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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465422/elevated-postmortem-vitreous-sodium-and-chloride-level-in-a-salt-water-drowning-death-during-self-contained-underwater-breathing-apparatus-diving-with-diving-mask-in-place-case-report
#1
Rexson Tse, Jack Garland, Kilak Kesha, Paul Morrow, Hannah Elstub, Allan Cala, Amy Spark, Simon Stables, Martin Sage
Elevation of postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride (PMVSC) levels in salt water drowning (SWD) is hypothesized to result from electrolyte changes in blood from salt water inhalation/ingestion during drowning. After approximately 1 hour after death, electrolytes may diffuse into the vitreous humor via the eye coverings. This hypothesis was based on a study where bovine eyeballs were immersed in salt water. There is no human study that could confirm that SWD would result in an initial elevation of PMVSC with no effects from immersion...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460254/diagnosis-of-arterial-gas-embolism-in-scuba-diving-modification-suggestion-of-autopsy-techniques-and-experience-in-eight-cases
#2
Josep M Casadesús, Fernando Aguirre, Ana Carrera, Pere Boadas-Vaello, Maria T Serrando, Francisco Reina
The purpose of this study was to suggest modifications of autopsy techniques in order to improve post-mortem diagnosis of arterial gas embolism (AGE) based on multidisciplinary investigation of SCUBA diving fatalities. Five adult human cadavers from the voluntary donation program of the Human Anatomy Laboratory, and eight judicial autopsied bodies of SCUBA divers from the Forensic Pathology Service were assessed. Before performing any autopsies, we accessed the diving plan and the divers' profiles for each case...
February 19, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456829/processing-of-acceleration-and-dive-data-on-board-satellite-relay-tags-to-investigate-diving-and-foraging-behaviour-in-free-ranging-marine-predators
#3
Sam L Cox, Florian Orgeret, Mathieu Gesta, Charles Rodde, Isaac Heizer, Henri Weimerskirch, Christophe Guinet
Biologging technologies are changing the way in which the marine environment is observed and monitored. However, because device retrieval is typically required to access the high-resolution data they collect, their use is generally restricted to those animals that predictably return to land. Data abstraction and transmission techniques aim to address this, although currently these are limited in scope and do not incorporate, for example, acceleration measurements which can quantify animal behaviours and movement patterns over fine-scales...
January 2018: Methods in Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456518/environmental-physiology-and-diving-medicine
#4
REVIEW
Gerardo Bosco, Alex Rizzato, Richard E Moon, Enrico M Camporesi
Man's experience and exploration of the underwater environment has been recorded from ancient times and today encompasses large sections of the population for sport enjoyment, recreational and commercial purpose, as well as military strategic goals. Knowledge, respect and maintenance of the underwater world is an essential development for our future and the knowledge acquired over the last few dozen years will change rapidly in the near future with plans to establish secure habitats with specific long-term goals of exploration, maintenance and survival...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453356/coastal-polynyas-winter-oases-for-subadult-southern-elephant-seals-in-east-antarctica
#5
Sara Labrousse, Guy Williams, Takeshi Tamura, Sophie Bestley, Jean-Baptiste Sallée, Alexander D Fraser, Michael Sumner, Fabien Roquet, Karine Heerah, Baptiste Picard, Christophe Guinet, Robert Harcourt, Clive McMahon, Mark A Hindell, Jean-Benoit Charrassin
Antarctic coastal polynyas are regions of persistent open water and are thought to be key bio-physical features within the sea-ice zone. However, their use by the upper trophic levels of ecosystems remains unclear. A unique bio-physical dataset recorded by southern elephant seals reveals that East Antarctic polynyas are a key winter foraging habitat for male seals. During their post-moult trips from Isles Kerguelen to the Antarctic continental shelf, a total of 18 out of 23 seals visited 9 different polynyas, spending on average 25 ± 20% (up to 75%) of their total trip time inside polynyas...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450499/otorhinolaryngology-and-diving-part-2-otorhinolaryngological-fitness-for-compressed-gas-scuba-diving-a-review
#6
Matt Lechner, Liam Sutton, Jonathan M Fishman, David M Kaylie, Richard E Moon, Liam Masterson, Christoph Klingmann, Martin A Birchall, Valerie J Lund, John S Rubin
Importance: Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) diving has become increasingly popular with millions of people diving each year. Otorhinolaryngologists are often consulted either by patients or diving physicians regarding fitness to dive, and at present, the guidelines do not provide comprehensive information regarding the evaluation of this patient cohort. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of existing otorhinolaryngological guidelines for fitness to dive recreationally...
February 15, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450472/otorhinolaryngology-and-diving-part-1-otorhinolaryngological-hazards-related-to-compressed-gas-scuba-diving-a-review
#7
Matt Lechner, Liam Sutton, Jonathan M Fishman, David M Kaylie, Richard E Moon, Liam Masterson, Christoph Klingmann, Martin A Birchall, Valerie J Lund, John S Rubin
Importance: Scuba diving is becoming increasingly popular. However, scuba diving is associated with specific risks; 80% of adults and 85% of juvenile divers (aged 6-17 years) have been reputed to have an ear, nose, or throat complaint related to diving at some point during their diving career. Divers frequently seek advice from primary care physicians, diving physicians, and otorhinolaryngologists, not only in the acute setting, but also related to the long-term effects of diving. Observations: The principles underpinning diving-related injuries that may present to the otorhinolaryngologist rely on gas volume and gas saturation laws, and the prevention of these injuries requires both that the diver is skilled and that their anatomy allows for pressure equalization between the various anatomical compartments...
February 15, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445874/new-evidence-of-predation-on-humans-by-cookiecutter-sharks-in-kauai-hawaii
#8
Agathe Ribéreau-Gayon, David O Carter, Stephanie Regan
The feeding patterns of species of large sharks on human corpses are well documented in the literature however, that of smaller sharks are less known. This may introduce uncertainty in the medicolegal conclusions. For that reason, accurate identification of patterns of shark predation is very relevant, specifically in areas bordered by the sea. In the case described here, an unidentified lesion was noted on the body of a victim of a scuba diving accident off the island of Kauai, in Hawaii. The aim of this study was to identify the origin of the lesion and investigate its potential to inform on the context of death and/or decomposition...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445044/the-extra-burden-of-motherhood-reduced-dive-duration-associated-with-pregnancy-status-in-a-deep-diving-mammal-the-northern-elephant-seal
#9
Luis A Hückstädt, Rachel R Holser, Michael S Tift, Daniel P Costa
The cost of pregnancy is hard to study in marine mammals, particularly in species that undergo pregnancy while diving continuously at sea such as elephant seals (genus Mirounga ). We analysed the diving behaviour of confirmed pregnant and non-pregnant northern elephant seals ( M. angustirostris , n = 172) and showed that after an initial continuous increase in dive duration, dives of pregnant females become shorter after week 17. The reasons for this reduction in dive duration remain unknown, but we hypothesize that increased fetal demand for oxygen could be the cause...
February 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445018/high-rates-of-vessel-noise-disrupt-foraging-in-wild-harbour-porpoises-phocoena-phocoena
#10
Danuta Maria Wisniewska, Mark Johnson, Jonas Teilmann, Ursula Siebert, Anders Galatius, Rune Dietz, Peter Teglberg Madsen
Shipping is the dominant marine anthropogenic noise source in the world's oceans, yet we know little about vessel encounter rates, exposure levels and behavioural reactions for cetaceans in the wild, many of which rely on sound for foraging, communication and social interactions. Here, we used animal-borne acoustic tags to measure vessel noise exposure and foraging efforts in seven harbour porpoises in highly trafficked coastal waters. Tagged porpoises encountered vessel noise 17-89% of the time and occasional high-noise levels coincided with vigorous fluking, bottom diving, interrupted foraging and even cessation of echolocation, leading to significantly fewer prey capture attempts at received levels greater than 96 dB re 1 µPa (16 kHz third-octave)...
February 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438428/how-will-climate-change-affect-endangered-mediterranean-waterbirds
#11
Francisco Ramírez, Carlos Rodríguez, Javier Seoane, Jordi Figuerola, Javier Bustamante
Global warming and direct anthropogenic impacts, such as water extraction, largely affect water budgets in Mediterranean wetlands, thereby increasing wetland salinities and isolation, and decreasing water depths and hydroperiods (duration of the inundation period). These wetland features are key elements structuring waterbird communities. However, the ultimate and net consequences of these dynamic conditions on waterbird assemblages are largely unknown. We combined regular sampling of waterbird presence through one annual cycle with in-situ data on relevant environmental predictors of waterbird distribution to model habitat selection for 69 species in a typical Mediterranean wetland network in southwestern Spain...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429923/corrigendum-to-diving-into-the-mammalian-swamp-of-respiratory-rhythm-generation-with-the-bullfrog-respir-physiol-neurobiol-224-2016-37-51
#12
Mufaddal I Baghdadwala, Maryana Duchcherer, William M Trask, Paul A Gray, Richard J A Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429629/matrix-metalloproteinase-12-promotes-tumor-propagation-in-the-lung
#13
Ezra Ella, Yaniv Harel, Michal Abraham, Hanna Wald, Ofra Benny, Adi Karsch-Bluman, Dive Vincent, Devel Laurent, Gail Amir, Uzi Izhar, Oz M Shapira, David Yoon, Hyun-Sung Lee, David J Sugarbaker, Bryan Burt, Amnon Peled, Ori Wald
OBJECTIVE: Past studies are inconsistent with regard to the role of matrix metalloproteinase 12 in lung tumorigenesis. This is due, in part, to differential tumorigenesis based on tumor-derived versus immune-derived matrix metalloproteinase 12 expression. Our study aims to thoroughly dissect the role of matrix metalloproteinase 12 in lung tumorigenesis. METHODS: We tested matrix metalloproteinase 12 expression and the association with prognosis using a tissue array and a published non-small cell lung cancer gene expression database...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426943/giant-rhyolite-lava-dome-formation-after-7-3-ka-supereruption-at-kikai-caldera-sw-japan
#14
Yoshiyuki Tatsumi, Keiko Suzuki-Kamata, Tetsuo Matsuno, Hiroshi Ichihara, Nobukazu Seama, Koji Kiyosugi, Reina Nakaoka, Kazuo Nakahigashi, Hideaki Takizawa, Kazuki Hayashi, Tatsuro Chiba, Satoshi Shimizu, Mamoru Sano, Hikaru Iwamaru, Haruhisa Morozumi, Hiroko Sugioka, Yojiro Yamamoto
Kikai submarine caldera to the south of the Kyushu Island, SW Japan, collapsed at 7.3 ka during the latest supereruption (>500 km3 of magma) in the Japanese Archipelago. Multi functional research surveys of the T/S Fukae Maru in this caldera, including multi-beam echosounder mapping, remotely operated vehicle observation, multi-channel seismic reflection survey, and rock sampling by dredging and diving, provided lines of evidence for creation of a giant rhyolite lava dome (~32 km3) after the caldera collapse...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422679/effects-of-the-ketogenic-diet-in-overweight-divers-breathing-enriched-air-nitrox
#15
Gerardo Bosco, Alex Rizzato, Silvia Quartesan, Enrico Camporesi, Devanand Mangar, Matteo Paganini, Lorenzo Cenci, Sandro Malacrida, Simona Mrakic-Sposta, Sara Moretti, Antonio Paoli
Central Nervous System Oxygen Toxicity (CNS-OT) is one of the most harmful effects of Enriched Air Nitrox (EAN) diving. Protective factors of the Ketogenic Diet (KD) are antioxidant activity, the prevention of mitochondrial damage and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. We aimed to investigate if a short-term KD may reduce oxidative stress and inflammation during an hyperoxic dive. Samples from six overweight divers (mean ± SD, age: 55.2 ± 4.96 years; BMI: 26.7 ± 0.86 kg/m2) were obtained a) before and after a dive breathing Enriched Air Nitrox and performing 20-minute mild underwater exercise, b) after a dive (same conditions) performed after 7 days of KD...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422603/rem-sleep-respiratory-behaviours-mental-content-in-narcoleptic-lucid-dreamers
#16
Delphine Oudiette, Pauline Dodet, Nahema Ledard, Emilie Artru, Inès Rachidi, Thomas Similowski, Isabelle Arnulf
Breathing is irregular during rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep, whereas it is stable during non-REM sleep. Why this is so remains a mystery. We propose that irregular breathing has a cortical origin and reflects the mental content of dreams, which often accompany REM sleep. We tested 21 patients with narcolepsy who had the exceptional ability to lucid dream in REM sleep, a condition in which one is conscious of dreaming during the dream and can signal lucidity with an ocular code. Sleep and respiration were monitored during multiple naps...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415636/health-care-experiences-of-korean-women-divers-jeju-haenyeos
#17
Ji In Kim, Miyoung Kim
Jeju haenyeos who enter the sea without equipment to collect seafood while holding their breath have a unique culture; however, studies of their health are limited. This study, using an ethnographic approach, explores how Jeju haenyeos have managed and maintained their health. Snowball sampling yielded 15 participants between July and October 2016. We collected data through participant observation and in-depth interviews and conducted Spradley's research sequence. The main theme of the health-management approach of these women was "a life of listening to the body and mind, controlling greed, and adjusting work for safe diving...
February 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413713/diving-into-the-consumer-nutrition-environment-a-bayesian-spatial-factor-analysis-of-neighborhood-restaurant-environment
#18
Hui Luan, Jane Law, Martin Lysy
Neighborhood restaurant environment (NRE) plays a vital role in shaping residents' eating behaviors. While NRE 'healthfulness' is a multi-facet concept, most studies evaluate it based only on restaurant type, thus largely ignoring variations of in-restaurant features. In the few studies that do account for such features, healthfulness scores are simply averaged over accessible restaurants, thereby concealing any uncertainty that attributed to neighborhoods' size or spatial correlation. To address these limitations, this paper presents a Bayesian Spatial Factor Analysis for assessing NRE healthfulness in the city of Kitchener, Canada...
February 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410789/fine-scale-movement-responses-of-free-ranging-harbour-porpoises-to-capture-tagging-and-short-term-noise-pulses-from-a-single-airgun
#19
Floris M van Beest, Jonas Teilmann, Line Hermannsen, Anders Galatius, Lonnie Mikkelsen, Signe Sveegaard, Jeppe Dalgaard Balle, Rune Dietz, Jacob Nabe-Nielsen
Knowledge about the impact of anthropogenic disturbances on the behavioural responses of cetaceans is constrained by lack of data on fine-scale movements of individuals. We equipped five free-ranging harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) with high-resolution location and dive loggers and exposed them to a single 10 inch3 underwater airgun producing high-intensity noise pulses (2-3 s intervals) for 1 min. All five porpoises responded to capture and tagging with longer, faster and more directed movements as well as with shorter, shallower, less wiggly dives immediately after release, with natural behaviour resumed in less than or equal to 24 h...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408164/the-limits-of-aerial-techniques-for-producing-twist-in-forward-1%C3%A2-somersault-dives
#20
M R Yeadon, M J Hiley
An angle-driven computer simulation model of aerial movement was used to determine the maximum amount of twist that can be produced in a forward 1½ somersault dive from a three-metre springboard using various aerial twisting techniques. The segmental inertia parameters of an elite springboard diver were used in the simulations and lower bounds were placed on the durations of arm and hip angle changes based on recorded performances of twisting somersaults. A limiting dive was identified as that producing the largest possible whole number of twists...
February 1, 2018: Human Movement Science
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