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Cherie Walker, Peter Sinclair, Kenneth Graham, Stephen Cobley
Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) may offer an ecologically valid, reliable, and practical method for biomechanical performance analysis. With such potential in mind, Part 1 of this study examined the accuracy of IMUs gyroscopes with an optical system (Cortex 3.3). A calibration formula standardised the IMUs angular velocity output with the optical system. The percentage differences between the two measures = 0.5% (p < 0.05), suggest IMU's efficacy for application. In Part 2, the aim was to examine and understand how dive flight angular velocity time series plots change and increase according to dive degree of difficulty...
October 20, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
April Hayward, Mariela Pajuelo, Catherine G Haase, David M Anderson, James F Gillooly
Dive duration in air-breathing vertebrates is thought to be constrained by the volume of oxygen stored in the body and the rate at which it is consumed (i.e., "oxygen store/usage hypothesis"). The body mass-dependence of dive duration among endothermic vertebrates is largely supportive of this model, but previous analyses of ectothermic vertebrates show no such body mass-dependence. Here we show that dive duration in both endotherms and ectotherms largely support the oxygen store/usage hypothesis after accounting for the well-established effects of temperature on oxygen consumption rates...
2016: PeerJ
Richard L Pyle, Raymond Boland, Holly Bolick, Brian W Bowen, Christina J Bradley, Corinne Kane, Randall K Kosaki, Ross Langston, Ken Longenecker, Anthony Montgomery, Frank A Parrish, Brian N Popp, John Rooney, Celia M Smith, Daniel Wagner, Heather L Spalding
Although the existence of coral-reef habitats at depths to 165 m in tropical regions has been known for decades, the richness, diversity, and ecological importance of mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) has only recently become widely acknowledged. During an interdisciplinary effort spanning more than two decades, we characterized the most expansive MCEs ever recorded, with vast macroalgal communities and areas of 100% coral cover between depths of 50-90 m extending for tens of km(2) in the Hawaiian Archipelago...
2016: PeerJ
Lynn Babcock, Cody S Olsen, David M Jaffe, Julie C Leonard
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to ascertain potential factors associated with cervical spine injuries in children injured during sports and recreational activities. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter retrospective case-control study involving children younger than 16 years who presented to emergency departments after blunt trauma and underwent cervical spine radiography. Cases had cervical spine injury from sports or recreational activities (n = 179)...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Frank F Vincenzi, Philippe Lunetta
While SCUBA diving, a 44-year-old Caucasian patient had an abnormal cardiac rhythm, presumably Torsade de Pointes (TdP), during the initial descent to depth. Upon surfacing, she developed ventricular fibrillation and died. The patient had been treated for mild depression for nearly a year with citalopram 60 mg per day, a drug known to cause prolonged QT interval. She had also been treated with two potentially hepatotoxic drugs. Liver impairment causes selective loss of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 activity, the major pathway for metabolism of citalopram...
December 2015: Drug Saf Case Rep
Ala'a O Oteir, Karen Smith, Johannes U Stoelwinder, Shelley Cox, James W Middleton, Paul A Jennings
BACKGROUND: Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury (TSCI) is relatively uncommon, yet a devastating and costly condition. Despite the human and social impacts, studies describing patients with potential TSCI in the pre-hospital setting are scarce. This paper aims to describe the epidemiology of patients potentially at risk of or suspected to have a TSCI by paramedics, with a view to providing a better understanding of factors associated with potential TSCI. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of all adult patients managed and transported by Ambulance Victoria (AV) between 01 January 2007 and 31 December 2012 who, based on meeting pre-hospital triage protocols and criteria for spinal clearance, paramedic suspicion or spinal immobilisation, were classified to be at risk of or suspected to have a TSCI...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
Laura A Thompson, Tracy A Romano
Increased pressure, associated with diving, can alter cell function through several mechanisms and has been shown to impact immune functions performed by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in humans. While marine mammals possess specific adaptations which protect them from dive related injury, it is unknown how their immune system is adapted to the challenges associated with diving. The purpose of this study was to measure PBMC activation (IL2R expression) and Concanavalin A induced lymphocyte proliferation (BrdU incorporation) in belugas following in vitro pressure exposures during baseline, Out of Water Examination (OWE) and capture/release conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
B L Aigner, D A Herbert, G P Dively, D Venugopal, J Whalen, B Cissel, T P Kuhar, C C Brewster, J W Hogue, E Seymore
Sampling soybean fields for the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), can be challenging. Both adults and nymphs have a "startle response" and drop to the ground with even the slightest disturbance. This behavior could reduce the effectiveness of the traditional sweep net and ground cloth sampling methods. In 2013 and 2014, in Virginia, Delaware, and Maryland, we evaluated a visual plant inspection method that consisted of counting the number of brown marmorated stink bug nymphs and adults seen on soybean plants in a 2-min inspection period while walking carefully between two rows...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Tsuyoshi Momose, Jean-Paul Concordet
More and more genomes are sequenced and a great range of biological questions can be examined at the genomic level in a growing number of organisms. Testing the function of genome features, from gene networks, genome organization, conserved non-coding sequences to microRNAs, and, more generally, experimentally addressing the genotype-phenotype relationship is now possible owing to the clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 revolution of genome editing. In the present review, we give a brief overview of the CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox and different strategies for genome editing currently available...
October 11, 2016: Marine Genomics
Hideharu Domoto, Keiichi Iwaya, Fumitaka Ikomi, Hirotaka Matsuo, Yutaka Tadano, Shigenori Fujii, Kazuyoshi Tachi, Yoshiyuki Itoh, Michiya Sato, Kimitoshi Inoue, Nariyoshi Shinomiya
Saturation diving (SD) is one of the safest techniques for tolerating hyperbaric conditions for long durations. However, the changes in the human plasma protein profile that occur during SD are unknown. To identify differential protein expression during or after SD, 65 blood samples from 15 healthy Japanese men trained in SD were analyzed by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis. The expression of two proteins, one 32.4 kDa with an isoelectric point (pI) of 5.8 and the other 44.8 kDa with pI 4...
2016: PloS One
Raffaele Giubbini, Alessia Peli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Brittany M Rowley, Peter Buzzacott, Petar J Denoble
Adult male recreational diver fatalities (n = 698) in North America from 2004 to 2013 were examined. Compared with non-harvesters, boat (86 vs 59%), solo (26 vs 13%) and night diving (10 vs 3%) were more common among harvesters. Of the divers who were low-on or out-of air, 20% were harvesters and 11% non-harvesters (OR = 2.0, P = 0.03).
July 2016: Journal of Travel Medicine
P Lafère, C Balestra, W Hemelryck, F Guerrero, P Germonpré
Although many factors contributing to inert gas narcosis onset and severity have been put forward, the available evidence is not particularly strong. Using objective criteria, we have assessed brain impairment associated with narcosis under various environmental diving conditions. 40 volunteers performed a no-decompression dive (33 m for 20 min) either in a dry chamber, a pool or open sea. They were assessed by critical flicker fusion frequency before the dive, upon arriving at depth, 5 min before ascent, on surfacing and 30 min post-dive...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Thomas I Talpalar, Adolfo E Talpalar
Hyperbaric environments induce the high pressure neurological syndrome (HPNS) characterized by hyperexcitability of the central nervous system (CNS) and memory impairment. Human divers and other animals experience the HPNS at pressures beyond 1.1 MPa. High pressure depresses synaptic transmission and alters its dynamics in various animal models. Medial perforant path (MPP) synapses connecting the medial entorhinal cortex with the hippocampal formation are suppressed by 50% at 10.1MPa. Reduction of synaptic inputs is paradoxically associated with enhanced ability of dentate gyrus (DG)' granule cells (GCs) to generate spikes at high pressure...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
B L Chilvers, G Finlayson, E J Candy, A Sriram, K J Morgan, J F Cockrem
Whether oiled wildlife should be rehabilitated during an oil spill is internationally debated. Research on little penguins (LP, Eudyptula minor) rehabilitated and released back into a cleaned environment after the New Zealand C/V Rena grounding oil spill in 2011 found the rehabilitation process was effective at treating and reversing the negative effects of oil-contamination on penguin post-release survival, productivity and diving behaviour. Here we investigated the acute corticosterone stress response of LPs to determine if responses of rehabilitated birds differed from those of "control" birds...
October 7, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
James P B O'Connor, Eric O Aboagye, Judith E Adams, Hugo J W L Aerts, Sally F Barrington, Ambros J Beer, Ronald Boellaard, Sarah E Bohndiek, Michael Brady, Gina Brown, David L Buckley, Thomas L Chenevert, Laurence P Clarke, Sandra Collette, Gary J Cook, Nandita M deSouza, John C Dickson, Caroline Dive, Jeffrey L Evelhoch, Corinne Faivre-Finn, Ferdia A Gallagher, Fiona J Gilbert, Robert J Gillies, Vicky Goh, John R Griffiths, Ashley M Groves, Steve Halligan, Adrian L Harris, David J Hawkes, Otto S Hoekstra, Erich P Huang, Brian F Hutton, Edward F Jackson, Gordon C Jayson, Andrew Jones, Dow-Mu Koh, Denis Lacombe, Philippe Lambin, Nathalie Lassau, Martin O Leach, Ting-Yim Lee, Edward L Leen, Jason S Lewis, Yan Liu, Mark F Lythgoe, Prakash Manoharan, Ross J Maxwell, Kenneth A Miles, Bruno Morgan, Steve Morris, Tony Ng, Anwar R Padhani, Geoff J M Parker, Mike Partridge, Arvind P Pathak, Andrew C Peet, Shonit Punwani, Andrew R Reynolds, Simon P Robinson, Lalitha K Shankar, Ricky A Sharma, Dmitry Soloviev, Sigrid Stroobants, Daniel C Sullivan, Stuart A Taylor, Paul S Tofts, Gillian M Tozer, Marcel van Herk, Simon Walker-Samuel, James Wason, Kaye J Williams, Paul Workman, Thomas E Yankeelov, Kevin M Brindle, Lisa M McShane, Alan Jackson, John C Waterton
Imaging biomarkers (IBs) are integral to the routine management of patients with cancer. IBs used daily in oncology include clinical TNM stage, objective response and left ventricular ejection fraction. Other CT, MRI, PET and ultrasonography biomarkers are used extensively in cancer research and drug development. New IBs need to be established either as useful tools for testing research hypotheses in clinical trials and research studies, or as clinical decision-making tools for use in healthcare, by crossing 'translational gaps' through validation and qualification...
October 11, 2016: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
Rebecca Johnson
Dive medicine bodies worldwide recognise that, with comprehensive screening and careful management, people with insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) can dive safely. Despite this, people with IDDM in Australia are generally denied access to dive training, an out-dated status quo that is not acceptable to the Australian diabetes community. This paper reflects upon the important advocacy work that has been done to progress this issue, and what is still required to open up access and bring Australia into line with more flexible and supportive international standards...
September 2016: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Rebecca Johnson
Some people with well-managed insulin-dependent diabetes can dive safely. Those cleared to participate should control tightly the variables that impact blood glucose levels, including activity, timing, food and insulin. Honest self-assessment is critical. A diabetic diver should cancel a dive if seasick, unusually anxious, or following significant high or low blood glucose levels in the preceding 24 hours. The diver should enter the water with a blood glucose level above 8.3 mmol·L⁻¹ and below 14 mmol·L⁻¹ with a stable or rising trend in blood glucose established with glucose tests at 90, 60, and 30 minutes prior to a dive...
September 2016: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Leah Potts, Peter Buzzacott, Petar Denoble
INTRODUCTION: Cave divers enter an inherently dangerous environment that often includes little visibility, maze-like passageways and a ceiling of rock that prevents a direct ascent to the surface in the event of a problem. METHODS: Reports of cave diving fatality cases occurring between 01 July 1985 and 30 June 2015 collected by Divers Alert Network were reviewed. Training status, safety rules violated, relevancy of the violations, and root causes leading to death were determined...
September 2016: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Julie Vinkel, Peter Bak, Ole Hyldegaard
AIM: The purpose was to explore causative tendencies among diving fatalities to prevent similar injuries in the future. METHODS: We report 33 fatal diving injuries that occurred among Danish divers during the period 1999-2012 in Scandinavian waters. The study was performed as a retrospective overview. The empiric data consists of police reports, forensic autopsy reports and examination of the diving equipment. Data were assembled and analyzed using Pivot and Excel...
September 2016: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
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