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Post traumatic stress disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723949/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-other-mental-disorders-in-the-general-population-after-lorca-s-earthquakes-2011-murcia-spain-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Diego Salmerón, Gemma Vilagut, Mª José Tormo, Guadalupe Ruíz-Merino, Teresa Escámez, Javier Júdez, Salvador Martínez, Karestan C Koenen, Carmen Navarro, Jordi Alonso, Ronald C Kessler
AIMS: To describe the prevalence and severity of mental disorders and to examine differences in risk among those with and without a lifetime history prior to a moderate magnitude earthquake that took place in Lorca (Murcia, Spain) at roughly the mid-point (on May 11, 2011) of the time interval in which a regional epidemiological survey was already being carried out (June 2010 -May 2012). METHODS: The PEGASUS-Murcia project is a cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey of a representative sample of non-institutionalized adults in Murcia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720167/recovery-from-dsm-iv-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-the-who-world-mental-health-surveys
#2
A J Rosellini, H Liu, M V Petukhova, N A Sampson, S Aguilar-Gaxiola, J Alonso, G Borges, R Bruffaerts, E J Bromet, G de Girolamo, P de Jonge, J Fayyad, S Florescu, O Gureje, J M Haro, H Hinkov, E G Karam, N Kawakami, K C Koenen, S Lee, J P Lépine, D Levinson, F Navarro-Mateu, B D Oladeji, S O'Neill, B-E Pennell, M Piazza, J Posada-Villa, K M Scott, D J Stein, Y Torres, M C Viana, A M Zaslavsky, R C Kessler
BACKGROUND: Research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) course finds a substantial proportion of cases remit within 6 months, a majority within 2 years, and a substantial minority persists for many years. Results are inconsistent about pre-trauma predictors. METHODS: The WHO World Mental Health surveys assessed lifetime DSM-IV PTSD presence-course after one randomly-selected trauma, allowing retrospective estimates of PTSD duration. Prior traumas, childhood adversities (CAs), and other lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders were examined as predictors using discrete-time person-month survival analysis among the 1575 respondents with lifetime PTSD...
July 19, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714262/baroreflex-mediated-sympathetic-overactivation-induced-by-mental-stress-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-depends-on-the-type-of-stressor
#3
Luiz Eduardo Virgilio Silva, Pedro Lourenço Katayama
Sympathetic overactivation has long been recognized as a deleterious condition, involved in the physiopathology of several diseases. The overactivity of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) may be the consequence of different conditions and an intriguing question that still remains is whether diseases, such as hypertension and heart failure, are induced by increased SNS or increased SNS is a consequence of the disease progression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
July 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713319/neuropsychological-predictors-of-trauma-centrality-in-oif-oef-veterans
#4
Roland P Hart, Rohini Bagrodia, Nadia Rahman, Richard A Bryant, Roseann Titcombe-Parekh, Charles R Marmar, Adam D Brown
This study examined whether reduced performance on two neuropsychological tasks, cognitive flexibility and working memory, were associated with higher levels of trauma centrality. A growing body of research has shown that trauma centrality, the extent to which a person believes a potentially traumatic event has become central to their self-identity and life story, is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Furthermore, PTSD is often associated with alterations in neuropsychological functioning...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713032/psychosocial-rehabilitation-after-war-trauma-with-adaptive-disclosure-design-and-rationale-of-a-comparative-efficacy-trial
#5
Julie D Yeterian, Danielle S Berke, Brett T Litz
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from warzone exposure is associated with chronic and disabling social and occupational problems. However, functional impairment is rarely assessed or targeted directly in PTSD treatments, which instead focus on symptom reduction. Trauma-related contributors to diminished functioning, including guilt, shame, and anger resulting from morally compromising or loss-based war experiences, are also underemphasized. The goal of this clinical trial is to fill a substantial gap in the treatment of military-related PTSD by testing a modified Adaptive Disclosure (AD) therapy for war-related PTSD stemming from moral injury and traumatic loss focused on improving psychosocial functioning AD...
July 13, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712089/increased-recruitment-of-cognitive-control-in-the-presence-of-traumatic-stimuli-in-complex-ptsd
#6
Julia I Herzog, Inga Niedtfeld, Sophie Rausch, Janine Thome, Meike Mueller-Engelmann, Regina Steil, Kathlen Priebe, Martin Bohus, Christian Schmahl
A neurocircuitry model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggests increased amygdala responses to emotional stimuli, coupled with hypoactivation of prefrontal regions associated with cognitive control. However, results are heterogenous across different subsamples of PTSD as well as different paradigms. We investigated cognitive control in a classic and emotional Stroop task in 28 female patients with complex PTSD (cPTSD), 28 female trauma-exposed healthy controls (TCs) and 28 female non-trauma-exposed healthy controls (HCs) using functional neuroimaging...
July 15, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712041/nightmares-in-the-general-population-identifying-potential-causal-factors
#7
Stephanie Rek, Bryony Sheaves, Daniel Freeman
BACKGROUND: Nightmares are inherently distressing, prevent restorative sleep, and are associated with a number of psychiatric problems, but have rarely been the subject of empirical study. Negative affect, linked to stressful events, is generally considered the key trigger of nightmares; hence nightmares have most often been considered in the context of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, many individuals with heightened negative affect do not have nightmares. The objective of this study was to identify mechanistically plausible factors, beyond negative affect, that may explain why individuals experience nightmares...
July 15, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711797/symptom-severity-and-disability-in-psychiatric-disorders-the-u-s-collaborative-psychiatric-epidemiology-survey
#8
R García-Velázquez, M Jokela, T H Rosenström
BACKGROUND: While most psychiatric diagnoses are based on simple counts of symptoms, some symptoms may be sign of a more severe mental syndrome than others. This calls for validated estimates of the relative severity specific symptoms imply within a disorder. We focused on four diagnostic disorders: Manic Episode (ME), Major Depressive Episode (MDE), Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Symptom-specific severity parameters were estimated, and validated by examining their association with levels of self-reported disability in daily activities over and above the number of symptoms...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708415/assessing-the-effectiveness-of-yoga-as-a-complementary-and-alternative-treatment-for-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-a-review-and-synthesis
#9
Nicole A Sciarrino, Christian DeLucia, Kaitlin O'Brien, Kristen McAdams
OBJECTIVES: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition that affects many who have experienced trauma. In addition to skills-focused treatments, exposure-based treatments, cognitive therapy, combination treatments, and EMDR, a number of alternative treatments for PTSD have emerged in recent years. The search for alternative treatments is justified based on the empirical observation that a large percentage of individuals fail to benefit optimally from existing treatments (e...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707957/impact-of-psychiatric-symptomatology-on-neuropsychological-assessment-performance-in-persons-with-tbi-a-comparison-of-oef-oif-veteran-and-civilian-samples
#10
Zachary C Merz, P Tyler Roskos, Jeffrey D Gfeller, Richard D Bucholz
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether increased incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder and depressive symptomatology in veterans with combat-related traumatic brain injury might help account for neurocognitive impairment relative to civilians with traumatic brain injury. PARTICIPANTS: Neuropsychological assessment data of 53 Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans and 48 civilians with positive history of traumatic brain injury were analyzed to assess differences with respect to cognitive performance...
July 14, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707425/experiential-acceptance-and-trait-mindfulness-as-predictors-of-analogue-post-traumatic-stress
#11
Paul A Boelen, Lonneke I M Lenferink
OBJECTIVES: Experiential acceptance and trait-mindfulness are associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traumatic events. This study was a preliminary attempt to examine (1) associations of experiential acceptance and trait-mindfulness with post-traumatic stress (PTS) associated with negative, but not necessarily traumatizing, life events ('analogue' PTS), (2) the role of these variables in the context of neuroticism as well as worry and rumination - two other regulatory strategies associated with PTS, and (3) the impact of pre-trauma tendencies towards experiential acceptance and mindfulness on analogue PTS...
July 14, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706503/parental-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-are-related-to-successful-aging-in-offspring-of-holocaust-survivors
#12
Amit Shrira, Liat Ayalon, Moshe Bensimon, Ehud Bodner, Tova Rosenbloom, Gal Yadid
A fascinating, yet underexplored, question is whether traumatic events experienced by previous generations affect the aging process of subsequent generations. This question is especially relevant for offspring of Holocaust survivors (OHS), who begin to face the aging process. Some preliminary findings point to greater physical dysfunction among middle-aged OHS, yet the mechanisms behind this dysfunction need further clarification. Therefore, the current studies assess aging OHS using the broad-scoped conceptualization of successful aging, while examining whether offspring successful aging relates to parental post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and offspring's secondary traumatization symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705439/activation-of-nociceptin-orphanin-fq-receptors-inhibits-contextual-fear-memory-reconsolidation
#13
Khaoula Rekik, Raquel Faria Da Silva, Morgane Colom, Salvatore Pacifico, Nurulain T Zaveri, Girolamo Calo', Claire Rampon, Bernard Frances, Lionel Mouledous
Several neuropeptidergic systems act as modulators of cognitive performances. Among them, nociceptin, an opioid-like peptide also known as orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), has recently gained attention. Stimulation of its receptor, the N/OFQ opioid receptor (NOP), which is expressed in brain regions involved in emotion, memory and stress response, has inhibitory effects on the acquisition and/or consolidation of spatial and emotional memory in rodents. Recently, N/OFQ was also proposed to be linked to the pathogenesis of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in humans...
July 10, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705086/longitudinal-relations-between-childhood-maltreatment-maltreatment-specific-shame-and-postpartum-psychopathology
#14
Rena A Menke, Diana Morelen, Valerie A Simon, Katherine L Rosenblum, Maria Muzik
The persistence of shame-based reactions to child maltreatment (CM) has been associated with poor posttraumatic adjustment. Despite evidence that the postpartum period is a vulnerable time for women with CM histories, little is known about the consequences of maltreatment-specific (MS) shame for postpartum functioning. The current study examined individual differences in MS shame among a sample of women during the postpartum period ( n = 100) as well as prospective relations from MS shame to postpartum psychopathology at 6-, 12-, 15-, and 18-month postpartum...
January 1, 2017: Child Maltreatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704271/mitigation-of-adverse-behavioral-impact-from-predator-exposure-by-the-nociceptin-orphanin-fq-peptide-antagonist-j-113397-in-rats
#15
Raymond F Genovese, Stefania Dobre
The nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptor is believed to have an integral modulatory function in the stress response system. We evaluated the highly selective NOP antagonist J-113397 (7.5 and 20.0 mg/kg), using a predator exposure in which rats were exposed to predator cats as a stressor. A single dose of J-113397 or vehicle was administered (intraperitoneally) shortly before exposure to the predators or a sham exposure. Behavioral impact was measured using elevated plus maze (EPM), open field activity (OFA), and an olfactory discrimination (OD)...
July 12, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700759/elevated-levels-of-ast-alt-and-cpk-%C3%A2-no-family-history-of-liver-disease-%C3%A2-dx
#16
Mitesh B Patel, Haripriya Maddur
A 26-year-old healthy male veteran with bipolar disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder was referred for a gastroenterology consultation after a routine laboratory evaluation revealed elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase, 1040 IU/L (normal range, 10-40 IU/L), and alanine aminotransferase, 334 IU/L (normal range, 7-56 IU/L). He had been taking divalproex and ziprasidone for the previous 2 years, during which time liver test results had been normal.
July 2017: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699778/neurofeedback-as-an-adjunct-therapy-for-treatment-of-chronic-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-related-to-refugee-trauma-and-torture-experiences-two-case-studies
#17
Mirjana Askovic, Anna J Watters, Jorge Aroche, Anthony W F Harris
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe the use of neurofeedback for refugee-related chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in two case studies. METHODS: We describe the assessment and application of neurofeedback integrated into the treatment of two clients with chronic PTSD. We include details of our treatment schedule, symptoms and quantitative electrophysiological data for each case. Results All clients achieved significant reduction in symptoms of PTSD and improvement in daily functioning post-neurofeedback therapy...
July 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699766/assessing-acute-psychological-distress-in-the-immediate-aftermath-of-stroke
#18
Vanessa Juth, Michelle K Chan, Steven C Cramer, E Alison Holman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: High acute stress may presage the development of subsequent cardiovascular ailments. Understanding how best to assess acute stress may inform early interventions seeking to prevent long-term morbidity/mortality following stroke. A mixed methods approach examined early post-stroke acute stress symptoms using the post-traumatic stress disorder checklist-5 (PCL-5) and the acute stress disorder scale (ASDS). METHODS: A focus group of stroke survivors and/or their caregivers ( N=8) evaluated PCL-5/ASDS feasibility, and 20 patients hospitalized for acute stroke were interviewed 2-10 days post-stroke onset, using either the PCL-5 or the ASDS...
July 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699083/a-therapy-system-for-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-using-a-virtual-agent-and-virtual-storytelling-to-reconstruct-traumatic-memories
#19
Myrthe L Tielman, Mark A Neerincx, Rafael Bidarra, Ben Kybartas, Willem-Paul Brinkman
Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is well treatable, many people do not get the desired treatment due to barriers to care (such as stigma and cost). This paper presents a system that bridges this gap by enabling patients to follow therapy at home. A therapist is only involved remotely, to monitor progress and serve as a safety net. With this system, patients can recollect their memories in a digital diary and recreate them in a 3D WorldBuilder. Throughout the therapy, a virtual agent is present to inform and guide patients through the sessions, employing an ontology-based question module for recollecting traumatic memories to further elicit a detailed memory recollection...
August 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698828/a-case-of-pediatric-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-presenting-as-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-case-report
#20
Muhammad A Tahir, Nida R Gujar, Nusrat Jahan
In the past few years, there has been increased recognition that children, who have faced traumatic incidences, can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), just like in adults. We present a case of PTSD in a 6-year-old child who endured three surgical procedures because he was suffering from a congenital cranial stenosis (Pfeiffer) syndrome. Because of repetitive painful episodes, resulting from the syndrome, and then post-surgical complications, the child developed behavioral outbursts, hypervigilence, concentration problems, and irritability...
May 10, 2017: Curēus
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