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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325788/decompression-illness-with-hypovolemic-shock-and-neurological-failure-symptoms-after-two-risky-dives-a-case-report
#1
Sebastian Klapa, Johannes Meyne, Wataru Kähler, Frauke Tillmans, Henning Werr, Andreas Binder, Andreas Koch
Hypovolemia is known to be a predisposing factor of decompression illness (DCI) while diving. The typical clinically impressive neurological symptoms of DCI may distract from other symptoms such as an incipient hypovolemic shock. We report the case of a 61-year-old male Caucasian, who presented with an increasing central and peripheral neural failure syndrome and massive hypovolemia after two risky dives. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest and Magnetic resonance imaging scans of the head revealed multiple cerebral and pulmonary thromboembolisms...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320890/a-biophysical-vascular-bubble-model-for-devising-decompression-procedures
#2
Ran Arieli, Abraham Marmur
Vascular bubble models, which present a realistic biophysical approach, hold great promise for devising suitable diver decompression procedures. Nanobubbles were found to nucleate on a flat hydrophobic surface, expanding to form bubbles after decompression. Such active hydrophobic spots (AHS) were formed from lung surfactants on the luminal aspect of ovine blood vessels. Many of the phenomena observed in these bubbling vessels correlated with those known to occur in diving. On the basis of our previous studies, which proposed a new model for the formation of arterial bubbles, we now suggest the biophysical model presented herein...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315039/ecology-and-feeding-habits-drive-infection-of-water-bugs-with-mycobacterium-ulcerans
#3
Solange Meyin A Ebong, Gabriel E García-Peña, Dominique Pluot-Sigwalt, Laurent Marsollier, Philippe Le Gall, Sara Eyangoh, Jean-François Guégan
Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, is present in a wide spectrum of environments, including terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in tropical regions. The most promising studies on the epidemiological risk of this disease suggest that some ecological settings may favor infection of animals with MU including human. A species' needs and impacts on resources and the environment, i.e., its ecological niche, may influence its susceptibility to be infected by this microbial form. For example, some Naucoridae may dive in fresh waters to prey upon infected animals and thus may get infected with MU...
March 17, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306561/diving-into-the-oocyte-pool
#4
Stine G Kristensen, Susanne E Pors, Claus Y Andersen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The ovarian reserve comprises an enormous surplus of follicles. Despite this, some women produce insufficient numbers of oocytes by conventional fertility treatments. However, recent technical accomplishments may transform assisted reproductive technology (ART) in such a way that oocytes are not necessarily the limiting factor. In this review, we present possible new strategies for enhancing the quantity of mature oocytes, and current views on autologous oocytes as potential sources of mitochondria to lift performance of compromised oocytes...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300630/functionalized-single-walled-carbon-nanotubes-cellular-uptake-biodistribution-and-applications-in-drug-delivery
#5
Zixian Li, Andre Luis Branco de Barros, Daniel Cristian Ferreira Soares, Sara Nicole Moss, Laleh Alisaraie
The unique properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) enable them to play important roles in many fields. One of their functional roles is to transport cargo into the cell. SWNTs are able to traverse amphipathic cell membranes due to their large surface area, flexible interactions with cargo, customizable dimensions, and surface chemistry. The cargoes delivered by SWNTs include peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, as well as drug molecules for therapeutic purpose. The drug delivery functions of SWNTs have been explored over the past decade...
March 11, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298467/swimming-and-diving-energetics-in-dolphins-a-stroke-by-stroke-analysis-for-predicting-the-cost-of-flight-responses-in-wild-odontocetes
#6
Terrie M Williams, Traci L Kendall, Beau P Richter, Courtney R Ribeiro-French, Jason S John, Kim L Odell, Barbara A Losch, David A Feuerbach, M Andrew Stamper
Exponential increases in hydrodynamic drag and physical exertion occur when swimmers move quickly through water, and underlie the preference for relatively slow routine speeds by marine mammals regardless of body size. Because of this and the need to balance limited oxygen stores when submerged, flight (escape) responses may be especially challenging for this group. To examine this, we used open-flow respirometry to measure the energetic cost of producing a swimming stroke during different levels of exercise in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296928/the-probability-and-severity-of-decompression-sickness
#7
Laurens E Howle, Paul W Weber, Ethan A Hada, Richard D Vann, Petar J Denoble
Decompression sickness (DCS), which is caused by inert gas bubbles in tissues, is an injury of concern for scuba divers, compressed air workers, astronauts, and aviators. Case reports for 3322 air and N2-O2 dives, resulting in 190 DCS events, were retrospectively analyzed and the outcomes were scored as (1) serious neurological, (2) cardiopulmonary, (3) mild neurological, (4) pain, (5) lymphatic or skin, and (6) constitutional or nonspecific manifestations. Following standard U.S. Navy medical definitions, the data were grouped into mild-Type I (manifestations 4-6)-and serious-Type II (manifestations 1-3)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296899/the-effects-of-marine-traffic-on-the-behaviour-of-black-sea-harbour-porpoises-phocoena-phocoena-relicta-within-the-istanbul-strait-turkey
#8
Aylin Akkaya Bas, Fredrik Christiansen, Ayaka Amaha Öztürk, Bayram Öztürk, Caley McIntosh
Marine traffic is threatening cetaceans on a local and global scale. The Istanbul Strait is one of the busiest waterways, with up to 2,500 vessels present daily. This is the first study to assess the magnitude of short- and long-term behavioural changes of the endangered Black Sea harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena relicta) in the presence of marine vessels within the Istanbul Strait. Markov chains were used to investigate the effect of vessel presence on the transition probability between behavioural states (diving, surface-feeding and travelling), and to quantify the effect on the behavioural budget and bout length (duration of time spent in a given state) of porpoises...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294692/lower-extremity-isokinetic-strength-ratios-of-elite-springboard-and-platform-diving-athletes
#9
Amilton Vieira, Savio Alex, André Martorelli, Lee E Brown, Ricardo Moreira, Martim Bottaro
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to examine knee extensor and flexor muscle strength ratios of an elite group of diving athletes. METHODS: Sixteen divers (10 females and 6 males) from the Brazil national team were assessed for lower-body strength. They had participated in international competitions such as the 2016 Olympic Games and 2015 Pan American Games. The dynamic concentric torque of their knee flexor and extensor muscles were evaluated using a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer...
March 15, 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290466/incidence-of-acute-spinal-cord-injury-in-the-czech-republic-a-prospective-epidemiological-study-2006-2015
#10
J Kriz, M Kulakovska, H Davidova, M Silova, A Kobesova
STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study. OBJECTIVES: Analysis of epidemiological data about acute spinal cord injury (SCI) in the Czech Republic over a period of 10 years (2006-2015). METHODS: A data collection system was implemented in the rehabilitation centres which provides care to patients with acute SCI in the Czech Republic. The recorded variables are as follows: age at time of SCI; gender; cause of injury; neurological level of injury (NLI); and its severity (ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS))...
March 14, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289570/frequent-discordance-between-morphology-and-mitochondrial-dna-in-a-species-group-of-european-water-beetles-coleoptera-dytiscidae
#11
David T Bilton, Lucy Turner, Garth N Foster
The Hydroporus memnonius species group includes both widespread and range restricted diving beetle taxa in the western Palaearctic, some of which have been divided into a number of geographical subspecies. Of these, Hydroporus necopinatus is distributed in the far west of Europe, from central Spain to southern Britain, and has been split into three subspecies, occurring in Iberia (necopinatus sst.), France (robertorum) and England (roni) respectively-the last of these being a rare example of an insect taxon apparently endemic to northern Europe...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289413/mica-and-nkg2d-is-there-an-impact-on-kidney-transplant-outcome
#12
REVIEW
Matilde Risti, Maria da Graça Bicalho
This paper aims to present an overview of MICA and natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) genetic and functional interactions and their impact on kidney transplant outcome. Organ transplantation has gone from what can accurately be called a "clinical experiment" to a routine and reliable practice, which has proven to be clinically relevant, life-saving and cost-effective when compared with non-transplantation management strategies of both chronic and acute end-stage organ failures. The kidney is the most frequently transplanted organ in the world (transplant-observatory)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289401/sleep-disorders-is-the-trigemino-cardiac-reflex-a-missing-link
#13
REVIEW
Tumul Chowdhury, Barkha Bindu, Gyaninder Pal Singh, Bernhard Schaller
Trigeminal innervated areas in face, nasolacrimal, and nasal mucosa can produce a wide array of cardiorespiratory manifestations that include apnea, bradypnea, bradycardia, hypotension, and arrhythmias. This reflex is a well-known entity called "trigemino-cardiac reflex" (TCR). The role of TCR is investigated in various pathophysiological conditions especially in neurosurgical, but also skull base surgery procedures. Additionally, its significance in various sleep-related disorders has also been highlighted recently...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280877/unusual-intraosseous-fossilized-soft-tissues-from-the-middle-triassic-nothosaurus-bone
#14
Dawid Surmik, Bruce M Rothschild, Roman Pawlicki
Fossilized soft tissues, occasionally found together with skeletal remains, provide insights to the physiology and functional morphology of extinct organisms. Herein, we present unusual fossilized structures from the cortical region of bone identified in isolated skeletal remains of Middle Triassic nothosaurs from Upper Silesia, Poland. The ribbed or annuli-shaped structures have been found in a sample of partially demineralized coracoid and are interpreted as either giant red blood cells or as blood vessel walls...
April 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280583/sequential-effects-in-olympic-synchronized-diving-scores
#15
Robin S S Kramer
When judging performances in a sequence, the current score is often influenced by the preceding score. Where athletes are perceived to be similar, a judgement is assimilated towards the previous one. However, if judges focus on the differences between the two athletes, this will result in a contrasting influence on their scores. Here, I investigate sequential effects during synchronized diving events at the 2012 and 2016 Olympic Games. Although previous research found assimilation in scores of gymnasts, the current data showed contrast effects-current scores benefited from following a poor performance but were at a disadvantage if they followed a high-scoring performance...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278005/the-effect-of-artificial-smoke-compound-on-physiological-responses-cognitive-functions-and-work-performance-during-firefighting-activities-in-a-smoke-diving-room-an-intervention-study
#16
Rasoul Hemmatjo, Majid Motamedzade, Mohsen Aliabadi, Omid Kalatpour, Maryam Farhadian
This study investigated the combined effect of firefighting operations and exposure to smoke on physiological responses, cognitive and physical performance among firefighters. Each firefighter was engaged in two experimental conditions: (1) without artificial smoke; control (NS) and (2) with artificial smoke (WS). The results of data analysis revealed that heart rate (HR) and body temperature (BT) increased significantly after the firefighting activities in the two conditions relative to baseline. In addition, reaction time (RT) and correct response (CR) decreased after the activity relative to baseline and there was a significant difference in RT and CR between the NS and WS conditions...
February 25, 2017: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277320/subcellular-energetics-and-metabolism-potential-therapeutic-applications
#17
Robert H Thiele
Part I of this review discussed the similarities between embryogenesis, mammalian adaptions to hypoxia (primarily driven by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 [HIF-1]), ischemia-reperfusion injury (and its relationship with reactive oxygen species), hibernation, diving animals, cancer, and sepsis, and it focused on the common characteristics that allow cells and organisms to survive in these states. Part II of this review describes techniques by which researchers gain insight into subcellular energetics and identify potential future tools for clinicians...
March 8, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273599/radiocesium-in-migratory-aquatic-game-birds-using-contaminated-u-s-department-of-energy-reactor-cooling-reservoirs-a-long-term-perspective
#18
Robert A Kennamer, Ricki E Oldenkamp, James C Leaphart, Joshua D King, A Lawrence Bryan, James C Beasley
Low-level releases of radiocesium into former nuclear reactor cooling-reservoirs on the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina, USA, dating primarily to the late 1950s and early 1960s, have allowed examination of long-term contaminant attenuation in biota occupying these habitats. Periodic collections of migratory game birds since the 1970s have documented (137)Cs (radiocesium) activity concentrations in birds of SRS reservoirs, including mainly Par Pond and Pond B. In this study, during 2014 and 2015 we released wild-caught American coots (Fulica americana) and ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) onto Pond B...
March 5, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270794/antagonistic-and-synergistic-activation-of-cardiovascular-vagal-and-sympathetic-motor-outflows-in-trigeminal-reflexes
#19
REVIEW
Bruno Buchholz, Jazmín Kelly, Eduardo A Bernatene, Nahuel Méndez Diodati, Ricardo J Gelpi
The trigeminal nerve and heart are strongly related through somato-autonomic nervous reflexes that induce rapid changes in cardiovascular function. Several trigeminal reflexes have been described, but the diving and trigeminocardiac reflexes are the most studied. The heart is a target organ dually innervated by the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. Thus, how cardiac function is regulated during the trigeminal reflexes is the result of the combination of an increased parasympathetic response and increased, decreased, or unaltered sympathetic activity...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264258/taxonomy-and-geographical-distribution-of-i-panchrysia-i-h%C3%A3-bner-1821-of-china-with-description-of-a-new-species-lepidoptera-noctuidae-plusiinae
#20
Yan-Qing Hu, Zhen-Fu Huang, Min Wang
Panchrysia can be readily recognized by the brilliant silvery markings diffused on forewings except Panchrysia marmorea (Ronkay, 1986) and Panchrysia deaurata (Esper), which are characterized by the lack of silvery marking. As currently, this genus is consisted of six species, all of species have been recorded from Eurasian geographic distribution (Ronkay et al., 2008). In China, P. marmorea, Panchrysia tibetensis Chou & Lu, 1982, Panchrysia dives (Eversmann, 1844) and Panchrysia ornate (Bremer, 1864) have been recorded (Chou & Lu, 1978, 1979, 1982; Ronkay, 1986; Han et al...
March 2, 2017: Zootaxa
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