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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902759/competitive-diving-principles-and-injuries
#1
Nathaniel S Jones
Competitive diving is a sport that has evolved over time to become an admired present-day aquatic sport, especially in the Olympic setting. Despite its popularity, sparse research has been written as it applies to our understanding of competitive diving injuries. This article attempts to discuss common principles of competitive diving as they relate to the sport, especially as it relates to the extreme physical forces encountered by the diver and also the repetitive nature of diving. Next, these principles will be applied in the context of musculoskeletal and medical diving specific injuries...
September 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900861/acute-kidney-injury-caused-by-decompression-illness-successfully-treated-with-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-and-temporary-dialysis
#2
Arata Hibi, Keisuke Kamiya, Takahisa Kasugai, Keisuke Kamiya, Satoru Kominato, Chiharu Ito, Toshiyuki Miura, Katsushi Koyama
A 52-year-old Japanese male professional diver was referred to our hospital for decompression illness (DCI). After 1 h of diving operation at 20 m below sea level, he complained of dyspnea, chest pain, and abdominal pain. He dove again, intending to ease the symptoms, but the symptoms were never relieved. He dove for a total of 4 h. No neurological abnormalities were observed. Computed tomography images revealed portal venous gas and mesenteric venous gas, in addition to bubbles in the femoral veins, pelvis, lumbar canal, intracranial sinuses, and joints...
September 12, 2017: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899748/biomonitoring-of-2-4-6-trinitrotoluene-and-degradation-products-in-the-marine-environment-with-transplanted-blue-mussels-m-edulis
#3
Jennifer S Strehse, Daniel Appel, Catharina Geist, Hans-Jörg Martin, Edmund Maser
Since World War I considerable amounts of warfare material have been dumped at sea worldwide, but little is known about the fate of the explosive components in the marine environment. Sea dumped munitions are able to contaminate the surroundings because of the release of explosive chemicals due to corrosion and breaching or by detonation after blast-operations. This implies the risk of accumulation of toxic compounds in human and wildlife food chains. With the help of divers, we performed an active biomonitoring study with transplanted blue mussels (M...
September 9, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886601/ambient-air-pollution-and-cancer-mortality-in-the-cancer-prevention-study-ii
#4
Michelle C Turner, Daniel Krewski, W Ryan Diver, C Arden Pope, Richard T Burnett, Michael Jerrett, Julian D Marshall, Susan M Gapstur
BACKGROUND: The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified both outdoor air pollution and airborne particulate matter as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1) for lung cancer. There may be associations with cancer at other sites; however, the epidemiological evidence is limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to clarify whether ambient air pollution is associated with specific types of cancer other than lung cancer by examining associations of ambient air pollution with nonlung cancer death in the Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II)...
August 21, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885962/cold-acclimation-does-not-alter-physiological-or-perceptual-responses-during-subsequent-exercise-in-the-heat
#5
Douglas M Jones, Kaitlyn A Rostomily, Carina M Pautz, Danica W Ito, Stephen P Bailey, Bart Roelands, Michael J Buono, Romain Meeusen
INTRODUCTION: Warfighters often train and conduct operations in cold environments. Specifically, military trainees and divers that are repeatedly exposed to cold water may experience inadvertent cold acclimatization, which results in body heat retention. These same warfighters can quickly switch between environments (cold to hot or hot to cold) given the nature of their work. This may present a risk of early onset of hyperthermia when cold-acclimatized warfighters are subsequently exposed to physiological insults that increase body temperature, such as exercise and heat stress...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883605/effect-of-a-hyperbaric-environment-diving-conditions-on-adhesive-restorations-an-in-vitro-study
#6
C Mocquot, A Cabrera, P Colon, J Bosco, B Grosgogeat, N Pradelle-Plasse
Objectives No recent study has addressed the effect of diving conditions (pressure increase) on adhesive restorations. We evaluated the impact of a simulated hyperbaric environment on microleakage of the dentine-composite resin interface. The ultimate aim was to propose recommendations for restorative dentistry for patients who are divers to limit barodontalgia (dental pain caused by pressure variations of the environment) and may lead to dangerous sequelae.Methods We bonded 20 dentine disks by using an adhesive system (Scothbond Universal) to ten intact composite cylinders and ten composite cylinders with porosity (Ceram X mono)...
September 8, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883537/spontaneous-approaches-of-divers-by-free-ranging-orcas-orcinus-orca-age-and-sex-differences-in-exploratory-behaviours-and-visual-laterality
#7
Stéphanie Chanvallon, Catherine Blois-Heulin, Pierre Robert de Latour, Alban Lemasson
Running comparative studies of laterality in mammals is a way to deepen our understanding of the evolution of the brain hemisphere functions. Studies on vision highlighted a possible task-sharing between hemispheres depending on the characteristics of the observers, the nature of the observed stimulus and the context of the observation, a phenomenon that could go beyond the monitoring of conspecifics. Cetaceans are predators that adapted to an aquatic habitat and display a clear crossing of fibers to the side of the brain opposite the eye of origin...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880140/-diving-accident-induced-arterial-gas-embolism
#8
P D Nijk, T P van Rees Vellinga, J M van Lieshout, M I Gaakeer
BACKGROUND: During scuba diving, nitrogen dissolves into the body tissues due to elevated pressure under water. During a sudden drop in pressure due to a rapid return to the water surface, arterial gas embolism can arise from pulmonary barotrauma. In a later phase, nitrogen bubbles can also arise in the venous circulation (decompression sickness). Arterial bubbles can incur vascular damage, obstruction, hypoxia and infarction. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 53-year-old healthy sport diver presented at the emergency department in a hypovolemic shock with progressive paresis of all the extremities...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868602/ruptured-tympanic-membrane-from-underwater-impact-with-an-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#9
David Smart
An unusual case of tympanic membrane rupture in a diver due to impact from an Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar is described. The diver was treated conservatively and the injury fully healed by eight weeks after which the diver successfully returned to diving. The author contends that the appearances of such traumatic perforations differ from barotrauma in divers secondary to ear clearing problems on descent.
September 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868601/periorbital-emphysema-after-a-wet-chamber-dive
#10
Wei-Shih Tseng, Hui-Chieh Lee, Bor-Hwang Kang
Although periorbital emphysema (PE) is commonly associated with orbital fractures, it may develop without any fracture or significant trauma in circumstances such as post-surgery, infection, forceful nose blowing, sneezing, and weight lifting. We report on a healthy military diver who developed PE following a wet chamber dive. A diagnosis of PE secondary to sinus barotrauma was reached. He was treated conservatively without medication and his symptoms recovered completely within 10 days. To the best of our knowledge, only five cases of diving-related PE have been reported in the literature...
September 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868599/diving-with-pre-existing-medical-conditions
#11
John Lippmann, David McD Taylor, Christopher Stevenson, Jo Williams, Simon J Mitchell
INTRODUCTION: This is the second report based on a survey of Divers Alert Network Asia-Pacific (DAN AP) members who dive with cardiovascular and respiratory conditions and diabetes. It examines the medical management of the divers' conditions, any diving modifications used to mitigate the risk and outcomes. METHODOLOGY: An online cross-sectional survey was sent to 833 divers who had declared a targeted medical condition when applying for DAN AP membership between July 2009 and August 2013...
September 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868598/turkish-recreational-divers-a-comparative-study-of-their-demographics-diving-habits-health-and-attitudes-towards-safety
#12
Bengusu Mirasoglu, Samil Aktas
INTRODUCTION: In Turkey, scuba diving has become more popular and accessible in the past decade and there has been a commensurate rise in the number of certified divers. This new generation of recreational divers has not been described in detail previously. The aim of this study was to profile this group, while investigating any gender differences and making comparisons with the global diving community. METHODS: Turkish dive club members and diving forum⁄blog readers were invited to complete an online questionnaire investigating their demography, medical issues and diving history and habits...
September 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868594/chain-of-events-analysis-for-a-scuba-diving-fatality
#13
John Lippmann, Christopher Stevenson, David McD Taylor, Jo Williams, Mohammadreza Mohebbi
INTRODUCTION: A scuba diving fatality usually involves a series of related events culminating in death. Several studies have utilised a chain of events-type analysis (CEA) to isolate and better understand the accident sequence in order to facilitate the creation of relevant countermeasures. The aim of this research was to further develop and better define a process for performing a CEA to reduce potential subjectivity and increase consistency between analysts. METHODOLOGY: To develop more comprehensive and better-defined criteria, existing criteria were modified and a template was created and tested using a CEA...
September 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864135/reliability-of-right-to-left-shunt-screening-in-the-prevention-of-scuba-diving-related-decompression-sickness
#14
Emmanuel Gempp, Marianne Lyard, Pierre Louge
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between right-to-left shunt (RLS) and the clinical features of decompression sickness (DCS) in scuba divers and to determine the potential benefit for screening this anatomical predisposition in primary prevention. METHODS: 634 injured divers treated in a single referral hyperbaric facility for different types of DCS were retrospectively compared to 259 healthy divers. All subjects had a RLS screening by contrast Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound according to a standardized method...
August 24, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863608/using-multipath-reflections-to-obtain-dive-depths-of-beaked-whales-from-a-towed-hydrophone-array
#15
Annamaria Izzi DeAngelis, Robert Valtierra, Sofie M Van Parijs, Danielle Cholewiak
Beaked whales are deep divers, emitting echolocation clicks while at depth. Little is known about the dive behavior of most species; however, passive acoustic data collected with towed hydrophone arrays can provide depth information using multipath reflections of clicks coupled with a two-dimensional localization of the individual. Data were collected during a shipboard survey in the western North Atlantic Ocean using a towed linear hydrophone array. Beaked whale tracks were classified as either Cuvier's (Ziphius cavirostris) or Gervais'/True's (Mesoplodon europaeus/Mesoplodon mirus)...
August 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859181/clinical-application-of-newly-developed-custom-made-mouthpiece-for-scuba-diving
#16
Toshiaki Hirose, Tomoya Gonda, Yoshinobu Maeda
PURPOSE: To describe a method for customizing scuba diving mouthpieces, to examine their usability, and to assess divers' satisfaction with their use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A rational method for fabricating custom-made mouthpieces for scuba diving was developed. Twenty scuba divers agreed to use a custom-made mouthpiece for at least 4 weeks. After mouthpiece use, participants completed an 11-item questionnaire. RESULTS: Custom-made mouthpieces had significantly lower scores for all items on the questionnaire except uncomfortable sensation, indicating that they were more comfortable than ready-made mouthpieces...
September 2017: International Journal of Prosthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852406/regulation-of-corticosteroidogenic-genes-by-micrornas
#17
Stacy Robertson, Louise A Diver, Samantha Alvarez-Madrazo, Craig Livie, Ayesha Ejaz, Robert Fraser, John M Connell, Scott M MacKenzie, Eleanor Davies
The loss of normal regulation of corticosteroid secretion is important in the development of cardiovascular disease. We previously showed that microRNAs regulate the terminal stages of corticosteroid biosynthesis. Here, we assess microRNA regulation across the whole corticosteroid pathway. Knockdown of microRNA using Dicer1 siRNA in H295R adrenocortical cells increased levels of CYP11A1, CYP21A1, and CYP17A1 mRNA and the secretion of cortisol, corticosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, 18-hydroxycorticosterone, and aldosterone...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846080/growth-induced-stress-enhances-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-induced-by-il-6-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-via-the-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#18
Q Chen, D Yang, H Zong, L Zhu, L Wang, X Wang, X Zhu, X Song, J Wang
Stromal cell populations in the tumor microenvironment (TME) play a critical role in the oncogenesis and metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. In this study, we found that there are α-smooth muscle actin positive (α-SMA (+)) cells in the stroma of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) tissues, and their numbers are significantly associated with poor survival in ccRCC patients. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a critical diver that induces α-SMA (+) cells in ccRCC tissues via promotion of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stimulates migration and invasion in ccRCC...
August 28, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844458/community-wide-patterns-of-plastic-ingestion-in-seabirds-breeding-at-french-frigate-shoals-northwestern-hawaiian-islands
#19
Dan C Rapp, Sarah M Youngren, Paula Hartzell, K David Hyrenbach
Between 2006 and 2013, we salvaged and necropsied 362 seabird specimens from Tern Island, French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Plastic ingestion occurred in 11 of the 16 species sampled (68.75%), representing four orders, seven families, and five foraging guilds: four plunge-divers, two albatrosses, two nocturnal-foraging petrels, two tuna-birds, and one frigatebird. Moreover, we documented the first instance of ingestion in a previously unstudied species: the Brown Booby. Plastic prevalence (percent occurrence) ranged from 0% to 100%, with no significant differences across foraging guilds...
August 22, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840090/cold-atmospheric-plasma-in-orthopaedic-and-urologic-tumor-therapy
#20
REVIEW
Denis Gümbel, Georg Daeschlein, Axel Ekkernkamp, Axel Kramer, Matthias B Stope
Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is a highly reactive ionized physical state thereby provoking divers biological effects. In medical applications, CAP treatment promotes wound healing, provokes immunostimulation, and is antiseptically active. Moreover, CAP interacts with antiproliferative mechanisms suggesting CAP treatment as a promising anticancer strategy. Here we review the current state of science concerning the so far investigated CAP effects on different cancer entities in orthopaedic and urologic oncology...
2017: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
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