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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145911/hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-north-italy-high-seroprevalence-in-swine-herds-and-increased-risk-for-swine-workers
#1
L Mughini-Gras, G Angeloni, C Salata, N Vonesch, W D'Amico, G Campagna, A Natale, F Zuliani, L Ceglie, I Monne, M Vascellari, K Capello, G DI Martino, N Inglese, G Palù, P Tomao, L Bonfanti
We determined the hepatitis E virus (HEV) seroprevalence and detection rate in commercial swine herds in Italy's utmost pig-rich area, and assessed HEV seropositivity risk in humans as a function of occupational exposure to pigs, diet, foreign travel, medical history and hunting activities. During 2011-2014, 2700 sera from 300 swine herds were tested for anti-HEV IgG. HEV RNA was searched in 959 faecal pools from HEV-seropositive herds and in liver/bile/muscle samples from 179 pigs from HEV-positive herds. A cohort study of HEV seropositivity in swine workers (n = 149) was also performed using two comparison groups of people unexposed to swine: omnivores (n = 121) and vegetarians/vegans (n = 115)...
November 17, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145461/climate-change-mitigation-opportunities-based-on-carbon-footprint-estimates-of-dietary-patterns-in-peru
#2
Ian Vázquez-Rowe, Gustavo Larrea-Gallegos, Pedro Villanueva-Rey, Alessandro Gilardino
Food consumption accounts for an important proportion of the world GHG emissions per capita. Previous studies have delved into the nature of dietary patterns, showing that GHG reductions can be achieved in diets if certain foods are consumed rather than other, more GHG intensive products. For instance, vegetarian and low-meat diets have proved to be less carbon intensive than diets that are based on ruminant meat. These environmental patterns, increasingly analyzed in developed nations, are yet to be assessed in countries liked Peru where food purchase represents a relatively high percentage of the average household expenditure, ranging from 38% to 51% of the same...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141604/genome-wide-identification-of-mirnas-and-lncrnas-in-cajanus-cajan
#3
Chandran Nithin, Amal Thomas, Jolly Basak, Ranjit Prasad Bahadur
BACKGROUND: Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are important players in the post transcriptional regulation of gene expression (PTGR). On one hand, microRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of small ncRNAs (~22nt long) that negatively regulate gene expression at the levels of messenger RNAs stability and translation inhibition, on the other hand, long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) are a large and diverse class of transcribed non-protein coding RNA molecules (> 200nt) that play both up-regulatory as well as down-regulatory roles at the transcriptional level...
November 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137685/nutrition-research-in-cognitive-impairment-dementia-with-a-focus-on-soya-and-folate
#4
Eef Hogervorst, Shelina Kassam, Atik Kridawati, Mira Soni, Xu Xin, Xiao Shifu, Tri Budi Rahardjo
Observational studies and treatment trials investigating nutrition and cognitive function, with a focus on folate and soya and dementia, were reviewed. Data suggested that effects of folic acid based interventions may only be shown before cognitive decline is evident and/or if people are folate deficient. In older people in Indonesia, Hawai'i and China, tofu, which can contain high levels of phytoestrogens, was found to increase dementia risk. This association was not mediated by a vegetarian diet, socioeconomic status, formaldehyde, thyroid function, or loss of teeth...
November 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134507/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-orthorexia-nervosa-in-a-sample-of-university-students-in-italy
#5
L Dell'Osso, Barbara Carpita, D Muti, I M Cremone, G Massimetti, E Diadema, C Gesi, C Carmassi
AIMS: Orthorexia nervosa (ON) has been recently defined as a pathological approach to feeding related to healthiness concerns and purity of food and/or feeding habits. This condition recently showed an increasing prevalence particularly among young adults. In order to investigate the prevalence of ON and its relationship with gender and nutritional style among young adults, we explored a sample of students from the University of Pisa, Italy. METHODS: Assessments included the ORTO-15 questionnaire and a socio-demographic and eating habits form...
November 13, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113145/associations-between-nut-consumption-and-health-vary-between-omnivores-vegetarians-and-vegans
#6
Rachel C Brown, Andrew R Gray, Siew Ling Tey, Alexandra Chisholm, Victoria Burley, Darren C Greenwood, Janet Cade
Regular nut consumption is associated with reduced risk factors for chronic disease; however, most population-based studies lack consideration of effect modification by dietary pattern. The UK Women's Cohort Study (UKWCS) provides an ideal opportunity to examine relationships between nut consumption and chronic disease risk factors in a large sample with diverse dietary patterns. Nut and nutrient intake from 34,831 women was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire among self-identified omnivores, vegetarians and vegans...
November 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111152/vegetarian-or-meat-food-choice-modeling-of-main-dishes-occurs-outside-of-awareness
#7
Chelsea D Christie, Frances S Chen
It is well established that the amount eaten by other people affects how much we eat, but unanswered questions exist regarding how much the food choices of other people affect the types of food that we choose. Past research on food choice modeling has primarily been conducted in controlled laboratory situations and has focused on snack foods. The current research examines the extent to which food choice modeling of a main dish occurs in a real-life context and whether people are aware of being influenced by others...
October 27, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102321/the-maternal-fetal-gradient-of-free-and-esterified-phytosterols-at-the-time-of-delivery-in-humans
#8
Alessio Correani, Silvia Visentin, Erich Cosmi, Eleonora Ponchia, Sara D'Aronco, Manuela Simonato, Luca Vedovelli, Paola Cogo, Virgilio P Carnielli
BACKGROUND: High dietary intakes of phytosterols (Phyto), such as those consumed by vegans and vegetarians, are not recommended for cholesterol-lowering in pregnant women (PW) because the safety of their use during pregnancy has not been fully established [1]. Information on Phyto in pregnancy is very limited. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the maternal-fetal gradient of free and esterified Phyto at the time of delivery in humans. DESIGN: PW who had a term delivery at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit of the University Hospital of Padua (Padua, Italy), between November 2016 and March 2017, participated in the study...
October 13, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091812/food-restriction-followed-by-refeeding-with-a-casein-or-whey-based-diet-differentially-affects-the-gut-microbiota-of-pre-pubertal-male-rats
#9
Majdi Masarwi, Hadas Isaac Solnik, Moshe Phillip, Sima Yaron, Raanan Shamir, Metsada Pasmanic-Chor, Galia Gat-Yablonski
Researchers are gaining an increasing understanding of host-gut microbiota interactions, but studies of the role of gut microbiota in linear growth are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of food restriction and refeeding with different diets on gut microbiota composition in fast-growing rats. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed regular rat chow ad libitum (control group) or subjected to 40% food restriction for 36 days followed by continued restriction or ad libitum refeeding for 24 days...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067566/diet-gut-microbiota-and-vitamins-d-%C3%A2-a-in-multiple-sclerosis
#10
REVIEW
Paolo Riccio, Rocco Rossano
Central to the understanding of the relationships between diet, gut microbiota, and vitamins D and A in multiple sclerosis is low-grade inflammation, which is involved in all chronic inflammatory diseases and is influenced by each of the above effectors. We show that food components have either proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory effects and influence both the human metabolism (the "metabolome") and the composition of gut microbiota. Hypercaloric, high-animal-fat Western diets favor anabolism and change gut microbiota composition towards dysbiosis...
October 24, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063379/dietary-patterns-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes
#11
REVIEW
M Carolina Archundia Herrera, Fatheema B Subhan, Catherine B Chan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The primary objective of this review is to identify dietary patterns with beneficial effects on cardiovascular health of adults with type 2 diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: The prevalence of diabetes is increasing globally. People with diabetes have a greater risk for cardiovascular disease. Mediterranean diet, dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet, vegetarian diet, traditional Korean diet, Japanese diet, and low-glycemic-index diet can reduce cardiovascular disease risk in people with diabetes...
October 23, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058947/the-oxidative-stability-of-omega-3-oil-in-water-nanoemulsion-systems-suitable-for-functional-food-enrichment-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#12
Linda Bush, Leo Stevenson, Katie E Lane
There is growing demand for functional food products enriched with long chain omega-3 fatty acids (LCω3PUFA). Nanoemulsions, systems with extremely small droplet sizes have been shown to increase LCω3PUFA bioavailability. However, nanoemulsion creation and processing methods may impact on the oxidative stability of these systems. The present systematic review collates information from studies that evaluated the oxidative stability of LCω3PUFA nanoemulsions suitable for use in functional foods. The systematic search identified seventeen articles published during the last 10 years...
October 23, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058160/equivalent-reduction-in-greenhouse-gas-emissions-by-mahayana-buddhists-practicing-vegetarian-diets
#13
Ampere A Tseng
The equivalent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) by Mahayana Buddhists with vegetarian diets is quantitatively evaluated. The Buddhists in seven Mahayana-dominated countries or regions, i.e., China, Japan, Vietnam, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore, are studied. Assessments of the vegetarian population among these Mahayana-dominated countries or regions are performed. Correlation formulas based on data from a national survey are developed to quantify the GHGEs of various dietary groups by using the meat consumption as the only required input...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041832/enhanced-vitamin-b12-production-in-an-innovative-lupin-tempeh-is-due-to-synergic-effects-of-rhizopus-and-propionibacterium-in-cofermentation
#14
Camilla Signorini, Aristodemo Carpen, Luigi Coletto, Gigliola Borgonovo, Elisabetta Galanti, Jessica Capraro, Chiara Magni, Ambra Abate, Stuart K Johnson, Marcello Duranti, Alessio Scarafoni
Fermentation represents a valuable and cost-effective approach for food stabilisation and nutritional improvement. Tempeh is an example of soybean solid-state fermentation. In this work, we investigated the possibility of producing a tempeh analogue containing high amounts of vitamin B12 using seeds of three different species of the legume lupin, namely Lupinus albus, L. angustifolius and L. mutabilis, with Rhizopus oligosporus and Propionibacterium freudenreichii cofermentation. Synergic effects of Rhizopus and Propionibacterium in increasing vitamin B12 up to 1230 ng/g dw was observed...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038146/use-of-metabolomics-in-improving-assessment-of-dietary-intake
#15
REVIEW
Marta Guasch-Ferré, Shilpa N Bhupathiraju, Frank B Hu
BACKGROUND: Nutritional metabolomics is rapidly evolving to integrate nutrition with complex metabolomics data to discover new biomarkers of nutritional exposure and status. CONTENT: The purpose of this review is to provide a broad overview of the measurement techniques, study designs, and statistical approaches used in nutrition metabolomics, as well as to describe the current knowledge from epidemiologic studies identifying metabolite profiles associated with the intake of individual nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027960/a-new-approach-to-assess-lifetime-dietary-patterns-finds-lower-consumption-of-animal-foods-with-aging-in-a-longitudinal-analysis-of-a-health-oriented-adventist-population
#16
Marcia C T Martins, Karen Jaceldo-Siegl, Michael Orlich, Jing Fan, Andrew Mashchak, Gary E Fraser
Life-course diet patterns may impact risk of disease, but little is known about dietary trends with aging. In a retrospective longitudinal analysis we estimated lifetime intake of animal products and adherence to vegetarian dietary patterns among 51,082 Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) subjects using data from a reliable life-course dietary (meats, dairy, eggs) questionnaire. Results showed a marked tendency to consume fewer animal products (in total) in older years and to reduce consumption of meat, poultry and fish, but not eggs or dairy...
October 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023761/natural-vitamin-b12-and-fucose-supplementation-of-green-smoothies-with-edible-algae-and-related-quality-changes-during-their-shelf-life
#17
Noelia Castillejo, Ginés Benito Martínez Hernández, Valentina Goffi, Perla A Gómez, Encarna Aguayo, Francisco Artés, Francisco Artés Hernández
BACKGROUND: Some algae are an excellent source of vitamin B12, of special interest for vegetarian/vegan consumers, and of fucose to supplement fruit and vegetables beverages like smoothies. Nevertheless, the algae supplementation of smoothies may lead to possible quality changes during smoothie shelf life that needs to be studied. Therefore, the quality changes of fresh green smoothies supplemented (2.2%) with 9 edible algae (sea lettuce, kombu, wakame, thongweed, dulse, Irish moss, nori, spirulina and chlorella) were studied throughout 24 days at 5°C...
October 11, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022562/ketogenic-diet-in-endocrine-disorders-current-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
L Gupta, D Khandelwal, S Kalra, P Gupta, D Dutta, S Aggarwal
Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome...
October 2017: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017525/is-vegetarian-diet-associated-with-a-lower-risk-of-breast-cancer-in-taiwanese-women
#19
Yao-Jen Chang, Yi-Cheng Hou, Li-Ju Chen, Jing-Hui Wu, Chao-Chuan Wu, Yun-Jau Chang, Kuo-Piao Chung
BACKGROUND: Studies on the relationship between vegetarian diet and breast cancer in Asian populations are limited. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between vegetarian diet, dietary patterns, and breast cancer in Taiwanese women. METHODS: This case-control study compared the dietary patterns of 233 breast cancer patients and 236 age-matched controls. A questionnaire about vegetarian diets and 28 frequently-consumed food items was administered to these 469 patients in the surgical department of Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital...
October 10, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977620/case-series-of-infantile-tremor-syndrome-in-tertiary-care-paediatric-centre-from-southern-india
#20
Vykuntaraju K Gowda, Vinyasa Kolli, Asha Benakappa, Varunvenkat M Srinivasan, Sanjay K Shivappa, Naveen Benakappa
Introduction: Infantile tremor syndrome (ITS) is characterized by anaemia, skin depigmentation, tremors and developmental delay. The lack of sufficient literature on ITS and its conflicting association with vitamin B12 deficiency made us present this article. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe demographic, clinical and laboratory profile and outcome of ITS. Methods: This is a retrospective chart review of all children presenting with typical features of ITS attending a tertiary paediatric centre in southern India between January 2014 and January 2017...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
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