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Melissa A Ilardo, Ida Moltke, Thorfinn S Korneliussen, Jade Cheng, Aaron J Stern, Fernando Racimo, Peter de Barros Damgaard, Martin Sikora, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Simon Rasmussen, Inge C L van den Munckhof, Rob Ter Horst, Leo A B Joosten, Mihai G Netea, Suhartini Salingkat, Rasmus Nielsen, Eske Willerslev
Understanding the physiology and genetics of human hypoxia tolerance has important medical implications, but this phenomenon has thus far only been investigated in high-altitude human populations. Another system, yet to be explored, is humans who engage in breath-hold diving. The indigenous Bajau people ("Sea Nomads") of Southeast Asia live a subsistence lifestyle based on breath-hold diving and are renowned for their extraordinary breath-holding abilities. However, it is unknown whether this has a genetic basis...
April 19, 2018: Cell
Margo A Lillie, A Wayne Vogl, Stephen Raverty, Martin Haulena, William A McLellan, Garry B Stenson, Robert E Shadwick
A sphincter on the inferior vena cava can protect the heart of a diving mammal from overload when elevated abdominal pressures increase venous return, yet sphincters are reported incompetent or absent in some cetacean species. We previously hypothesized that abdominal pressures are elevated and pulsatile in fluking cetaceans, and that collagen is deposited on the diaphragm according to pressure levels to resist deformation. Here we tested the hypothesis that cetaceans generating high abdominal pressures need a more robust sphincter than those generating low pressures...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Norah A Terrault
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Medeni Aykut, Andrzej Zawal, Yunus Esen, Orhan Erman
Larvae of water mite Hydrachna processifera Piersig, 1895 (Acari, Hydrachnidiae) were reported on diving beetles Dytiscus marginalis Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae) from Turkey. The redescription of the larva was made. Earlier, the larva H. processifera was described as H. inermis , but it was subsequently synonymized with H. processifera . The larva of H. processifera is a new record for the Turkish fauna. All larvae of H. processifera were found on the mesosternum of the one specimens (prevalence = 16...
2018: ZooKeys
Venkataramana Kandi
Skin lesion which develops after deep sea diving is termed as coral dermatitis. The corals are known to produce a toxic substance which when comes in to contact with human skin may elicit hypersensitive reactions. Most previous reports highlight the allergic reactions caused by deep sea diving. This is a rare case of staphylococcal skin infection in a second-year medical student caused by Staphylococcus aureus ; he reported a history of deep sea diving before being presented to the hospital with skin rashes...
February 16, 2018: Curēus
Maarten De Brauwer, Benjamin J Saunders, Rohani Ambo-Rappe, Jamaluddin Jompa, Jennifer L McIlwain, Euan S Harvey
Scuba diving tourism is a sustainable source of income for many coastal communities, but can have negative environmental impacts if not managed effectively. Diving on soft sediment habitats, typically referred to as 'muck diving', is a growing multi-million dollar industry with a strong focus on photographing cryptobenthic fauna. We assessed how the environmental impacts of scuba divers are affected by the activity they are engaged in while diving and the habitat they dive in. To do this, we observed 66 divers on coral reefs and soft sediment habitats in Indonesia and the Philippines...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Christopher J Clark, Emily A Mistick
Male hummingbirds court females with a high-speed dive in which they "sing" with their tail feathers. The male's choice of trajectory provides him strategic control over acoustic frequency and pressure levels heard by the female. Unlike related species, male Costa's hummingbirds (Calypte costae) choose to place their dives to the side of females. Here we show that this minimizes an audible Doppler curve in their dive sound, thereby depriving females of an acoustic indicator that would otherwise reveal male dive speed...
March 31, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Robin Mills, Hanno Hildenbrandt, Graham K Taylor, Charlotte K Hemelrijk
The peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus is renowned for attacking its prey from high altitude in a fast controlled dive called a stoop. Many other raptors employ a similar mode of attack, but the functional benefits of stooping remain obscure. Here we investigate whether, when, and why stooping promotes catch success, using a three-dimensional, agent-based modeling approach to simulate attacks of falcons on aerial prey. We simulate avian flapping and gliding flight using an analytical quasi-steady model of the aerodynamic forces and moments, parametrized by empirical measurements of flight morphology...
April 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Michael S Wasserman, Ali Guermazi, Mohamed Jarraya, Lars Engbretsen, Mohamad AbdelKader, Frank W Roemer, Daichi Hayashi, Michel D Crema, Asim Z Mian
Background/aim: In high-level Olympic athletes, many spinal pathologies arise from overuse, while others are the result of acute injury. Our aim is to analyse the epidemiology of spinal pathologies detected on MRI in athletes participating in the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Summer Olympics. Methods: In this retrospective study, all spine MRIs performed during the 2016 Rio Games were analysed. Descriptive data from the MRIs were tabulated and analysed for disc degeneration, spinal canal and/or neural foraminal narrowing, and acute/chronic fractures...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Serena Lucrezi, Salih Murat Egi, Massimo Pieri, Francois Burman, Tamer Ozyigit, Danilo Cialoni, Guy Thomas, Alessandro Marroni, Melville Saayman
Introduction: Scuba diving is an important marine tourism sector, but requires proper safety standards to reduce the risks and increase accessibility to its market. To achieve safety goals, safety awareness and positive safety attitudes in recreational scuba diving operations are essential. However, there is no published research exclusively focusing on scuba divers' and dive centres' perceptions toward safety. This study assessed safety perceptions in recreational scuba diving operations, with the aim to inform and enhance safety and risk management programmes within the scuba diving tourism industry...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Nobuaki Nagata, Atsushi Ohwaki, Daisuke Akaishi, Teiji Sota
Dytiscus sharpi is a critically endangered diving beetle endemic to Japan that is distributed in five distant areas today. Information on the population genetics of this species is crucial for its conservation. We investigated the genetic differentiation and divergence of the D. sharpi in seven populations in North and South Hokuriku on the Sea of Japan side, using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear Histone 3 and 28S rRNA gene sequences. Although the nuclear markers showed little geographic genetic differentiation, nine COI haplotypes were identified from 31 individuals, and these haplotypes were divided into two distinct networks A and B...
April 2018: Zoological Science
Jacqueline N Poston, Russell Dorer, David M Aboulafia
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a rare variant of DLBCL. The natural history of this subtype is poorly understood. Incomplete literature in the era of rituximab suggests that patients with EBV-positive DLBCL have similar outcomes to patients with EBV-negative DLBCL when treated with rituximab and anthracycline-based chemotherapy regimens; however, there are few prospective studies on this subtype and little is known about the risk of central nervous system (CNS) relapse with EBV-positive DLBCL...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Blood Disorders
Enrique Bárbara-Bataller, José Luis Méndez-Suárez, Carolina Alemán-Sánchez, Jesús Sánchez-Enríquez, Manuel Sosa-Henríquez
BACKGROUND: Traumatic spinal cord injury remains a serious public health and social problem. Although incidence rates are decreasing in our environment, it is a high cost condition that is associated with great disability. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological and demographic characteristics of traumatic spinal cord injury and to analyse its epidemiological changes. METHODS: This study was an observational study with prospective monitoring of all traumatic spinal cord injury patients in the Canary Islands, Spain (2...
April 5, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Young-Sup Lee, Donghyun Shin
Despite the importance of mutation rate, some difficulties exist in estimating it. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) data yields large numbers of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, which can make it feasible to estimate substitution rates. The genetic substitution rates of Hanwoo and Holstein cattle were estimated using NGS data. Our main findings was to calculate the gene's substitution rates. Through estimation of genetic substitution rates, we found: diving region of altered substitution density exists. This region may indicate a boundary between protected and unprotected genes...
March 2018: Genomics & Informatics
V Papadopoulou, P Germonpré, D Cosgrove, R J Eckersley, P A Dayton, G Obeid, A Boutros, M-X Tang, S Theunissen, C Balestra
PURPOSE: A reduction in ambient pressure or decompression from scuba diving can result in ultrasound-detectable venous gas emboli (VGE). These environmental exposures carry a risk of decompression sickness (DCS) which is mitigated by adherence to decompression schedules; however, bubbles are routinely observed for dives well within these limits and significant inter-personal variability in DCS risk exists. Here, we assess the variability and evolution of VGE for 2 h post-dive using echocardiography, following a standardized pool dive in calm warm conditions...
April 3, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Kristin Branson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2018: Nature Methods
Steven M Kane, Jacob Davis
The authors discuss about a patient who, while undergoing a routine procedure to drain a subcutaneous abscess within his forehead, suffered cardiac arrest that we conclude was caused by an activation of the diving response. This reflex affects homeostatic function which alters respiration and preferentially distributes oxygen stores to the heart and brain. Under some conditions, however, this reflex can also trigger cardiovascular collapse and death. The diving reflex is can begin with triggering receptors that are sensitive to cold water, submersion, or pressure within the nasal cavity and other areas supplied by the trigeminal nerve...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Hanna Tuomisto, Matleena Tuomisto, Jouni T Tuomisto
Various hypotheses have been proposed for why the traits distinguishing humans from other primates originally evolved, and any given trait may have been explained both as an adaptation to different environments and as a result of demands from social organization or sexual selection. To find out how popular the different explanations are among scientists, we carried out an online survey among authors of recent scientific papers in journals covering relevant fields of science (paleoanthropology, paleontology, ecology, evolution, human biology)...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Karen Filbee-Dexter, Thomas Wernberg, Kjell Magnus Norderhaug, Eva Ramirez-Llodra, Morten Foldager Pedersen
Resource subsidies in the form of allochthonous primary production drive secondary production in many ecosystems, often sustaining diversity and overall productivity. Despite their importance in structuring marine communities, there is little understanding of how subsidies move through juxtaposed habitats and into recipient communities. We investigated the transport of detritus from kelp forests to a deep Arctic fjord (northern Norway). We quantified the seasonal abundance and size structure of kelp detritus in shallow subtidal (0‒12 m), deep subtidal (12‒85 m), and deep fjord (400‒450 m) habitats using a combination of camera surveys, dive observations, and detritus collections over 1 year...
March 31, 2018: Oecologia
Neil Tuttle, Alexandra Brelis, Rachel Brereton, Kerrie Evans
A 54-year-old woman presented to a Sports Physician with a 4-year history of haemochromatosis, and she had a medical history that included a congenital spondylolisthesis resulting in a fusion of L4-S1 at age 16 years, episodic mechanical low back pain and an absence of other significant musculoskeletal symptoms. On presentation, she reported 18 months of severe low back pain that started after a scuba diving trip. After the onset of this low back pain, she developed gastrointestinal symptoms from Salmonella The gastrointestinal symptoms improved with a course of antibiotics, but the back pain persisted in spite of analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories and several attempts at different conservative management...
March 28, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
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