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Mingxia Sun, Yuan Chen, Yongmei Zheng, Mingming Zhen, Chunying Shu, Zhendong Dai, Aiping Liang, Stanislav N Gorb
: The surface of the elytra in some species of aquatic beetles displays relatively low contact angles (CAs), even showing hydrophilic properties. In this study, we report on an observation that both sexes of Cybister chinensis beetle fresh elytral surface do not exhibit uniform CA, but rather a wettability gradient along the longitudinal axis in posterior direction. The wettability is very different between females and males due to the presence (female) or absence (male) of channels on the elytral surface...
January 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
Florence E Poon, Jennifer F Provencher, Mark L Mallory, Birgit M Braune, Paul A Smith
Plastic debris has become a major pollutant in the world's oceans and is found in many seabird species from low to high latitudes. Here we compare levels of plastic ingestion from two surface feeders, northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) and black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), and two pursuit diving species, thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) and black guillemots (Cepphus grylle) in the Canadian high Arctic. This is the first report quantifying plastic ingestion in kittiwakes in this region, and as predicted, kittiwakes and fulmars had higher frequency of plastic ingestion than guillemots and murres...
January 7, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Lydia Brown
Lydia Brown tried many new hobbies while at vet school and found her favourite was scuba diving. That led to a lifelong passion for the sea 'and everything in it'. Unsurprisingly, she soon found herself beginning a career in aquaculture.
January 7, 2017: Veterinary Record
Aggeliki Quell, Thomas Sottmann, Cosima Stubenrauch
During our studies on emulsion-templated monodisperse polymer foams we found significant differences in the finestructure if the locus of initiation is changed. This motivated us to study the phase behavior of the liquid template. Our studies indicate that the template consists of droplets of three different length scales: The water droplets generated via microfluidics (∼70 μm) are surrounded by a continuous phase in which a w/o emulsion (≤100 nm) coexists with a w/o microemulsion (∼5 nm). We speculate that the w/o-emulsion droplets act as seeds for the porous finestructure observed in AIBN-initiated polymer foams...
January 6, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Leo Salas, Nadav Nur, David Ainley, Jennifer Burns, Jay Rotella, Grant Ballard
Extraction of Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni) in the Ross Sea began in 1997, following a management plan that targets the largest fish with a goal of reducing the spawning biomass by 50% over 35 yr. We investigate the potential long-term consequences of the reduced availability of this prey for Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii). Energy demands in seals are acute, especially immediately following lactation, when females must recover substantial mass and cope with molting costs. We tested the hypothesis that toothfish are critically important for adult female seals during this period...
January 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Mariana Leivas Müller Hoff, Andrej Fabrizius, Nicole U Czech-Damal, Lars P Folkow, Thorsten Burmester
The brain of diving mammals tolerates low oxygen conditions better than the brain of most terrestrial mammals. Previously, it has been demonstrated that the neurons in brain slices of the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) withstand hypoxia longer than those of mouse, and also tolerate reduced glucose supply and high lactate concentrations. This tolerance appears to be accompanied by a shift in the oxidative energy metabolism to the astrocytes in the seal while in terrestrial mammals the aerobic energy production mainly takes place in neurons...
2017: PloS One
Adam S Tenforde, Jennifer L Carlson, Audrey Chang, Kristin L Sainani, Rebecca Shultz, Jae Hyung Kim, Phil Cutti, Neville H Golden, Michael Fredericson
BACKGROUND: The female athlete triad (referred to as the triad) contributes to adverse health outcomes, including bone stress injuries (BSIs), in female athletes. Guidelines were published in 2014 for clinical management of athletes affected by the triad. PURPOSE: This study aimed to (1) classify athletes from a collegiate population of 16 sports into low-, moderate-, and high-risk categories using the Female Athlete Triad Cumulative Risk Assessment score and (2) evaluate the predictive value of the risk categories for subsequent BSIs...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
C R Philips, T P Kuhar, G P Dively, G Hamilton, J Whalen, K Kamminga
The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is an invasive stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) introduced into the United States in the mid-1990s. Since its initial establishment, it has spread throughout the east coast as far south as Georgia, and as far north as New Hampshire. While information is available regarding H. halys behavior and life history in some crops, relatively little information is available for vegetables such as peppers. Key questions include understanding when H. halys enters pepper fields to feed and how best to predict infestations, what population levels create economic damage, and if peppers that vary in capsaicin levels also vary in susceptibility to attack...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Ågot Irgens, Kari Troland, Rune Djurhuus, Marit Grønning
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to compare diving exposure and health effects in different areas of professional diving. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Norwegian Labour Inspection Authority's Diving Register contains data on all professional inshore divers who have held a diving certificate at any time since 1980. Of these divers, the "Norwegian diver 2011" questionnaire was completed by 2848 (48.7%). A total of 1167 male divers reported that they often worked in one area of diving only (rescue diving, diving instruction, fish farming, quay/construction work and offshore/oil related)...
2016: International Maritime Health
Julia Canzian, Barbara D Fontana, Vanessa A Quadros, Denis B Rosemberg
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an emergent model organism for assessing fear and anxiety-like phenotypes. The short fin wild type (WT), and leopard (leo) are two zebrafish populations that present several behavioral differences, in which leo displays pronounced defensive responses. Mounting evidence suggests a modulatory role for cholinergic and purinergic signaling in fear and anxiety, but the involvement of these neurotransmitter systems in the behavioral profile of zebrafish is obscure. Here we tested whether the acute exposure to conspecific alarm substance (AS), an experimental protocol that induces fear, alters shoaling behavior, diving response, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and nucleotide hydrolysis in brain tissue of WT and leo...
December 19, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Jean-Louis Denis, Susan Usher
In their 2016 article, Saltman and Duran provide a thoughtful examination of the governance challenges involved in different care delivery models adopted in primary care and hospitals in two European countries. This commentary examines the limited potential of structural changes to achieve real reform and considers that, unless governance arrangements actually succeed in penetrating organizations, they are unlikely to improve care. It proposes three sets of levers influenced by governance that have potential to influence what happens at the point of care: harnessing the autonomy and expertise of professionals at a collective level to work towards better safety and quality; creating enabling contexts for cross-fertilization of clinical and organizational expertise, notably through teamwork; and patient and public engagement to achieve greater agreement on improvement priorities and overcome provider/manager tensions...
July 3, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Ma Zhilong, Wang Qiang, Zhang Zhongsheng, Zhou Xuehong
Concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in a wetland food chain were determined at Majuan Island of the Sanjiang Plain in China. Four tissues (muscle, liver, kidney and brain) of three waterbird species (great cormorant, grey heron and great egret), muscle tissues of fish (grass carp, crucian carp and longnose gudgeon), insects (predacious diving beetle), aquatic plants (ditch reed) and soil were analyzed. The mean concentrations of T-Hg were 0.392 ± 0.237 mg/kg for tissues of all juveniles, 1...
December 20, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Cecile Rouanet-Mehouas, Bertrand Czarny, Fabrice Beau, Evelyne Cassar-Lajeunesse, Enrico A Stura, Vincent Dive, Laurent Devel
The most exploited strategy to develop potent zinc-metalloprotease inhibitors relies on a core zinc chelator and a peptidic or nonpeptidic scaffold that provides supplementary interactions for optimized potency and selectivity. Applied to matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) with highly conserved catalytic domains, this strategy failed to identify inhibitors with the desired selectivity profiles. To question the precise role of the zinc-binding group (ZBG), we have carried out a study on MMP-12 inhibitors with a common peptidic core but different ZBGs...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Gyaninder Pal Singh, Tumul Chowdhury, Barkha Bindu, Bernhard Schaller
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is an unexplained death in infants, which usually occurs during sleep. The cause of SIDS remains unknown and multifactorial. In this regard, the diving reflex (DR), a peripheral subtype of trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR), is also hypothesized as one of the possible mechanisms for this condition. The TCR is a well-established neurogenic reflex that manifests as bradycardia, hypotension, apnea, and gastric hypermotility. The TCR shares many similarities with the DR, which is a significant physiological adaptation to withstand hypoxia during apnea in many animal species including humans in clinical manifestation and mechanism of action...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Angela Fago, Daniel Garcia Parraga, Elin E Petersen, Niels Kristensen, Lea Giouri, Frank B Jensen
The ability of marine mammals to hunt prey at depth is known to rely on enhanced oxygen stores and on selective distribution of blood flow, but the molecular mechanisms regulating blood flow and oxygen transport remain unresolved. To investigate the molecular mechanisms that may be important in regulating blood flow, we measured concentration of nitrite and S-nitrosothiols (SNO), two metabolites of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO), in the blood of 5 species of marine mammals differing in their dive duration: bottlenose dolphin, South American sea lion, harbor seal, walrus and beluga whale...
December 18, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Richard K Bono, Julia Clarke, John A Tarduno, Donald Brinkman
Bird fossils from Turonian (ca. 90 Ma) sediments of Axel Heiberg Island (High Canadian Arctic) are among the earliest North American records. The morphology of a large well-preserved humerus supports identification of a new volant, possibly diving, ornithurine species (Tingmiatornis arctica). The new bird fossils are part of a freshwater vertebrate fossil assemblage that documents a period of extreme climatic warmth without seasonal ice, with minimum mean annual temperatures of 14 °C. The extreme warmth allowed species expansion and establishment of an ecosystem more easily able to support large birds, especially in fresh water bodies such as those present in the Turonian High Arctic...
December 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Duo-Neng Liu, Zhong-Xi Hou, Zheng Guo, Xi-Xiang Yang, Xian-Zhong Gao
Albatrosses can make use of the dynamic soaring technique extracting energy from the wind field to achieve large-scale movement without a flap, which stimulates interests in effortless flight with small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). However, mechanisms of energy harvesting in terms of the energy transfer from the wind to the flyer (albatross or UAV) are still indeterminate and controversial when using different reference frames in previous studies. In this paper, the classical four-phase Rayleigh cycle, includes sequentially upwind climb, downwind turn, downwind dive and upwind turn, is introduced in analyses of energy gain with the albatross's equation of motions and the simulated trajectory in dynamic soaring...
December 19, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Anthony C Gill, John J Pogonoski
Pseudotrichonotus belos new species, described from three specimens trawled in 100-120 m offshore between Exmouth Gulf and Shark Bay, Western Australia, represents the first record of the sand-diving fish family Pseudotrichonotidae from Australian waters. It differs from its two congeners in having a more posteriorly positioned dorsal fin (predorsal length 39.6-41.2 % SL) and fewer dorsal- and anal-fin rays (31-33 and 12, respectively).
December 5, 2016: Zootaxa
Neal L Evenhuis, Yao Gang
The bee fly genus Euchariomyia Bigot is reviewed and new records from the Oriental Region are given. Five names (for four species-level taxa) have been associated with species in the genus. Examinations of types, as well as homotypic and topotypic specimens, shows all five names to belong to a highly variable single species, Euchariomyia dives Bigot. The following species are here shown to be the same as Euchariomyia dives Bigot: Bombylius pulchellus Wulp, 1880, Bombylius scintillans Brunetti, 1909, and Bombylius brunettii Senior-White, 1922, n...
December 6, 2016: Zootaxa
Helena Katz, Olle Johansson
In the present study, a detailed histological description of the female reproductive tract of South American fur seal (Arctophoca australis) pups has been conducted. The uterine tube was covered by cuboidal to columnar epithelium; nerve fibers were present in the mesosalpinx and beneath the muscular layer. The uterus was bipartitus; the endometrial surface of the horns was lined by a simple cuboidal or columnar epithelium with deep tubular glands; caudally ("the transition area"), the epithelium changed to pseudostratified columnar, few tubular glands were present and the myometrium increased in width...
December 16, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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