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Helen L Barrett, Luisa F Gomez-Arango, Shelley A Wilkinson, H David McIntyre, Leonie K Callaway, Mark Morrison, Marloes Dekker Nitert
The composition of the gut microbiota can be influenced by dietary composition. In pregnancy, the maternal gut microbiome has associations with maternal and infant metabolic status. There is little known regarding the impact of a vegetarian diet in pregnancy on maternal gut microbiota. This study explored the gut microbiota profile in women who were vegetarian or omnivorous in early gestation. Women were selected from participants in the Study of PRobiotics IN Gestational diabetes (SPRING) randomised controlled trial...
July 12, 2018: Nutrients
P D Zalewski, J F Beltrame, A A Wawer, A I Abdo, C Murgia
The discovery of the roles of nitric oxide (NO) in cardiovascular signalling has led to a revolution in the understanding of cardiovascular disease. A new perspective to this story involving zinc (Zn) is emerging. Zn and its associated Zn transporter proteins are important for the integrity and functions of both the large conduit vessels and the microvascular resistance vessels. The Zn and NO pathways are tightly coordinated. Zn ions are required for the dimerization of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and subsequent generation of NO while generation of NO leads to a rapid mobilization of endothelial Zn stores...
July 12, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Kerstin Berer, Inés Martínez, Alesia Walker, Birgit Kunkel, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Jens Walter, Gurumoorthy Krishnamoorthy
The autoimmune neurological disease, Multiple Sclerosis (MS), have increased at alarming rates in the Western society over the last few decades. While there are numerous efforts to develop novel treatment approaches, there is an unmet need to identify preventive strategies. We explored whether central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity can be prevented through dietary manipulation using a spontaneous autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model. We report that the nutritional supplementation of non-fermentable fiber, common components of a vegetarian diet, in early adult life, prevents autoimmune disease...
July 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anjali D Amarapurkar, Deepak N Amarapurkar, Pravin Rathi, Prabha Sawant, Nikhil Patel, Praful Kamani, Krishnakant Rawal, Rajiv Baijal, Ameya Sonawane, Nitin Narawane, Samrat Kolekar, Naveen Totla
INTRODUCTION: Environmental risk factors have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). With rising incidence, it is important to know risk factors associated with IBD in our population. This study was aimed to evaluate risk factors for IBD from western India. METHODS: This was prospective, multi-center case-control study which included 1054 patients with IBD of which 765 (72.5%) were ulcerative colitis (UC) and 289 (27.4%) Crohn's disease (CD). Asymptomatic individuals without a history of any major illness served as controls...
July 9, 2018: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Muhammad Wajih Ullah, Afshan Amray, Aisha Qaseem, Tariq Siddiqui, Temoor Naeem
Vitamin B12 is essential for the development of healthy nerves and red blood cells. Vitamin B12 deficiency is becoming widespread and most commonly affects elderly, pregnant women, vegetarians, and patients with renal or intestinal diseases. Either parenteral vitamin B12 treatment or high-dose oral vitamin B12 treatment is an effective therapy regardless of etiology. Parenteral therapy using the intramuscular route is considered the most familiar treatment for vitamin B12 deficiency. Anaphylactic reaction after intramuscular injection is an uncommon and potentially serious side effect...
May 5, 2018: Curēus
W I Sonntag, A Spiller, M von Meyer-Höfer
A growing public concern, especially about animal welfare problems in poultry farming systems in the EU, has been addressed by numerous (mostly quantitative) studies. However, in-depth research about the underlying reasons for the lack of acceptance concerning modern poultry farming is rare. Debates on animal welfare are often polarized. Thus, this study involved 8 exploratory focus group discussions in 4 German cities. To understand the different positions and to simulate controversial debates on animal welfare, the study includes vegetarians/vegans (as a critical and involved group) and meat eaters...
July 5, 2018: Poultry Science
Philippe Chauveau, Laetitia Koppe, Christian Combe, Catherine Lasseur, Stanislas Trolonge, Michel Aparicio
While dietary restriction of protein intake has long been proposed as a possible kidney-protective treatment, the effects of changes in the quality of ingested proteins on the prevalence and risk of progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been scarcely studied; these two aspects are reviewed in the present article. The prevalence of hypertension, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, which are the main causes of CKD in Western countries, is lower in vegetarian populations. Moreover, there is a negative relationship between several components of plant-based diets and numerous factors related to CKD progression such as uraemic toxins, inflammation, oxidative stress, metabolic acidosis, phosphate load and insulin resistance...
July 5, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Sara González-García, Xavier Esteve-Llorens, Maria Teresa Moreira, Gumersindo Feijoo
Apart from industrial activities, our eating habits also have a significant environmental cost associated with crop cultivation, manufacturing processes, packaging, refrigeration, transport cooking and waste management. In a context of growing social awareness of the role of different dietary choices in the environment, the review of different alternatives on the road to a healthy and sustainable diet should integrate relevant information on the nutritional quality of different eating habits. Since dietary choices have an effect on environmental sustainability and human health, a literature review on different dietary choices has been conducted to determine the differences in carbon footprint and nutritional quality identifying the main hotspots trying to give advice towards the identification of sustainable diets...
July 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Angélica Gallego-Narbón, Belén Zapatera, Inmaculada Álvarez, M Pilar Vaquero
Cobalamin deficiency represents a health issue for vegetarians, especially vegans, if supplements are not consumed. Vitamin B12 serum levels, traditionally used to assess the vitamin B12 status, can be normal under functional deficiency conditions. In this regard, methylmalonic acid (MMA) has proven to be a more specific marker to detect subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency. In this study, we present for the first time the cobalamin status of Spanish vegetarians using both vitamin B12 and MMA markers, and the effects of the plant-based diet and the intake of vitamin B12 supplements...
July 3, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Effie Viguiliouk, Cyril Wc Kendall, Hana Kahleová, Dario Rahelić, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Vivian L Choo, Sonia Blanco Mejia, Sarah E Stewart, Lawrence A Leiter, David Ja Jenkins, John L Sievenpiper
BACKGROUND & AIMS: To update the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) clinical practice guidelines for nutrition therapy, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to summarize the evidence for the effect of vegetarian dietary patterns on glycemic control and other established cardiometabolic risk factors in individuals with diabetes. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases through February 26, 2018 for randomized controlled trials ≥3 weeks assessing the effect of vegetarian dietary patterns in individuals with diabetes...
June 13, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Micaela C Karlsen, Alice H Lichtenstein, Christina D Economos, Sara C Folta, Gail Rogers, Paul F Jacques, Kara A Livingston, Katherine M Rancaño, Nicola M McKeown
Background: Although there is interest in popular diets such as vegan and vegetarian, Paleo, and other "whole food" diets, existing cohort studies lack data for these subgroups. The use of electronic data capture and Web-based surveys in nutrition research may be valuable for future studies by allowing targeting of specific dietary subgroups. Objective: The aim was to perform a Feasibility Survey (FS) to assess the practicality of Web-based research methods to gather data and to maximize response rates among followers of popular diets...
May 2018: Current developments in nutrition
Zhangling Chen, Maria Geertruida Zuurmond, Niels van der Schaft, Jana Nano, Hanneke Anna Hendrikje Wijnhoven, Mohammad Arfan Ikram, Oscar Horacio Franco, Trudy Voortman
Vegan or vegetarian diets have been suggested to reduce type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. However, not much is known on whether variation in the degree of having a plant-based versus animal-based diet may be beneficial for prevention of T2D. We aimed to investigate whether level of adherence to a diet high in plant-based foods and low in animal-based foods is associated with insulin resistance, prediabetes, and T2D. Our analysis included 6798 participants (62.7 ± 7.8 years) from the Rotterdam Study (RS), a prospective population-based cohort in the Netherlands...
June 8, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Paul Henry Golding
Background: In 1962 Victor Herbert developed megaloblastic anaemia four months after commencing a severely folate-deficient diet whereas, in his self-experiment 50 years later, this author took 19 months to fully deplete his liver folate store. This author proposed that his own larger initial liver folate store, due to his vegetarian diet and consumption of fortified foods, was the cause of the time difference. Main text: This author now proposes that Herbert was also likely to have been deficient in vitamin C, thus shortening the time taken to develop folate deficiency...
2018: BMC Hematology
Abhishek Jain, Xin Hui Li, Wei Ning Chen
The interaction between diet and gut microbiota, and ultimately their link to health, has turned into the concentration of huge research. However, this relationship still needs to be fully characterized, particularly in case of the Asian population. We compared the fecal bacterial diversity and composition of healthy Indian and Chinese adults, ages 22-35 years, using next-generation sequencing analysis on IlluminaHiSeq 2500 platform. Our analysis revealed unique community structure, dominant Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and underrepresented Bacteroides, of Indian and Chinese gut bacteria...
June 23, 2018: AMB Express
Vitor de Salles Painelli, Kleiner Márcio Nemezio, Ana Jéssica, Mariana Franchi, Isabel Andrade, Luiz Augusto Riani, Bryan Saunders, Craig Sale, Roger Charles Harris, Bruno Gualano, Guilherme Giannini Artioli
PURPOSE: Cross-sectional studies suggest that training can increase muscle carnosine (MCarn), although longitudinal studies have failed to confirm this. A lack of control for dietary β-alanine intake or muscle fibre type shifting may have hampered their conclusions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on MCarn. METHODS: Twenty vegetarian men were randomly assigned to a control (CON; n=10) or HIIT (n=10) group...
June 21, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Roman Pawlak, Paul Vos, Setareh Shahab-Ferdows, Daniela Hampel, Lindsay H Allen, Maryanne Tigchelaar Perrin
Background: The nutritional profile of human milk varies significantly between women, and the impact of maternal diet on these variations is not well understood. Objective: We analyzed breast-milk vitamin B-12 concentration and vitamin B-12 supplement use pattern among women who adhered to different dietary patterns: vegan, vegetarian, and nonvegetarian. Design: A total of 74 milk samples, 29 from vegan, 19 from vegetarian, and 26 from nonvegetarian breastfeeding mothers, were analyzed...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Zoé Colombet, Benjamin Allès, Wendy Si Hassen, Aurélie Lampuré, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Sandrine Péneau, Serge Hercberg, Caroline Méjean
PURPOSE: Rebalancing the contribution of animal- and plant-based foods is needed to achieve sustainable diet. However, little is known concerning individual characteristics that may influence intake of plant-based foods and their changes over time. We aimed to assess changes in the contribution of plant-based foods to dietary intake over time and their association with individual characteristics. METHODS: The contribution of plant-based foods was assessed by percent energy intake provided by plant proteins in diet (PEIPP) and a score of adherence to a pro-vegetarian diet, using repeated 24-h records in 15,615 French adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort study...
June 18, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Penelope D Manta-Vogli, Kleopatra H Schulpis, Yannis Dotsikas, Yannis L Loukas
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is characterized by a complexity of metabolic processes that may impact fetal development and infant health outcome. Normal fetal growth and development depend on a continuous supply of nutrients via the placenta. The placenta transports, utilizes, produces and interconverts amino acids (AAs). FINDINGS: Concentrations of both nonessential and essential AAs in maternal plasma decrease in early pregnancy and persist at low concentrations throughout...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Maria C Picasso, Jessica A Lo-Tayraco, Juselly M Ramos-Villanueva, Vinay Pasupuleti, Adrian V Hernandez
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Several studies have examined the effect of vegetarian diets (VD) on metabolic syndrome (MetS) or its components, but findings have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies to assess the association between VD and MetS or its components (systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], fasting glucose triglycerides, waist circumference [WC], HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C)) in adults...
June 6, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Yonghao Tao, Lingling Ni, Shuangqin Yan, Huihui Tao, Chunli Gu, Ting Shao, Hui Cao, Yanli Sun, Shilu Tong, Fangbiao Tao
OBJECTIVE: To classify the dietary patterns in preschoolers and explore the correlation between dietary patterns and executive functions. METHODS: Between April 2014 and June 2015, 12363 preschoolers were selected from 91 kindergartens of Ma 'anshan City. The classification of dietary patterns and executive functions by Brief-P were evaluated. Unconditional binary logistics regression model was used to analyze the effects of different dietary patterns and executive functions in preschool chidlren...
July 2017: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
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