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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531363/beneficial-effect-of-enriched-air-nitrox-on-bubble-formation-during-scuba-diving-an-open-water-study
#1
Anne-Kathrin Brebeck, Andreas Deussen, Ursula Range, Costantino Balestra, Sinclair Cleveland, Jochen D Schipke
Bubble formation during scuba diving might induce decompression sickness. This prospective randomised and double-blind study included 108 advanced recreational divers (38 females). Fifty-four pairs of divers, 1 breathing air and the other breathing nitrox28 undertook a standardised dive (24 ± 1 msw; 62 ± 5min) in the Red Sea. Venous gas bubbles were counted (Doppler) 30-<45 min (early) and 45-60 min (late) post-dive at jugular, subclavian and femoral sites. Only 7% (air) vs. 11% (air28®) (n.s.) were bubble-free after a dive...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525588/diving-and-long-term-cardiovascular-health
#2
K Åsmul, Å Irgens, M Grønning, A Møllerløkken
Background: Short-term cardiovascular effects from ambient pressure exposure are known. However, long-term cardiovascular effects from diving in humans have been less studied. Aims: To examine possible long-term cardiovascular health effects from occupational diving. Methods: We compared the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in former divers to non-divers. We obtained data on male former divers with a certificate valid for professional diving after 1980, from the Norwegian Diver 2011 project, and matched data on the general male population from the HUNT3 Survey...
May 19, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518008/latent-presentation-of-decompression-sickness-after-altitude-chamber-training-in-an-active-duty-flier
#3
James Gentry, Juan Rango, Jianzhong Zhang, Shane Biedermann
BACKGROUND: Decompression sickness (DCS) is a potential danger and risk for both divers and aircrew alike. DCS is also a potential side effect of altitude (hypobaric) chamber training as well and can present long after training occurs. Literature review shows that altitude chamber induced DCS has approximately a 0.25% incidence. CASE REPORT: A 32-yr-old, active duty military member developed symptoms of DCS 3 h after his hypobaric chamber training. Unfortunately, he did not seek treatment for DCS until 48 h after the exposure...
April 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515170/respiratory-function-and-mechanics-in-pinnipeds-and-cetaceans
#4
REVIEW
Andreas Fahlman, Michael J Moore, Daniel Garcia-Parraga
In this Review, we focus on the functional properties of the respiratory system of pinnipeds and cetaceans, and briefly summarize the underlying anatomy; in doing so, we provide an overview of what is currently known about their respiratory physiology and mechanics. While exposure to high pressure is a common challenge among breath-hold divers, there is a large variation in respiratory anatomy, function and capacity between species - how are these traits adapted to allow the animals to withstand the physiological challenges faced during dives? The ultra-deep diving feats of some marine mammals defy our current understanding of respiratory physiology and lung mechanics...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501412/sudden-death-in-a-diver-a-diagnostic-conundrum
#5
Scott Dougherty, Maziar Khorsandi, Myra Adelbai, Vipin Zamvar, James Francis
We discuss the case of an experienced diver who ran out of air during his final ascent while scuba diving. He lost consciousness rapidly after surfacing and despite immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation, could not be revived. On arrival at the emergency department he was noted to have copious amounts of blood in his upper airway and had developed extensive subcutaneous emphysema. Large amounts of air were observed in the central circulation following a postmortem computerized tomography scan as well as pneumomediastinum, a small right-sided hemothorax, and extensive subcutaneous emphysema...
May 10, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480488/mishaps-and-unsafe-conditions-in-recreational-scuba-diving-and-pre-dive-checklist-use-a-prospective-cohort-study
#6
Shabbar I Ranapurwala, Steve Wing, Charles Poole, Kristen L Kucera, Stephen W Marshall, Petar J Denoble
BACKGROUND: Recreational scuba diving involves the use of complex instruments and specialized skills in an unforgiving environment. Errors in dive preparation in such an environment may lead to unsafe conditions, mishaps, injuries and fatalities. Diving mishaps can be major and minor based on their potential to cause injury and the severity of the resulting injury. The objective of this study is to assess the incidence of diving mishaps and unsafe conditions, and their associations with the participants' routine use of their own checklists...
December 2017: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474553/metal-complex-peptide-conjugates-how-to-modulate-bioactivity-of-metal-containing-compounds-by-the-attachment-to-peptides
#7
Ines Neundorf
During the last years the interest in combining the features of metal-containing molecules with biomolecules, particularly peptides, has more and more increased. Large series of new innovative organometallic compounds, as well as potent coordination complexes have been designed and, especially in medicinal chemistry, the library of bioactive compounds was excessively expanded by the introduction of metal complexes. The research foci are divers and not limited to e.g. the development of therapeutics with anti-proliferative or antibacterial activity, or the design of novel biosensors useful for pharmaceutical applications...
May 4, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467885/diving-and-pulmonary-physiology-surfactant-binding-protein-lung-fluid-and-cardiopulmonary-test-changes-in-professional-divers
#8
Zora Susilovic-Grabovac, Cristina Banfi, Denise Brusoni, Massimo Mapelli, Stefania Ghilardi, Ante Obad, Darija Bakovic-Kramaric, Zeljko Dujic, Piergiuseppe Agostoni
Alteration of breathing pattern ranging from an increase of respiratory rate to overt hyperventilation during and after SCUBA diving is frequently reported and is associated with intrathoracic fluid overload. This study was undertaken to assess breathing efficiency after diving and the association with damage of alveolar cells. Ventilation efficiency (VE/VCO2) during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) before and 2h after a standard protocol dive has been analyzed in twelve professional males divers (39...
April 30, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467276/acute-leukemia-in-six-horses-1990-2012
#9
Emily A Barrell, Midori Goto Asakawa, M Julia B Felippe, Thomas J Divers, Tracy Stokol
Acute leukemia is rare in horses. Herein we describe historical, clinicopathologic, and postmortem findings in 6 horses with acute leukemia. Medical records of horses with >20% bone marrow blasts and cytochemical or immunophenotyping results were reviewed. Affected horses were 2-8 y of age and of different breeds and sex. Horses were presented acutely with nonspecific signs (e.g., fever, lethargy). Characteristic hemogram findings were bi- or pancytopenia with low blast numbers. Histologic examination revealed extramedullary infiltrates, especially in lymph nodes, spleen, kidney, liver, and lungs...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464406/sustained-apnea-induces-endothelial-activation
#10
Lars Eichhorn, Ramona Dolscheid-Pommerich, Felix Erdfelder, Muhammad Ajmal Ayub, Theresa Schmitz, Nikos Werner, Felix Jansen
BACKGROUND: Apnea diving has gained worldwide popularity, even though the pathophysiological consequences of this challenging sport on the human body are poorly investigated and understood. This study aims to assess the influence of sustained apnea in healthy volunteers on circulating microparticles (MPs) and microRNAs (miRs), which are established biomarkers reflecting vascular function. HYPOTHESIS: Short intermittent hypoxia due to voluntary breath-holding affects circulating levels of endothelial cell-derived MPs (EMPs) and endothelial cell-derived miRs...
May 2, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464287/geno-diver-a-combined-coalescence-and-forward-in-time-simulator-for-populations-undergoing-selection-for-complex-traits
#11
J T Howard, F Tiezzi, J E Pryce, C Maltecca
Geno-Diver is a combined coalescence and forward-in-time simulator designed to simulate complex traits with a quantitative and/or fitness component and implement multiple selection and mating strategies utilizing pedigree or genomic information. The simulation is carried out in two steps. The first step generates whole-genome sequence data for founder individuals. A variety of trait architectures can be generated for quantitative and fitness traits along with their covariance. The second step generates new individuals forward-in-time based on a variety of selection and mating scenarios...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464277/forensic-case-reports-presenting-immersion-pulmonary-edema-as-a-differential-diagnosis-in-fatal-diving-accidents
#12
Julie Vinkel, Peter Bak, Peter Juel Thiis Knudsen, Ole Hyldegaard
Immersion Pulmonary Edema (IPE) reduces the transport of gases over the respiratory membrane due to edema in the interstitium and respiratory zones. IPE has previously been described in both swimmers and divers, with a few known fatal cases. We have reviewed 42 SCUBA and snorkeling-related drowning deaths, and through a thorough analysis of each case, including both diving physiology and forensic pathology, we present IPE as a differential diagnosis to drowning in four cases. Our findings propose that; absence of watery content in the stomach and conducting airways, and liquid filled lungs without hyperexpansion, may be compatible with IPE...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462210/the-expression-of-proline-specific-enzymes-in-the-human-lung
#13
REVIEW
Gwendolyn Vliegen, Tom K Raju, Dirk Adriaensen, Anne-Marie Lambeir, Ingrid De Meester
The pathophysiology of lung diseases is very complex and proteolytic enzymes may play a role or could be used as biomarkers. In this review, the literature was searched to make an overview of what is known on the expression of the proline-specific peptidases dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 4, 8, 9, prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) and fibroblast activation protein α (FAP) in the healthy and diseased lung. Search terms included asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, fibrosis, ischemia reperfusion injury and pneumonia...
March 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460876/navigational-threats-by-derelict-fishing-gear-to-navy-ships-in-the-korean-seas
#14
Sunwook Hong, Jongmyoung Lee, Sehan Lim
This study assessed the impact of derelict fishing gear (DFG) on navigation. The Republic of Korea's navy (ROKN) recorded every case of approximately 170 naval ships associated with propeller entanglement by DFG from January 2010 to December 2015. The frequency of cases was 2.3 per ship and 397.7 (±37.5) per year. The amount of DFG disentangled was 0.025tons per ship and 10.0 (±1.7) tons per year. The frequency temporally decreased whereas the amount increased over these six years. To disentangle propellers, 3...
April 28, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445534/a-new-high-resolution-global-mass-coral-bleaching-database
#15
Simon D Donner, Gregory J M Rickbeil, Scott F Heron
Episodes of mass coral bleaching have been reported in recent decades and have raised concerns about the future of coral reefs on a warming planet. Despite the efforts to enhance and coordinate coral reef monitoring within and across countries, our knowledge of the geographic extent of mass coral bleaching over the past few decades is incomplete. Existing databases, like ReefBase, are limited by the voluntary nature of contributions, geographical biases in data collection, and the variations in the spatial scale of bleaching reports...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439981/evolution-of-the-plasma-proteome-of-divers-before-and-after-a-single-scuba-dive
#16
Jacky Lautridou, Vianney Pichereau, Sébastien Artigaud, Benoit Bernay, Otto Barak, Ryan Hoiland, Andrew T Lovering, Ingrid Eftedal, Zeljko Dujic, François Guerrero
PURPOSE: Decompression sickness (DCS) is a poorly understood and complex systemic disease caused by inadequate desaturation following a reduction of ambient pressure. A previous proteomic study of ours showed that DCS occurrence but not diving was associated with changes in the plasma proteome in rats, including a dramatic decrease of abundance of the tetrameric form of Transthyretin (TTR). The present study aims to assess the impact on the human blood proteome of a dive inducing significant decompression stress but without inducing DCS symptoms...
April 25, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429454/scuba-diving-patent-foramen-ovale-and-heart-rhythm-disturbances-the-role-of-underwater-holter-monitoring-case-report
#17
Szymon Olędzki, Andrzej Wojtarowicz, Edyta Płońska-Gościniak, Maciej Lewandowski, Jarosław Gorący
Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is thought to be a risk factor for decompression illness (DCI). Catheter-based closure procedure reduces the risk of DCI in selected scuba divers with PFO. Major complication of invasive approach are rare, minor, especially heart rhythm disturbances are reported relatively often. We describe a case of 41-year-old diver, who underwent PFO closure due to recurrent DCI events. Afterward, he experienced no DCI symptoms; however, he complained about feeling of the heart beating during a submersion...
April 21, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417835/objective-vs-subjective-evaluation-of-cognitive-performance-during-0-4-mpa-dives-breathing-air-or-nitrox
#18
Peter Germonpré, Costantino Balestra, Walter Hemelryck, Peter Buzzacott, Pierre Lafère
BACKGROUND: Divers try to limit risks associated with their sport, for instance by breathing enriched air nitrox (EANx) instead of air. This double blinded, randomized trial was designed to see if the use of EANx could effectively improve cognitive performance while diving. METHODS: Eight volunteers performed two no-decompression dry dives breathing air or EANx for 20 min at 0.4 MPa. Cognitive functions were assessed with a computerized test battery, including MathProc and Ptrail...
May 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415099/p594contrast-transthoracic-echocardiography-as-a-gatekeeper-for-patent-foramen-ovale-closure
#19
M Muratori, G Italiano, E Innocenti, L Fusini, M Mapelli, G Tamborini, S Ghulam Ali, P Gripari, A Maltagliati, F Celeste, M Pepi
Background.: The presence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been linked to many illness, including cryptogenic stroke, transient ischemic attack, migraine, platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome and decompression sickness in scuba divers. Transesophageal echocardiography is the gold standard technique for the visualization of atrial septal anatomy, but it is a secondary level exam, not always available, with additional associated costs and not completely free from procedural risks. Standard transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) has a too low sensitivity for PFO screening...
December 1, 2016: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411930/marine-envenomation
#20
REVIEW
Kirsten B Hornbeak, Paul S Auerbach
Venomous aquatic animals are hazardous to swimmers, surfers, divers, and fishermen. Exposures include mild stings, bites, abrasions, and lacerations. Severe envenomations can be life threatening. This article reviews common marine envenomations, exploring causative species, clinical presentation, and current treatment recommendations. Recommendations are included for cnidaria, sponges, bristle worms, crown-of-thorns starfish, sea urchins, venomous fish, stingrays, cone snails, stonefish, blue-ringed octopus, and sea snakes...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
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