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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782383/genetic-testing-of-xy-newborns-with-a-suspected-disorder-of-sex-development
#1
Malika Alimussina, Louise Ann Diver, Ruth McGowan, Syed Faisal Ahmed
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review focuses on the neonatal presentation of disorders of sex development, summarize the current approach to the evaluation of newborns and describes recent advances in understanding of underlying genetic aetiology of these conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Several possible candidate genes as well as other adverse environmental factors have been described as contributing to several clinical subgroups of 46,XY DSDs. Moreover, registry-based studies showed that infants with suspected DSD may have extragenital anomalies and in 46,XY cases, being small for gestational age (SGA), cardiac and neurological malformations are the commonest concomitant conditions...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780593/interacting-with-wildlife-tourism-increases-activity-of-white-sharks
#2
Charlie Huveneers, Yuuki Y Watanabe, Nicholas L Payne, Jayson M Semmens
Anthropogenic activities are dramatically changing marine ecosystems. Wildlife tourism is one of the fastest growing sectors of the tourism industry and has the potential to modify the natural environment and behaviour of the species it targets. Here, we used a novel method to assess the effects of wildlife tourism on the activity of white sharks ( Carcharodon carcharias ). High frequency three-axis acceleration loggers were deployed on ten white sharks for a total of ~9 days. A combination of multivariate and univariate analysis revealed that the increased number of strong accelerations and vertical movements when sharks are interacting with cage-diving operators result in an overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA) ~61% higher compared with other times when sharks are present in the area where cage-diving occurs...
2018: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765676/using-virtual-reality-to-estimate-aesthetic-values-of-coral-reefs
#3
Julie Vercelloni, Sam Clifford, M Julian Caley, Alan R Pearse, Ross Brown, Allan James, Bryce Christensen, Tomasz Bednarz, Ken Anthony, Manuel González-Rivero, Kerrie Mengersen, Erin E Peterson
Aesthetic value, or beauty, is important to the relationship between humans and natural environments and is, therefore, a fundamental socio-economic attribute of conservation alongside other ecosystem services. However, beauty is difficult to quantify and is not estimated well using traditional approaches to monitoring coral-reef aesthetics. To improve the estimation of ecosystem aesthetic values, we developed and implemented a novel framework used to quantify features of coral-reef aesthetics based on people's perceptions of beauty...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756589/effect-of-combination-therapy-with-neuroprotective-and-vasoprotective-agents-on-cerebral-ischemia
#4
Jiping Yang, Bei Yang, Baoxin Xiu, Jinchong Qi, Huaijun Liu
Because most tested drugs are active against only one of the damaging processes associated with stroke, other mechanisms may cause cellular death. Thus, a combination of protective agents targeting different pathophysiological mechanisms may obtain better effects than a single agent. The major objective of this study was to investigate the effect of combination therapy with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) after controlled ischemic brain injury in rabbits. METHODS: Animals were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: sham group, saline-treated control group or NGF+VEGF-treated group...
May 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748216/intrinsic-anti-inflammatory-properties-in-the-serum-of-two-species-of-deep-diving-seal
#5
Aranya Bagchi, Annabelle J Batten, Milton Levin, Kaitlin N Allen, Michael L Fitzgerald, Luis A Hückstädt, Daniel P Costa, Emmanuel S Buys, Allyson G Hindle
Weddell and elephant seals are deep diving mammals, which rely on lung collapse to limit nitrogen absorption and prevent decompression injury. Repeated collapse and re-expansion exposes the lungs to multiple stressors, including ischemia/reperfusion, alveolar shear stress, and inflammation. There is no evidence, however, that diving damages pulmonary function in these species. To investigate potential protective strategies in deep-diving seals, we examined the inflammatory response of seal whole blood exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent endotoxin...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746323/can-covey-s-7-habits-produce-a-highly-effective-plastic-surgeon
#6
Andrew J Diver
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746112/genotypic-variation-of-glucosinolates-and-their-breakdown-products-in-leaves-of-brassica-rapa
#7
Rebecca Klopsch, Katja Witzel, Anna Artemyeva, Silke Ruppel, F Hanschen
An in-depth glucosinolate (GLS) profiling was performed on a core collection of 91 Brassica rapa accessions, representing divers morphotypes of heterogenous geographical origin, to better understand the natural variation in GLS accumulation and GLS breakdown product formation. Leaves of the 91 B. rapa accessions were analyzed for their GLS composition by UHPLC-DAD and the corresponding breakdown products by GC-MS. Fifteen different GLS were identified and aliphatic GLS prevailed regarding diversity and concentration...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744064/two-episodes-of-taravana-syndrome-in-a-breath-hold-diver-with-hyperhomocysteinemia
#8
Giuseppe Accurso, Andrea Cortegiani, Sabrina Caruso, Oriana Danile, Domenico Garbo, Pasquale Iozzo, Filippo Vitale, Santi Maurizio Raineri, Cesare Gregoretti, Antonino Giarratano
Taravana syndrome is a rare dysbaric disease characterized by neurologic signs and symptoms. Differently from others decompression illness, it has unspecified pathophysiology and unclear predisposing factors. Our cases suggest that thrombophilic state due to hyperhomocysteinemia could increase the risk to develop Taravana syndrome.
May 2018: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738942/functional-variability-in-the-flight-phase-of-one-metre-springboard-forward-dives
#9
Mohsen Sayyah, Michael J Hiley, Mark A King, Maurice R Yeadon
In springboard diving, low variability in takeoff conditions and in the somersault orientation angle at water entry is to be expected since consistency and accuracy are necessary for a good dive. A diver's adjustment of body configuration during flight may be a deliberate compensation for variations in takeoff conditions, leading to increased joint angle variability and decreased entry angle variability. The aim of this research was to investigate the extent to which a diver pre-plans the aerial phase and then makes adjustments in flight to control the entry angle in one metre springboard forward dives...
May 5, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735552/hla-class-i-and-ii-diversity-contributes-to-the-etiologic-heterogeneity-of-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-subtypes
#10
Sophia S Wang, Mary Carrington, Sonja I Berndt, Susan L Slager, Paige M Bracci, Jenna Voutsinas, James R Cerhan, Karin Ekström Smedby, Henrik Hjalgrim, Joseph Vijai, Lindsay M Morton, Roel Vermeulen, Ora Paltiel, Claire M Vajdic, Martha S Linet, Alexandra Nieters, Silvia de Sanjosé, Wendy Cozen, Elizabeth E Brown, Jennifer Turner, John J Spinelli, Tongzhang Zheng, Brenda M Birmann, Christopher R Flowers, Nikolaus Becker, Elizabeth A Holly, Eleanor Kane, Dennis Weisenburger, Marc Maynadie, Pierluigi Cocco, Demetrius Albanes, Stephanie J Weinstein, Lauren R Teras, W Ryan Diver, Stephanie J Lax, Ruth C Travis, Rudolf Kaaks, Elio Riboli, Yolanda Benavente, Paul Brennan, James D McKay, Marie Helene Delfau-Larue, Brian K Link, Corrado Magnani, Maria G Ennas, Giancarlo Latte, Andrew L Feldman, Nicole Wong Doo, Graham G Giles, Melissa C Southey, Roger L Milne, Kenneth Offit, Jacob Muskinsky, Alan A Arslan, Mark P Purdue, Hans-Olov Adami, Mads Melbye, Bengt Glimelius, Lucia Conde, Nicola J Camp, Martha Glenn, Karen Curtin, Jacqueline Clavel, Alain Monnereau, David G Cox, Hervé Ghesquières, Gilles Salles, Paolo Boffetta, Lenka Foretova, Anthony Staines, Scott Davis, Richard K Severson, Qing Lan, Angela Brooks-Wilson, Martyn T Smith, Eve Roman, Anne Kricker, Yawei Zhang, Peter Kraft, Stephen J Chanock, Nathaniel Rothman, Patricia Hartge, Christine F Skibola
A growing number of loci within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region have been implicated in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) etiology. Here, we test a complementary hypothesis of "heterozygote advantage" regarding the role of HLA and NHL, whereby HLA diversity is beneficial and homozygous HLA loci are associated with increased disease risk. HLA alleles at class I and II loci were imputed from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using SNP2HLA for: 3,617 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL), 2,686 follicular lymphomas (FL), 2,878 chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphomas (CLL/SLL), 741 marginal zone lymphomas (MZL), and 8,753 controls of European descent...
May 7, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734571/spirometry-and-oxidative-stress-after-rebreather-diving-in-warm-water
#11
Gerardo Bosco, Alex Rizzato, Silvia Quartesan, Enrico Camporesi, Simona Mrakic-Sposta, Sarah Moretti, Costantino Balestra, Alessandro Rubini
Introduction: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy and use of enriched air can result in oxidative injury affecting the brain, lungs and eyes. HBO₂ exposure during diving can lead to a decrease in respiratory parameters. However, the possible effects of acute exposure to oxygen-enriched diving on subsequent spirometric performance and oxidative state in humans have not been recently described recently. We aim to investigate possible effects of acute (i) hyperbaric and (ii) hyperbaric hyperoxic exposure using scuba or closed-circuit rebreather (CCR) on subsequent spirometry and to assess the role of oxidative state after hyperoxic diving...
March 2018: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734570/a-historical-review-of-the-u-s-navy-s-busiest-recompression-chamber-in-the-pacific-theater-with-a-current-perspective-on-caring-for-civilian-divers-within-its-area-of-responsibility-short-communication
#12
Christopher Rendina
On the island Nation of Guam, the United States Department of Defense has stationed military personnel from every service branch. Guam is utilized as a strategic waypoint for the U.S. military in the Pacific theater. As the largest service branch in the region, the Navy has placed a few Diving Medical Officers in Guam to collectively manage and treat patients with recompression therapy. Guam is also a popular tourist destination, with multiple recreational diving companies certifying individuals who are looking to take advantage of the beautiful warm water and exotic marine life...
March 2018: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733980/cardiovascular-responses-to-dry-apnoeas-at-exercise-in-air-and-in-pure-oxygen
#13
Anna Taboni, Giovanni Vinetti, Paolo Bruseghini, Stefano Camelio, Matteo D'Elia, Christian Moia, Guido Ferretti, Nazzareno Fagoni
If, as postulated, the end of the steady state phase (φ2) of cardiovascular responses to apnoea corresponds to the physiological breaking point, then we may hypothesize that φ2 should become visible if exercise apnoeas are performed in pure oxygen. We tested this hypothesis on 9 professional divers by means of continuous recording of blood pressure (BP), heart rate (fH ), stroke volume (QS ), and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) during dry maximal exercising apnoeas in ambient air and in oxygen. Apnoeas lasted 45...
May 4, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716888/predicting-mortality-in-african-americans-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-soluble-urokinase-plasminogen-activator-receptor-coronary-artery-calcium-and-high-sensitivity-c-reactive-protein
#14
Salim S Hayek, Jasmin Divers, Mohamad Raad, Jianzhao Xu, Donald W Bowden, Melissa Tracy, Jochen Reiser, Barry I Freedman
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, outcomes in individual patients vary. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a bone marrow-derived signaling molecule associated with adverse cardiovascular and renal outcomes in many populations. We characterized the determinants of suPAR in African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus and assessed whether levels were useful for predicting mortality beyond clinical characteristics, coronary artery calcium (CAC), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709671/biological-exacerbation-clusters-demonstrate-asthma-and-copd-overlap-with-distinct-mediator-and-microbiome-profiles
#15
Michael A Ghebre, Pee Hwee Pang, Sarah Diver, Dhananjay Desai, Mona Bafadhel, Koirobi Haldar, Tatiana Kebadze, Suzanne Cohen, Paul Newbold, Laura Rapley, Joanne Woods, Paul Rugman, Ian D Pavord, Sebastian L Johnston, Michael Barer, Richard D May, Christopher E Brightling
BACKGROUND: Exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are heterogeneous. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the sputum cellular, mediator, and microbiome profiles of both asthma and COPD exacerbations. METHODS: Patients with severe asthma or moderate-to-severe COPD were prospectively recruited to a single centre. Sputum mediators were available in 32 asthma and 73 COPD patients assessed at exacerbation. Biologic clusters were determined using factor and cluster analyses on a panel of sputum mediators...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703132/genomic-insights-into-natural-selection-in-the-common-loon-gavia-immer-evidence-for-aquatic-adaptation
#16
Zach G Gayk, Diana Le Duc, Jeffrey Horn, Alec R Lindsay
BACKGROUND: The common loon (Gavia immer) is one of five species that comprise the avian order Gaviiformes. Loons are specialized divers, reaching depths up to 60 m while staying submerged for intervals up to three minutes. In this study we used comparative genomics to investigate the genetic basis of the common loon adaptations to its ecological niche. We used Illumina short read DNA sequence data from a female bird to produce a draft assembly of the common loon (Gavia immer) genome...
April 27, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699718/a-novel-technique-for-the-standardized-application-of-shock-waves-in-experimental-research-the-diver-box
#17
Heiko Sorg, Daniel J Tilkorn, Jonas Kolbenschlag, Inga Zwetzich, Joerg Hauser, Ole Goertz, Nick Spindler, Stefan Langer, Andrej Ring
The Diver Box is designed to prevent impedance differences, energy loss or damage to neighboring structures caused by the use of shock waves with application gels. The Diver Box is an acrylic glass container filled with tempered water and includes a coupling membrane to prevent the impedance jump from air to water and to avoid the continuous propagation of shock waves into the tissue, maintaining wave dynamics. Different modes of extracorporeal shock waves can be applied to a mouse skin wound without energy loss and protected from harmful phase-reversed waves...
April 23, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695441/pulmonary-ventilation-perfusion-mismatch-a-novel-hypothesis-for-how-diving-vertebrates-may-avoid-the-bends
#18
REVIEW
Daniel Garcia Párraga, Michael Moore, Andreas Fahlman
Hydrostatic lung compression in diving marine mammals, with collapsing alveoli blocking gas exchange at depth, has been the main theoretical basis for limiting N2 uptake and avoiding gas emboli (GE) as they ascend. However, studies of beached and bycaught cetaceans and sea turtles imply that air-breathing marine vertebrates may, under unusual circumstances, develop GE that result in decompression sickness (DCS) symptoms. Theoretical modelling of tissue and blood gas dynamics of breath-hold divers suggests that changes in perfusion and blood flow distribution may also play a significant role...
April 25, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691178/a-higher-altitude-is-an-independent-risk-factor-for-venous-thromboembolisms-after-total-hip-arthroplasty
#19
Dhanur Damodar, Chester J Donnally, Jonathan I Sheu, Tsun Y Law, Martin W Roche, Victor H Hernandez
BACKGROUND: High altitudes lead to physiological changes that may predispose to venous thromboembolisms (VTEs) including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (PE). No prior study has evaluated if there is also a higher risk of VTEs for total hip arthroplasties (THAs) performed at higher elevations. The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify if undergoing THA at a higher altitude center (>4000 feet above sea level) is an independent risk factor for a postoperative VTE...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687909/breath-hold-diving
#20
John R Fitz-Clarke
Breath-hold diving is practiced by recreational divers, seafood divers, military divers, and competitive athletes. It involves highly integrated physiology and extreme responses. This article reviews human breath-hold diving physiology beginning with an historical overview followed by a summary of foundational research and a survey of some contemporary issues. Immersion and cardiovascular adjustments promote a blood shift into the heart and chest vasculature. Autonomic responses include diving bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, and splenic contraction, which help conserve oxygen...
March 25, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
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