caspari, Jean Youngwerth, Leigh Nathan, Izaskun Ripoll, Alison Heru
OBJECTIVE: Demoralization is a common problem among medical inpatients with such serious health problems as cancer. An awareness of this syndrome, a knowledge of what defines it, and a plan for how to intervene are limited among nursing teams. Nurses are uniquely poised to efficiently provide brief interventions that address demoralization in their patients. To our knowledge, there are no interventions that train nurses to distinguish and treat demoralization in their patients. The objective of the present study was to determine the acceptability, feasibility, and impact of a novel educational intervention for nurses...
August 9, 2017: Palliative & Supportive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780728/predictive-model-of-complexity-in-early-palliative-care-a-cohort-of-advanced-cancer-patients-palcom-study
#6
Albert Tuca, Mónica Gómez-Martínez, Aleix Prat
PROPOSAL: Model of early palliative care (PC) integrated in oncology is based on shared care from the diagnosis to the end of life and is mainly focused on patients with greater complexity. However, there is no definition or tools to evaluate PC complexity. The objectives of the study were to identify the factors influencing level determination of complexity, propose predictive models, and build a complexity scale of PC. PATIENTS AND METHOD: We performed a prospective, observational, multicenter study in a cohort of advanced cancer patients with an estimated prognosis ≤ 6 months...
August 6, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777677/my-kite-will-fly-improving-communication-and-understanding-in-young-children-when-a-mother-is-diagnosed-with-life-threatening-gynecological-cancer
#7
Cynthia Holland, Alison Hocking, Lynette Joubert, Fiona McDermott, Marcus D Niski, Frances Thomson Salo, Michael A Quinn
STUDY AIMS: The My Kite Will Fly (MKWF) research program is built on the well-documented need for effective clinical communication tools and therapeutic interventions where a child's mother is diagnosed with life-threatening gynecological cancer. METHODS: The Dignity Model and Child-Centered approach were two key study foundations in this pilot cohort. Quantitative survey and qualitative semistructured methods were employed to gather data from patient families at three distinct phases: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Palliative care...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774957/perceptions-of-control-and-unrealistic-optimism-in-early-phase-cancer-trials
#8
Lynn A Jansen, Daruka Mahadevan, Paul S Appelbaum, William M P Klein, Neil D Weinstein, Motomi Mori, Catherine Degnin, Daniel P Sulmasy
PURPOSE: Recent research has found unrealistic optimism (UO) among patient-subjects in early-phase oncology trials. Our aim was to investigate the cognitive and motivational factors that evoke this bias in this context. We expected perceptions of control to be a strong correlate of unrealistic optimism. METHODS: A study of patient-subjects enrolled in early-phase oncology trials was conducted at two sites in the USA. Respondents completed questionnaires designed to assess unrealistic optimism and several risk attribute variables that have been found to evoke the bias in other contexts...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772092/a-pilot-trial-of-early-specialty-palliative-care-for-patients-with-advanced-pancreatic-cancer-challenges-encountered-and-lessons-learned
#9
Yael Schenker, Nathan Bahary, Rene Claxton, Julie Childers, Edward Chu, Dio Kavalieratos, Linda King, Barry Lembersky, Greer Tiver, Robert M Arnold
BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced pancreatic cancer suffer from high morbidity and mortality. Specialty palliative care may improve quality of life. OBJECTIVE: Assess the feasibility, acceptability, and perceived effectiveness of early specialty physician-led palliative care for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer and their caregivers. DESIGN: A mixed-methods pilot randomized controlled trial in which patient-caregiver pairs were randomized (2:1) to receive specialty palliative care, in addition to standard oncology care versus standard oncology care alone...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772083/pilot-study-of-a-palliative-care-and-medical-oncology-co-rounding-model-for-advanced-cancer-inpatients-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-singapore
#10
Grace Meijuan Yang, Ravindran Kanesvaran, Shirlyn Hui-Shan Neo, Alethea Chung Pheng Yee, Susan Dale Block, Yin Bun Cheung
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to obtain initial estimates of the effect of a palliative care and medical oncology co-rounding model on hospital length of stay, proportion of patients reviewed by specialist palliative care (SPC), and proportion of patients who were readmitted within 7 and 30 days of hospital discharge. BACKGROUND: Earlier timing of palliative care improves patient outcomes, but current consultative models of palliative care service delivery are not feasible for widespread implementation...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771086/exposure-to-low-dose-x-ray-radiation-alters-bone-progenitor-cells-and-bone-microarchitecture
#11
Florence Lima, Joshua M Swift, Elisabeth S Greene, Matthew R Allen, David A Cunningham, Leslie A Braby, Susan A Bloomfield
Exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation during medical treatment exerts well-documented deleterious effects on bone health, reducing bone density and contributing to bone growth retardation in young patients and spontaneous fracture in postmenopausal women. However, the majority of human radiation exposures occur in a much lower dose range than that used in the radiation oncology clinic. Furthermore, very few studies have examined the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation on bone integrity and results have been inconsistent...
August 3, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768440/contribution-of-intraoperative-colonoscopy-in-a-colorectal-surgery-unit
#12
Carlos Cerdán Santacruz, José Miguel Esteban López-Jamar, Esther Sánchez López, Javier Cerdán Miguel
OBJECTIVES: Intraoperative colonoscopy (IC) is routinely used in colorectal surgery procedures, both oncologic and benign ones. Despite its extensive use there is a lack of literature addressing this important issue. The aims of this paper are to determine the contributions of this tool, especially considering changes in attitude from preoperative designed intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is a retrospective analysis of a prospective maintained database...
August 2, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767547/hand-assisted-approach-as-a-model-to-teach-complex-laparoscopic-hepatectomies-preliminary-results
#13
Fabio F Makdissi, Vagner B Jeismann, Jaime A P Kruger, Fabricio F Coelho, Ulysses Ribeiro-Junior, Ivan Cecconello, Paulo Herman
BACKGROUND: Currently, there are limited and scarce models to teach complex liver resections by laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present a hand-assisted technique to teach complex laparoscopic hepatectomies for fellows in liver surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Laparoscopic hand-assisted approach for resections of liver lesions located in posterosuperior segments (7, 6/7, 7/8, 8) was performed by the trainees with guidance and intermittent intervention of a senior surgeon...
August 2017: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767296/advance-care-planning-discussions-with-adolescent-and-young-adult-cancer-patients-admitted-to-a-community-palliative-care-service-a-retrospective-case-note-audit
#14
Sophie Fletcher, Rachel Hughes, Sarah Pickstock, Kirsten Auret
PURPOSE: Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer are a cohort requiring specialized healthcare models to address unique cognitive and physical challenges. Advance care planning (ACP) discussions likely warrant age-appropriate adaptation, yet, there is little Australian research data available to inform best practice for this group. The goal of this work is to inform future models of ACP discussions for AYA. METHODS: Retrospective medical record audit of AYA patients and an adult comparison group, diagnosed with a malignancy and referred to a community hospice service, in Western Australia, in the period between January 1, 2012 and December 1, 2015...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766482/self-reported-adherence-to-capecitabine-on-xelox-treatment-as-adjuvant-therapy-for-colorectal-cancer
#15
Kazuyoshi Kawakami, Takashi Yokokawa, Kazuo Sugita, Takahito Sugisaki, Kenichi Suzuki, Mitsukuni Suenaga, Kensei Yamaguchi, Ayaka Inoue, Yoshiaki Machida, Toshiharu Yamaguchi, Toshihiro Hama
Adherence has become an important issue in modern oncology treatment. Most studies have included heterogeneous target tumor types, regimens, and therapy settings. Our study focused on capecitabine during capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX) treatment as adjuvant therapy for colorectal cancer. The main aim of this study was to evaluate real-life adherence to capecitabine and to investigate candidate factors that might decrease adherence. We studied 338 consecutive patients who received XELOX treatment between December 1, 2011 and April 30, 2015 at the Cancer Institute Hospital of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research...
August 1, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765454/current-status-of-postdoctoral-and-graduate-programs-in-dentistry
#16
Leon Assael
Advanced dental education has evolved in the context of societal needs and economic trends to its current status. Graduate programs have positioned their role in the context of health systems and health science education trends in hospitals, interprofessional clinical care teams, and dental schools and oral health care systems. Graduate dental education has been a critical factor in developing teams in trauma care, craniofacial disorders, pediatric and adult medicine, and oncology. The misalignment of the mission of graduate dental programs and the demands of private practice has posed a challenge in the evolution of programs as educational programs have been directed towards tertiary and indigent care while the practice community focuses on largely healthy affluent patients for complex clinical interventions...
August 2017: Journal of Dental Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763349/late-respiratory-effects-of-cancer-treatment
#17
Clare Harris, Clare R Sander
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to examine significant advances in our understanding of the late respiratory effects of cancer treatment, including surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, biological therapies and haematopoietic stem cell transplant, and to provide a framework for assessing such patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Oncology therapies have advanced considerably over recent years but pulmonary toxicity remains a concern. Advances have been made in our understanding of the risk factors, including genetic ones that lead to toxicity from radiotherapy and chemotherapy and risk stratification models are being developed to aid treatment planning...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761725/impact-of-intervention-aimed-at-improving-the-integration-of-oncology-units-and-local-palliative-care-services-results-of-the-multicentre-prospective-sequential-mirto-study
#18
Andrea A Martoni, Barbara Melotti, Claudia Degli Esposti, Vita Mutri, Giorgio Lelli, Silvia Ansaloni, Erico Piva, Elena Strocchi, Franco Pannuti
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy (CT) in patients with advanced cancer (ACP) near the end of life is an increasing practice of oncology units. A closer integration with palliative care (PC) services could reduce the use of potentially harmful CT. This prospective study is aimed at assessing whether a more integrated care model could reduce CT use near the end of life and increase local PC service utilisation. METHODS: The study enrolled sequentially two cohorts of ACP with an estimated life expectancy of ≤6 months...
2017: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760818/research-protocol-on-early-palliative-care-in-patients-with-acute-leukaemia-after-one-relapse
#19
Cécile Barbaret, Julien Berthiller, Anne-Marie Schott Pethelaz, Mauricette Michallet, Gilles Salles, Stéphane Sanchez, Marilène Filbet
OBJECTIVES: According to the American Society of Clinical Oncology palliative care referrals are made within the last 3 weeks of patients' lives and most frequently when oncological treatments have ceased especially for patients with haematological malignancies. Recent publications indicate that patients with acute leukaemia are prone to symptoms, an indication for which a close collaboration between the patient's haematologist and a palliative care team might result in improved symptom management...
July 31, 2017: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760314/medication-related-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw-in-oncological-patients-with-skeletal-metastases-conservative-treatment-is-effective-up-to-stage-2
#20
R G Coropciuc, K Grisar, T Aerden, M Schol, J Schoenaers, C Politis
There is currently no widespread strategy for treating medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ), so our aim was to evaluate retrospectively the outcome of a minimally invasive treatment protocol for patients with both MRONJ and cancer. We designed a retrospective cohort study of patients with cancer who had been diagnosed with MRONJ after treatment with denosumab or bisphosphonates given intravenously. Primary outcome measures were improvement in the clinical stage of MRONJ and the time course to its resolution...
July 28, 2017: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
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