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A W Van Der Wal, P J A M Van Ooij, J A De Ru
OBJECTIVE: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss in divers may be caused by either inner-ear barotrauma or inner-ear decompression sickness. There is no consensus on the best treatment option. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic value of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for sudden sensorineural hearing loss in divers. METHOD: A literature review and three cases of divers with sudden sensorineural hearing loss treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy are presented. RESULTS: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy resulted in hearing improvement in 80 per cent of patients: 39 per cent had hearing improvement and 41 per cent had full recovery...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Brittany M Rowley, Peter Buzzacott, Petar J Denoble
Adult male recreational diver fatalities (n = 698) in North America from 2004 to 2013 were examined. Compared with non-harvesters, boat (86 vs 59%), solo (26 vs 13%) and night diving (10 vs 3%) were more common among harvesters. Of the divers who were low-on or out-of air, 20% were harvesters and 11% non-harvesters (OR = 2.0, P = 0.03).
July 2016: Journal of Travel Medicine
Synthia Gratia, Kathryn Mosesohn, Steven T Diver
A Ru-carbene-promoted ring expansion of bicyclo[3.1.0]hexenes with terminal alkynes is reported. The reaction delivers seven-membered carbocycles starting from readily available starting materials and was found to be highly regioselective. The resulting seven-membered ring products contain both conjugated diene and cyclopropane substructures that could be selectively reacted in subsequent transformations.
October 12, 2016: Organic Letters
Rolfe M Radcliffe, Yasmine Messiaen, Nita L Irby, Thomas J Divers, Curtis W Dewey, Katharyn J Mitchell, Lauren V Schnabel, Abraham J Bezuidenhout, Peter V Scrivani, Norm G Ducharme
OBJECTIVE: To report a transnasal, endoscopically guided ventral surgical approach for accessing the cranial and caudal segments of the sphenopalatine sinus for mass removal in a horse. STUDY DESIGN: Case report. ANIMAL: Adult horse with acute onset blindness referable to a soft tissue mass within the sphenopalatine sinus. CLINICAL REPORT: A 7-year-old Warmblood gelding presented with a history of running into a fence and falling...
October 12, 2016: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Thomas I Talpalar, Adolfo E Talpalar
Hyperbaric environments induce the high pressure neurological syndrome (HPNS) characterized by hyperexcitability of the central nervous system (CNS) and memory impairment. Human divers and other animals experience the HPNS at pressures beyond 1.1 MPa. High pressure depresses synaptic transmission and alters its dynamics in various animal models. Medial perforant path (MPP) synapses connecting the medial entorhinal cortex with the hippocampal formation are suppressed by 50% at 10.1MPa. Reduction of synaptic inputs is paradoxically associated with enhanced ability of dentate gyrus (DG)' granule cells (GCs) to generate spikes at high pressure...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Ajinkya Borhade, S Arulrhaj, B Kannan, Rakesh Sonavane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Rebecca Johnson
Some people with well-managed insulin-dependent diabetes can dive safely. Those cleared to participate should control tightly the variables that impact blood glucose levels, including activity, timing, food and insulin. Honest self-assessment is critical. A diabetic diver should cancel a dive if seasick, unusually anxious, or following significant high or low blood glucose levels in the preceding 24 hours. The diver should enter the water with a blood glucose level above 8.3 mmol·L⁻¹ and below 14 mmol·L⁻¹ with a stable or rising trend in blood glucose established with glucose tests at 90, 60, and 30 minutes prior to a dive...
September 2016: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Leah Potts, Peter Buzzacott, Petar Denoble
INTRODUCTION: Cave divers enter an inherently dangerous environment that often includes little visibility, maze-like passageways and a ceiling of rock that prevents a direct ascent to the surface in the event of a problem. METHODS: Reports of cave diving fatality cases occurring between 01 July 1985 and 30 June 2015 collected by Divers Alert Network were reviewed. Training status, safety rules violated, relevancy of the violations, and root causes leading to death were determined...
September 2016: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Julie Vinkel, Peter Bak, Ole Hyldegaard
AIM: The purpose was to explore causative tendencies among diving fatalities to prevent similar injuries in the future. METHODS: We report 33 fatal diving injuries that occurred among Danish divers during the period 1999-2012 in Scandinavian waters. The study was performed as a retrospective overview. The empiric data consists of police reports, forensic autopsy reports and examination of the diving equipment. Data were assembled and analyzed using Pivot and Excel...
September 2016: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Nico Am Schellart, Wouter Sterk
: INTRODUCTION A well-fitting wetsuit exerts a pressure on the body that may influence spirometry. This pressure is expected to reduce the forced vital capacity (FVC) due to hampered inspiration. Since the shape of the spirometric flow curve should not be changed by the pressure effects of the wetsuits, FVC, the forced expiratory volume during the first second of expiration (FEV₁), the peak expiratory flow (PEF) and the flow between 25 and 75% of FVC (FEF25-75) should change to the same degree...
September 2016: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Nazzareno Fagoni, Anna Taboni, Giovanni Vinetti, Sara Bottarelli, Christian Moia, Aurélién Bringard, Guido Ferretti
INTRODUCTION: We tested the hypothesis that the alveolar gas composition at the transition between the steady phase II (φ2) and the dynamic phase III (φ3) of the cardiovascular response to apnoea may lay on the physiological breaking point curve (Lin et al., 1974). METHODS: Twelve elite divers performed maximal and φ2-interrupted apnoeas, in air and pure oxygen. We recorded beat-by-beat arterial blood pressure and heart rate; we measured alveolar oxygen and carbon dioxide pressures (PAO2 and PACO2, respectively) before and after apnoeas; we calculated the PACO2 difference between the end and the beginning of apnoeas (ΔPACO2)...
October 6, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Chris Roelfsema, Ruth Thurstan, Maria Beger, Christine Dudgeon, Jennifer Loder, Eva Kovacs, Michele Gallo, Jason Flower, K-le Gomez Cabrera, Juan Ortiz, Alexandra Lea, Diana Kleine
Subtropical reefs provide an important habitat for flora and fauna, and proper monitoring is required for conservation. Monitoring these exposed and submerged reefs is challenging and available resources are limited. Citizen science is increasing in momentum, as an applied research tool and in the variety of monitoring approaches adopted. This paper aims to demonstrate an ecological assessment and mapping approach that incorporates both top-down (volunteer marine scientists) and bottom-up (divers/community) engagement aspects of citizen science, applied at a subtropical reef at Point Lookout, Southeast Queensland, Australia...
2016: PloS One
Nicholette D Palmer Allred, Laura M Raffield, Joycelyn C Hardy, Fang-Chi Hsu, Jasmin Divers, Jianzhao Xu, S Carrie Smith, Christina E Hugenschmidt, Benjamin C Wagner, Christopher T Whitlow, Kaycee M Sink, Joseph A Maldjian, Jeff D Williamson, Donald W Bowden, Barry I Freedman
OBJECTIVE: Dementia is a debilitating illness with a disproportionate burden in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Among the contributors, genetic variation at the apolipoprotein E locus (APOE) is posited to convey a strong effect. This study compared and contrasted the association of APOE with cognitive performance and cerebral structure in the setting of T2D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: European Americans from the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) MIND (n = 754) and African Americans from the African American (AA)- DHS MIND (n = 517) were examined...
October 4, 2016: Diabetes Care
Joanna Shi-En Chan, Jeremy C Wee, R Ponampalam, Evelyn Wong
BACKGROUND: Injuries in divers resulting purely from impact with the water are uncommon in the published literature. We present a case report of pulmonary contusion in a young diver. CASE REPORT: A young, healthy competitive platform diver landed flat on his back in the water from a dive of 10 meters. He complained of upper back pain and had an episode of hemoptysis after the dive. He was initially observed for 15 hours postinjury, and was discharged when three chest radiographs (CXRs) taken at 1, 7, and 11 hours postinjury did not show significant abnormalities...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Lara Cusack, Rodney Schnellbacher, Elizabeth W Howerth, David A Jiménez, Joerg Mayer, Stephen Divers
An adult, intact male sugar glider ( Petaurus breviceps ) presented for acute caudal abdominal swelling. Treatment by the referring veterinarian included aspiration of urine from the swelling. On physical examination, mild depression, pale mucus membranes, and caudal abdominal swelling were noted. Focused ultrasonographic assessment revealed a fluid-filled caudal abdominal structure and subjective bladder wall thickening. The following day, the sugar glider was severely depressed. Hematology results included hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, and azotemia...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Momoko Horikoshi, Robin N Beaumont, Felix R Day, Nicole M Warrington, Marjolein N Kooijman, Juan Fernandez-Tajes, Bjarke Feenstra, Natalie R van Zuydam, Kyle J Gaulton, Niels Grarup, Jonathan P Bradfield, David P Strachan, Ruifang Li-Gao, Tarunveer S Ahluwalia, Eskil Kreiner, Rico Rueedi, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Diana L Cousminer, Ying Wu, Elisabeth Thiering, Carol A Wang, Christian T Have, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Natalia Vilor-Tejedor, Peter K Joshi, Eileen Tai Hui Boh, Ioanna Ntalla, Niina Pitkänen, Anubha Mahajan, Elisabeth M van Leeuwen, Raimo Joro, Vasiliki Lagou, Michael Nodzenski, Louise A Diver, Krina T Zondervan, Mariona Bustamante, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Josep M Mercader, Amanda J Bennett, Nilufer Rahmioglu, Dale R Nyholt, Ronald C W Ma, Claudia H T Tam, Wing Hung Tam, Santhi K Ganesh, Frank J A van Rooij, Samuel E Jones, Po-Ru Loh, Katherine S Ruth, Marcus A Tuke, Jessica Tyrrell, Andrew R Wood, Hanieh Yaghootkar, Denise M Scholtens, Lavinia Paternoster, Inga Prokopenko, Peter Kovacs, Mustafa Atalay, Sara M Willems, Kalliope Panoutsopoulou, Xu Wang, Lisbeth Carstensen, Frank Geller, Katharina E Schraut, Mario Murcia, Catharina E M van Beijsterveldt, Gonneke Willemsen, Emil V R Appel, Cilius E Fonvig, Caecilie Trier, Carla M T Tiesler, Marie Standl, Zoltán Kutalik, Sílvia Bonàs-Guarch, David M Hougaard, Friman Sánchez, David Torrents, Johannes Waage, Mads V Hollegaard, Hugoline G de Haan, Frits R Rosendaal, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Susan M Ring, Gibran Hemani, George McMahon, Neil R Robertson, Christopher J Groves, Claudia Langenberg, Jian'an Luan, Robert A Scott, Jing Hua Zhao, Frank D Mentch, Scott M MacKenzie, Rebecca M Reynolds, William L Lowe, Anke Tönjes, Michael Stumvoll, Virpi Lindi, Timo A Lakka, Cornelia M van Duijn, Wieland Kiess, Antje Körner, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Harri Niinikoski, Katja Pahkala, Olli T Raitakari, Eleftheria Zeggini, George V Dedoussis, Yik-Ying Teo, Seang-Mei Saw, Mads Melbye, Harry Campbell, James F Wilson, Martine Vrijheid, Eco J C N de Geus, Dorret I Boomsma, Haja N Kadarmideen, Jens-Christian Holm, Torben Hansen, Sylvain Sebert, Andrew T Hattersley, Lawrence J Beilin, John P Newnham, Craig E Pennell, Joachim Heinrich, Linda S Adair, Judith B Borja, Karen L Mohlke, Johan G Eriksson, Elisabeth Widén, Mika Kähönen, Jorma S Viikari, Terho Lehtimäki, Peter Vollenweider, Klaus Bønnelykke, Hans Bisgaard, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Albert Hofman, Fernando Rivadeneira, André G Uitterlinden, Charlotta Pisinger, Oluf Pedersen, Christine Power, Elina Hyppönen, Nicholas J Wareham, Hakon Hakonarson, Eleanor Davies, Brian R Walker, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Struan F A Grant, Allan A Vaag, Debbie A Lawlor, Timothy M Frayling, George Davey Smith, Andrew P Morris, Ken K Ong, Janine F Felix, Nicholas J Timpson, John R B Perry, David M Evans, Mark I McCarthy, Rachel M Freathy
Birth weight (BW) has been shown to be influenced by both fetal and maternal factors and in observational studies is reproducibly associated with future risk of adult metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. These life-course associations have often been attributed to the impact of an adverse early life environment. Here, we performed a multi-ancestry genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of BW in 153,781 individuals, identifying 60 loci where fetal genotype was associated with BW (P < 5 × 10(-8))...
September 28, 2016: Nature
Richard L Pyle, Randall K Kosaki
A new species of the butterflyfish genus Prognathodes is described from specimens collected at a depth of 55-61 m off Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. This species has been observed by mixed-gas divers and from submersibles at depths ranging from 45-187 m throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago, with shallower sightings in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and deeper in the Main Hawaiian Islands. It is similar to Prognathodes guezei (Maugé and Bauchot 1976) from the western Indian Ocean, and at least one other undescribed species of Prognathodes from Palau, differing from these species in the number of soft dorsal-fin rays, size of head, and body depth...
2016: ZooKeys
Tessa L Crume, Richard F Hamman, Scott Isom, Jennifer Talton, Jasmin Divers, Elizabeth J Mayer-Davis, Victor W Zhong, Angela D Liese, Sharon Saydah, Debra A Standiford, Jean M Lawrence, Catherine Pihoker, Dana Dabelea
PURPOSE: The development of a sustainable pediatric diabetes surveillance system for the United States requires a better understanding of issues related to case ascertainment. METHODS: Using the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth registry, we examined whether time from diabetes diagnosis to case registration differed by diabetes type, patient demographics, and the type of provider reporting the case to the study. Plots for time from diagnosis to registration were developed, and differences by key variables were examined using the log-rank test...
September 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
Otmar Bock, Nils Bury
INTRODUCTION: To flip a switch "down," our motor system can normally rely on concordant visual, gravitational, and egocentric cues about the vertical. However, divers must sometimes perform this task while visual cues are limited and gravitational cues are misaligned with egocentric cues. Astronauts must also flip switches "down" in absence of gravitational cues. Our study evaluates this ability using a laboratory simulation. METHODS: The subjects were 24 healthy volunteers who were blindfolded, tilted into different angles of roll, and asked to silence an alarm by flipping a switch "down...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Joel Reis, Marco Morgado, Pedro Batista, Paulo Oliveira, Carlos Silvestre
This paper presents the steps for developing a low-cost POrtableNavigation Tool for Underwater Scenarios (PONTUS) to be used as a localization device for subsea targets. PONTUS consists of an integrated ultra-short baseline acoustic positioning system aided by an inertial navigation system. Built on a practical design, it can be mounted on an underwater robotic vehicle or be operated by a scuba diver. It also features a graphical user interface that provides information on the tracking of the designated target, in addition to some details on the physical properties inside PONTUS...
2016: Sensors
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