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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429998/the-efficacy-of-a-pre-workout-vegan-supplement-on-high-intensity-cycling-performance-in-healthy-college-aged-males
#1
Gabrielle Gallien, David Bellar, Greggory R Davis
There is a limited supply of sport nutrition supplements currently available for vegan or vegetarian athletes. In addition, the efficacy of a vegan or vegetarian pre-workout supplement that does not contain any processed ingredients or stimulants is currently unknown. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of an unprocessed vegan pre-workout supplement on high-intensity cycling performance. Participants completed three separate cycling trials following the consumption of a vegan pre-workout supplement, an isocaloric processed supplement, or a zero-calorie placebo supplement...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417511/algal-supplementation-of-vegetarian-eating-patterns-improves-plasma-and-serum-docosahexaenoic-acid-concentrations-and-omega-3-indices-a-systematic-literature-review
#2
REVIEW
J C Craddock, E P Neale, Y C Probst, G E Peoples
BACKGROUND: Vegetarians are likely to have lower intakes of preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than omnivorous populations who consume fish and animal products. As such, vegetarian populations have omega-3 indices up to 60% lower than those who consume marine products. Algae, the primary producer of DHA in the marine food chain, offer an alternative source of DHA for those who do not consume marine or animal products. This systematic review aims to examine the evidence for the relationship between supplementation with algal forms of DHA and increased DHA concentrations in vegetarian populations...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411894/the-effects-of-dietary-factors-on-blood-pressure
#3
REVIEW
Lawrence J Appel
Evidence supports that multiple dietary factors affect blood pressure (BP). Dietary changes that effectively lower BP are weight loss, reduced sodium intake, increased potassium intake, moderation of alcohol intake, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension-style and vegetarian dietary patterns. In view of the increasing levels of BP in children and adults and the continuing epidemic of BP-related cardiovascular and renal diseases, efforts to reduce BP in both nonhypertensive and hypertensive individuals are warranted...
May 2017: Cardiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410669/curcumin-and-linseed-oil-co-delivered-in-phospholipid-nanoemulsions-enhances-the-levels-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-in-serum-and-tissue-lipids-of-rats
#4
D Sugasini, B R Lokesh
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an important long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) primarily found in marine fishes. The diets of vegetarian population do not contain preformed DHA, but they can derive it from shorter chain α-linolenic acid (ALA) found in plant oils. However, the conversion efficiency of ALA to DHA is minimal in human adults. This may cause insufficiency of DHA in the vegetarian population. Curcumin, diferuloyl methane found in the spice turmeric, has the potential to increase the formation of DHA from ALA by activating the enzymes FADS2 and elongase 2...
April 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399076/effects-of-a-10-day-intensive-health-promotion-program-combining-diet-and-physical-activity-on-body-composition-physical-fitness-and-blood-factors-of-young-adults-a-randomized-pilot-study
#5
Kyoung Soon Lee, Jae Koo Lee, Young Ran Yeun
BACKGROUND A lifestyle characterized by poor eating habits and physical inactivity is a risk factor for multiple lifestyle diseases in young adults. This study assessed the effects of implementing an intensive 10-day health promotion program combining diet and physical activities on body composition, physical fitness, and biochemical parameters of young adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this randomized pilot study, 30 female undergraduate students were randomly allocated to an intervention and a control group...
April 11, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394274/vegetarian-diet-in-chronic-kidney-disease-a-friend-or-foe
#6
REVIEW
Anna Gluba-Brzózka, Beata Franczyk, Jacek Rysz
Healthy diet is highly important, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Proper nutrition provides the energy to perform everyday activities, prevents infection, builds muscle, and helps to prevent kidney disease from getting worse. However, what does a proper diet mean for a CKD patient? Nutrition requirements differ depending on the level of kidney function and the presence of co-morbid conditions, including hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The diet of CKD patients should help to slow the rate of progression of kidney failure, reduce uremic toxicity, decrease proteinuria, maintain good nutritional status, and lower the risk of kidney disease-related secondary complications (cardiovascular disease, bone disease, and hypertension)...
April 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392424/vegetarianism-and-meat-consumption-a-comparison-of-attitudes-and-beliefs-between-vegetarian-semi-vegetarian-and-omnivorous-subjects-in-belgium
#7
Amy Mullee, Leen Vermeire, Barbara Vanaelst, Patrick Mullie, Peter Deriemaeker, Tobias Leenaert, Stefaan De Henauw, Aoibheann Dunne, Marc J Gunter, Peter Clarys, Inge Huybrechts
High levels of meat consumption in Belgium may be contributing to increased risk of non-communicable diseases in this population. The objective of this study is to investigate the attitudes and beliefs about vegetarianism and meat consumption among the Belgian population, ultimately to better understand the motivations underlying these dietary behaviours. This cross-sectional study was initiated in March 2011. A total of 2436 individuals from a representative consumer panel from the Flemish and Brussels communities participated...
April 6, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388638/mechanisms-causing-size-differences-of-the-land-hermit-crab-coenobita-rugosus-among-eco-islands-in-southern-taiwan
#8
Chia-Hsuan Hsu, Keryea Soong
Numerous environmental factors can influence body size. Comparing populations in different ecological contexts is one potential approach to elucidating the most critical of such factors. In the current study, we found that the body size of the land hermit crab Coenobita rugosus was significantly larger on Dongsha Island in the South China Sea than on other eco-islands around Southern Taiwan. We hypothesized that this could be due to differences in (1) shell resources, (2) parasite impact, (3) competition, (4) predation, and (5) food...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372229/replacement-of-eggs-with-soybean-protein-isolates-and-polysaccharides-to-prepare-yellow-cakes-suitable-for-vegetarians
#9
Muyang Lin, Siang Hong Tay, Hongshun Yang, Bao Yang, Hongliang Li
To evaluate the feasibility of substituting eggs in yellow cake by a mixture of soybean proteins, plant polysaccharides, and emulsifiers, the batter properties, including specific gravity and viscosity; cake properties, including specific volume, texture, colour, moisture, microstructures, and structural properties of starch and glutens of the replaced cake and traditional cake containing egg, were evaluated. Replacing eggs with a soy protein isolate and 1% mono-, di-glycerides yielded a similar specific volume, specific gravity, firmness and moisture content (1...
August 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356137/ethnic-and-diet-related-differences-in-the-healthy-infant-microbiome
#10
Jennifer C Stearns, Michael A Zulyniak, Russell J de Souza, Natalie C Campbell, Michelle Fontes, Mateen Shaikh, Malcolm R Sears, Allan B Becker, Piushkumar J Mandhane, Padmaja Subbarao, Stuart E Turvey, Milan Gupta, Joseph Beyene, Michael G Surette, Sonia S Anand
BACKGROUND: The infant gut is rapidly colonized by microorganisms soon after birth, and the composition of the microbiota is dynamic in the first year of life. Although a stable microbiome may not be established until 1 to 3 years after birth, the infant gut microbiota appears to be an important predictor of health outcomes in later life. METHODS: We obtained stool at one year of age from 173 white Caucasian and 182 South Asian infants from two Canadian birth cohorts to gain insight into how maternal and early infancy exposures influence the development of the gut microbiota...
March 29, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342014/serum-hepcidin-and-soluble-transferrin-receptor-in-the-assessment-of-iron-metabolism-in-children-on-a-vegetarian-diet
#11
Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz, Witold Klemarczyk, Joanna Mazur, Joanna Gajewska, Grażyna Rowicka, Małgorzata Strucińska, Magdalena Chełchowska
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of vegetarian diet on iron metabolism parameters paying special attention to serum hepcidin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations in 43 prepubertal children (age range 4.5-9.0 years) on vegetarian and in 46 children on omnivorous diets. There were no significant differences according to age, weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) between vegetarian and omnivorous children. Vegetarians had similar intake of iron and vitamin B12 and a significantly higher intake of vitamin C (p < 0...
March 24, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333554/a-comparative-content-analysis-of-vegetarian-food-blogs-written-by-registered-dietitians-and-non-registered-dietitians
#12
Audrée-Anne Dumas, Simone Lemieux, Annie Lapointe, Marilyn Dugrenier, Sophie Desroches
This purpose of this study was to compare the nutritional content of vegetarian recipes published in food blogs written by registered dietitians (RDs) and by non-registered dietitians (non-RDs). Twelve food blogs written by RDs and 12 written by non-RDs were selected using a systematic approach. For each food blog, 2 vegetarian entrée recipes per season were selected (n = 192 recipes). Descriptive analyses were performed using Fisher's exact test. Median nutritional values per serving between RDs' and non-RDs' recipes were compared using Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests...
March 23, 2017: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320464/impact-of-different-dietary-approaches-on-glycemic-control-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#13
Lukas Schwingshackl, Anna Chaimani, Georg Hoffmann, Carolina Schwedhelm, Heiner Boeing
BACKGROUND: Dietary advice is one of the cornerstones in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The American Diabetes Association recommended a hypocaloric diet for overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes in order to induce weight loss. However, there is limited evidence on the optimal approaches to control hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes patients. The aim of the present study is to assess the comparative efficacy of different dietary approaches on glycemic control and blood lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a systematic review including a standard pairwise and network meta-analysis of randomized trials...
March 20, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319940/iron-status-of-vegetarian-children-a-review-of-literature
#14
Roman Pawlak, Kami Bell
BACKGROUND: Iron is considered a nutrient of concern for vegetarians. In children, inadequate iron status may lead to anemia and poor growth. SUMMARY: Thirteen original manuscripts met the inclusion criteria. Various biochemical markers of iron status, such as hemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin, were used. Seven of the 13 studies reported the prevalence of iron deficiency separately for vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Five out of 7 showed a higher prevalence of iron deficiency among the vegetarian participants, while the other 2 showed a higher prevalence of iron deficiency among non-vegetarians...
March 21, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318474/the-growing-disconnect-between-food-prices-and-wages-in-europe-cross-national-analysis-of-food-deprivation-and-welfare-regimes-in-twenty-one-eu-countries-2004-2012
#15
Aaron Reeves, Rachel Loopstra, David Stuckler
OBJECTIVE: Food insecurity has been rising across Europe following the Great Recession, but to varying degrees across countries and over time. The reasons for this increase are not well understood, nor are what factors might protect people's access to food. Here we test the hypothesis that an emerging gap between food prices and wages can explain increases in reported inability to afford protein-rich foods and whether welfare regimes can mitigate its impact. DESIGN: We collected data in twenty-one countries from 2004 to 2012 using two databases: (i) on food prices and deprivation related to food (denoted by reported inability to afford to eat meat, chicken, fish or a vegetarian equivalent every second day) from EuroStat 2015 edition; and (ii) on wages from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2015 edition...
March 20, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300608/towards-a-reduced-meat-diet-mindset-and-motivation-of-young-vegetarians-low-medium-and-high-meat-eaters
#16
Joop de Boer, Hanna Schösler, Harry Aiking
This study provides insight into differences and similarities in the mindset and motivation of four dietary groups (young self-declared vegetarians, low, medium and high meat-eaters) to support the development of strategies for a general transition to a less meat-based diet. The paper highlights the value of the identity concept for our understanding of both vegetarians and meat eaters. The analysis involves a comparison of the four dietary groups focusing on the strength and the profile of their food-related motivation and their reasons for and against frequent meat eating...
March 12, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299420/vegetarian-diets-in-children-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
S Schürmann, M Kersting, U Alexy
PURPOSE: While the prevalence of children on vegetarian diets is assumed to be on the rise in industrialized countries, there are hardly any representative data available. In general, vegetarian diets are presumed to be healthy; nevertheless, there are concerns as to whether the dietary specifications required during infancy, childhood, and adolescence can be met. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review was to evaluate studies on the dietary intake and the nutritional or health status of vegetarian infants, children, and adolescents...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293225/bacterial-composition-genotoxicity-and-cytotoxicity-of-fecal-samples-from-individuals-consuming-omnivorous-or-vegetarian-diets
#18
Ermanno Federici, Roberta Prete, Camilla Lazzi, Nicoletta Pellegrini, Massimo Moretti, Aldo Corsetti, Giovanni Cenci
This study analyzes the composition of viable fecal bacteria and gut toxicology biomarkers of 29 healthy volunteers, who followed omnivorous, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, or vegan diets. In particular, the research was focused on the prevalence of some representative viable bacteria from the four dominant phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria) commonly present in human feces, in order to evaluate the relationship between microorganisms selected by the habitual dietary patterns and the potential risk due to fecal water (FW) genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, considered as biomarkers for cancer risk and protective food activity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292554/selected-lactobacilli-and-bifidobacteria-development-in-solid-state-fermentation-using-soybean-paste
#19
Antonieta Rodríguez de Olmos, Maria Alejandra Correa Deza, Marisa S Garro
At present, consumers are looking for more natural foods so as to improve health through their active compounds. Within this context, soybean is an excellent substrate due to its beneficial effects on consumers' health. Moreover, lactic cultures are widely used in the food industry to improve the technological, nutritional and functional characteristics of fermented foods. It is interesting to find new matrices in which to transport these starter cultures (potentially probiotic microorganisms). The aim of this research was to obtain a solid state fermentation system from soybean to analyze the behavior of selected lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, with the potential to develop a functional vegetarian food to serve as carrier for the microorganisms...
March 12, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290475/the-development-of-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-assays-for-the-rapid-authentication-of-five-forbidden-vegetables-in-strict-vegetarian-diets
#20
Meng-Shiou Lee, Ting-Ying Su, Yi-Yang Lien, Shyang-Chwen Sheu
Plant-based food ingredients such as garlic, Chinese leek, Chinese onion, green onion and onion are widely used in many cuisines around the world. However, these ingredients known as the "five forbidden vegetables" (FFVs) are not allowed in some vegetarian diets. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of FFVs using five respective LAMP primer sets. The specific primers targeted the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence regions among the five vegetables...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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