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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931687/a-dna-vaccine-that-targets-hemagglutinin-to-antigen-presenting-cells-protects-mice-against-h7-influenza
#1
Tor Kristian Andersen, Fan Zhou, Rebecca Cox, Bjarne Bogen, Gunnveig Grødeland
Zoonotic influenza H7 viral infections have a case fatality rate of about 40%. Currently no or limited human to human spread has occurred, but we may be facing a severe pandemic threat if the virus acquires the ability to transmit between humans. Novel vaccines that can be rapidly produced for global distribution are urgently needed, and DNA vaccines may be the only type of vaccine that allows for the speed necessary to quench an emerging pandemic. Here, we have constructed DNA vaccines encoding the hemagglutinin (HA) from influenza A/chicken/Italy/13474/99 (H7N1)...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931605/structural-basis-for-clonal-diversity-of-the-human-t-cell-response-to-a-dominant-influenza-virus-epitope
#2
Xinbo Yang, Guobing Chen, Nan-Ping Weng, Roy A Mariuzza
Influenza A virus (IAV) causes an acute infection in humans that is normally eliminated by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Individuals expressing the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule HLA-A2 produce cytotoxic T lymphocytes bearing T cell receptors (TCRs) that recognize the immunodominant IAV epitope GILGFVFTL (GIL). Most GIL-specific TCRs utilize α/β pairs encoded by the TRAV27/TRBV19 gene combination to recognize this relatively featureless peptide epitope (canonical TCRs). However, ~40% of GIL-specific TCRs express a wide variety of other TRAV/TRBV combinations (non-canonical TCRs)...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929455/role-of-mast-cells-in-regulation-of-t-cell-responses-in-experimental-and-clinical-settings
#3
REVIEW
Daniel Elieh Ali Komi, Korneel Grauwet
Mast cells secrete a wide spectrum of stored or newly synthesized pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and/or immunosuppressive mediators and express several costimulatory and inhibitory surface molecules. Mast cells finely tune activities of T cells, B cells, and regulatory cells and effectively contribute to the development of different T cell-associated responses by influencing their recruitment, activation, proliferation, and differentiation. The interaction between mast cells and T cells, with regard to cellular functionality and immune responses, can be assessed in both activating and inhibitory regulations...
September 19, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929317/risk-alleles-for-iga-nephropathy-associated-snps-conferred-completely-opposite-effects-to-idiopathic-membranous-nephropathy-in-chinese-han
#4
Xiaosong Qin, Chen Wang, Guanting Lu, Mengle Peng, Guixue Cheng, Hongquan Zhu, Yun Cao, Jianhua Liu, Yuzhong Li, Hong Cai, Funing Yang, Yanhong Liu, Xiaoyu Chen, Liubing Li, Nan Wan, Xiaoting Wen, Shijun Li, Ruili Nie, Dongchun Qin, Yongzhe Li, Yong Liu
The coexistence of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) and idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) in a few cases suggested that there could be existed a similar mechanism in pathogenesis of these two types of primary glomerulonephritis. In order to verify this hypothesis, a total of 23 reported IgAN-associated SNPs were genotyped in a cohort of 485 IMN patients and 569 healthy controls with Chinese Han origin. After Cochran-Armitage test for trend analysis, seven IgAN-associated SNPs located in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region were found to be significantly associated with the susceptibility of IMN, with rs9275596 as the top one (p = 1...
September 19, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924054/immunosurveillance-and-immunoediting-of-breast-cancer-via-class-i-mhc-receptors
#5
Megan M Tu, Mir Munir A Rahim, Celine Sayed, Ahmad Bakur Mahmoud, Andrew P Makrigiannis
Ly49 receptors, which recognize 'self' class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I) molecules, enable natural killer (NK) cells to detect loss of MHC-I expression on transformed and virally-infected cells. The impact of NK cell-mediated MHC-I surveillance on immunoediting of breast cancer is still not fully understood. This work assesses the impact of Ly49 receptors on tumor development in terms of cancer control and in driving immune-evading cancer mutations. Genetically modified Ly49-deficient mice and those lacking NK cells through antibody depletion were less able to control E0771-derived mammary tumors in an MHC-I-dependent fashion...
September 18, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923706/specific-interferon-tau-gene-regulation-networks-in-bovine-endometrial-luminal-epithelial-cells
#6
Gan Zhao, Kangfeng Jiang, Tao Zhang, Haichong Wu, Changwei Qiu, Ganzhen Deng
Interferon tau (IFNT) plays a critical role as a pregnancy recognition factor in early pregnancy by regulating uterine epithelial gene expression. Illuminating the relation between IFNT and pregnancy will contribute significantly to early pregnancy research in ruminants. Therefore, in this study, we treated primary bovine endometrial luminal epithelial cells (bELECs) without or with IFNT (200 ng/mL) for 6 or12 h. Subsequently, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology was used to evaluate differences in gene expression...
September 8, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923082/characterization-of-a-secreted-cystatin-of-the-parasitic-nematode-haemonchus-contortus-and-its-immune-modulatory-effect-on-goat-monocytes
#7
Yujian Wang, Lingyan Wu, Xinchao Liu, Shuai Wang, Muhammad Ehsan, RuoFeng Yan, XiaoKai Song, LiXin Xu, XiangRui Li
BACKGROUND: Haemonchosis is a disease of the small ruminant caused by a nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus, and it is most important and alarming challenges to the small ruminant's production. The infection of the H. contortus could cause high economic losses worldwide. H. contortus is a blood feeding parasite which penetrates into the abomasal mucosa to feed the blood of the host and causing the anemia and decreased total plasma protein. Modulation and suppression of the immune response of the host by nematode parasites have been reported extensively, and the cysteine protease inhibitor (cystatin) is identified as one of the major immunomodulators...
September 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921473/the-development-and-diversity-of-ilcs-nk-cells-and-their-relevance-in-health-and-diseases
#8
Yuxia Zhang, Bing Huang
Next to T and B cells, natural killer (NK) cells are the third largest lymphocyte population. They are recently re-categorized as innate lymphocytes (ILCs), which also include ILC1, ILC2, ILC3, and the lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Both NK cells and ILC1 cells are designated as group 1 ILCs because they secrete interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). However, in contrast to ILC1 and all other ILCs, NK cells possess potent cytolytic functions that resemble cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903331/the-antigenic-identity-of-human-class-i-mhc-phosphopeptides-is-critically-dependent-upon-phosphorylation-status
#9
Fiyaz Mohammed, Daniel H Stones, Angela L Zarling, Carrie R Willcox, Jeffrey Shabanowitz, Kara L Cummings, Donald F Hunt, Mark Cobbold, Victor H Engelhard, Benjamin E Willcox
Dysregulated post-translational modification provides a source of altered self-antigens that can stimulate immune responses in autoimmunity, inflammation, and cancer. In recent years, phosphorylated peptides have emerged as a group of tumour-associated antigens presented by MHC molecules and recognised by T cells, and represent promising candidates for cancer immunotherapy. However, the impact of phosphorylation on the antigenic identity of phosphopeptide epitopes is unclear. Here we examined this by determining structures of MHC-bound phosphopeptides bearing canonical position 4-phosphorylations in the presence and absence of their phosphate moiety, and examining phosphopeptide recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR)...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901194/acute-renal-graft-versus-host-disease-in-a-murine-model-of-allogeneic-bone-marrow-transplantation
#10
Peter M Schmid, Abdellatif Bouazzaoui, Karin Schmid, Christoph Birner, Christian Schach, Lars S Maier, Ernst Holler, Dierk H Endemann
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a very common complication after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and is associated with a poor prognosis. Generally, the kidneys are assumed to not be no direct targets of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), and renal impairment is often attributed to several other factors occurring in the early phase after BMT. Our study aimed to prove the existence of renal GvHD in a fully major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched model of BALB/c mice conditioned and transplanted according to 2 different intensity protocols...
August 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900681/regulatory-dendritic-cells
#11
Katsuaki Sato, Tomofumi Uto, Tomohiro Fukaya, Hideaki Takagi
Dendritic cells (DCs) comprise heterogeneous subsets, functionally classified into conventional DCs (cDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). DCs are considered to be essential antigen (Ag)-presenting cells (APCs) that play crucial roles in activation and fine-tuning of innate and adaptive immunity under inflammatory conditions, as well as induction of immune tolerance to maintain immune homeostasis under steady-state conditions. Furthermore, DC functions can be modified and influenced by stimulation with various extrinsic factors, such as ligands for pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and cytokines...
September 13, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900640/pph4cl-in-aqueous-solution-the-aggregation-behavior-of-an-antagonistic-salt
#12
Robert Winkler, Thomas Buchecker, Florian Hastreiter, Didier Touraud, Werner Kunz
The initial definition of hydrotropy by Neuberg in 1916 describes a hydrotrope as a molecule which enhances the solubilization of hydrophobic substances in water. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium xylene sulfonate (SXS) are typical representatives fulfilling this old definition. They are either surfactants with a critical micellar concentration (CMC) or hydrotropes in the current sense of the term, showing a minimum hydrotrope concentration (MHC), respectively. In the present contribution, we consider the antagonistic salt PPh4Cl as a hydrotrope...
September 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894277/host-expression-of-the-cd8-treg-nk-cell-restriction-element-qa-1-is-dispensable-for-transplant-tolerance
#13
Blair T Stocks, Christopher S Wilson, Andrew F Marshall, Lauren A Brewer, Daniel J Moore
Disruption of the non-classical Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Ib molecule Qa-1 impairs CD8 Treg and natural killer (NK) cell function and promotes a lupus-like autoimmune disease. This immune perturbation would be expected to enhance anti-transplant responses and impair tolerance induction, but the effect of Qa-1 deficiency on the transplant response has not been previously reported. Qa-1 deficiency enhanced CD4 TFH and germinal center (GC) B cell numbers in naïve mice and hastened islet allograft rejection...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892257/candidate-gene-molecular-markers-as-tools-for-analyzing-genetic-susceptibility-to-morbillivirus-infection-in-stranded-cetaceans
#14
Karla Stejskalova, Zuzana Bayerova, Jan Futas, Kristyna Hrazdilova, Marie Klumplerova, Jan Oppelt, Petra Splichalova, Giovanni Di Guardo, Sandro Mazzariol, Cristina Esmeralda Di Francesco, Gabriella Di Francesco, Giuliana Terracciano, Romulus-Marian Paiu, Teodor Dan Ursache, David Modry, Petr Horin
Morbilliviruses, such as Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) or Phocine distemper virus (PDV), represent a growing threat for marine mammals on both hemispheres. Since free-ranging animal populations strongly rely on natural resistance mechanisms, innate immunity related genes and virus cell entry receptor genes may represent key factors involved in susceptibility to CeMV in Cetaceans. Using the next generation sequencing technology, we have sequenced eleven candidate genes in two model species, Stenella coeruleoalba and Phocoena phocoena...
September 11, 2017: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889256/structural-and-functional-diversity-arising-from-intra-and-inter-haplotype-combinations-of-duplicated-dqa-and-b-loci-within-the-ovine-mhc
#15
Keith T Ballingall, Isabelle Lantier, Helen Todd, Frederic Lantier, Mara Rocchi
In sheep, the A and B loci encoding the α and β chains of the classical class II MHC molecules are DRA and DRB and DQA and DQB. Previous analyses described the duplication of the DQA and DQB genes. The majority of haplotypes include DQA1 and DQA2 loci, however, in a number of haplotypes, DQA1 appears absent and these haplotypes have been described as DQA1 null. In these haplotypes, the DQA2 locus is found in combination with a second locus which appeared more closely related to DQA2 than DQA1, hence the description of this locus as DQA2-like...
September 9, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888143/synthetic-zwitterionic-polysaccharides
#16
REVIEW
Qingju Zhang, Herman S Overkleeft, Gijsbert A van der Marel, Jeroen Dc Codée
Zwitterionic polysaccharides (ZPSs) are a unique class of polysaccharides that are capable of eliciting a T-cell response after being processed by antigen presenting cells and presented on MHC II molecules. In addition, they have also been shown to be potent stimulators of the innate arm of the immune system. To unravel the molecular details of their remarkable immunological activity, various synthetic approaches to assemble fragments towards these polysaccharides have been reported. This review describes these efforts, illustrating the immense challenges presented by these inspiring structures...
September 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881567/restoration-of-immune-surface-molecules-in-kaposi-sarcoma-associated-herpes-virus-infected-cells-by-lenalidomide-and-pomalidomide
#17
David A Davis, Suraj Mishra, Holda A Anagho, Ashley I Aisabor, Prabha Shrestha, Victoria Wang, Yuki Takamatsu, Kenji Maeda, Hiroaki Mitsuya, Jerome B Zeldis, Robert Yarchoan
Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the cause of several tumors, including Kaposi sarcoma and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). Most viruses have evolved means of escaping immune recognition. KSHV downregulates MHC-I expression during lytic infection, and expression of ICAM-1 and B7-2 (CD86) during latent infection, allowing evasion of T cell and natural killer immunity respectively. These effects are largely mediated by two KSHV-encoded proteins, K3 and K5. We show here that lenalidomide (Len) and pomalidomide (Pom) prevent down-regulation of MHC-I during lytic activation, and restore ICAM-1 and B7-2 surface expression in latently infected PEL cells...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878119/pharmacologic-hiv-1-nef-blockade-promotes-cd8-t-cell-mediated-elimination-of-latently-hiv-1-infected-cells-in-vitro
#18
Shariq Mujib, Aamir Saiyed, Saleh Fadel, Ardalan Bozorgzad, Nasra Aidarus, Feng Yun Yue, Erika Benko, Colin Kovacs, Lori A Emert-Sedlak, Thomas E Smithgall, Mario A Ostrowski
Eradication of the HIV-1 latent reservoir represents the current paradigm to developing a cure for AIDS. HIV-1 has evolved multiple mechanisms to evade CD8 T cell responses, including HIV-1 Nef-mediated downregulation of MHC-I from the surface of infected cells. Nef transcripts and protein are detectable in samples from aviremic donors, suggesting that Nef expression in latently HIV-1-infected CD4 T cells protects them from immune-mediated clearance. Here, we tested 4 small molecule inhibitors of HIV-1 Nef in an in vitro primary CD4 T cell latency model and measured the ability of autologous ex vivo or HIV-1 peptide-expanded CD8 T cells to recognize and kill latently infected cells as a function of inhibitor treatment...
September 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878071/zika-virus-escapes-nk-cell-detection-by-upregulating-mhc-class-i-molecules
#19
Ariella Glasner, Esther Oiknine-Djian, Yiska Weisblum, Mohammad Diab, Amos Panet, Dana G Wolf, Ofer Mandelboim
NK cells are innate lymphocytes that participate in many immune processes encompassing cancer, bacterial and fungal infection, autoimmunity and even pregnancy and are specialize in anti-viral defense. NK cells express inhibitory and activating receptors and kill their targets when activating signals overpower the inhibitory ones. The NK cell inhibitory receptors compose of a uniquely diverse array of proteins named Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) the CD94 family and the leukocyte immunoglobulin like receptor family (LIR)...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877980/nad-metabolism-fuels-human-and-mouse-intestinal-inflammation
#20
Romana R Gerner, Victoria Klepsch, Sophie Macheiner, Kathrin Arnhard, Timon E Adolph, Christoph Grander, Verena Wieser, Alexandra Pfister, Patrizia Moser, Natascha Hermann-Kleiter, Gottfried Baier, Herbert Oberacher, Herbert Tilg, Alexander R Moschen
OBJECTIVE: Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT, also referred to as pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor or visfatin) is critically required for the maintenance of cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) supply catalysing the rate-limiting step of the NAD salvage pathway. NAMPT is strongly upregulated in inflammation including IBD and counteracts an increased cellular NAD turnover mediated by NAD-depleting enzymes. These constitute an important mechanistic link between inflammatory, metabolic and transcriptional pathways and NAD metabolism...
September 6, 2017: Gut
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