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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454093/silencing-circular-rna-hsa_circ_0000977-suppresses-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-progression-by-stimulating-mir-874-3p-and-inhibiting-plk1-expression
#1
Wen-Jie Huang, Yun-Chao Wang, Song-Song Liu, Jia-Li Yang, Shi-Xiang Guo, Li-Jiang Wang, Huai-Zhi Wang, Ying-Fang Fan
Circular RNAs (CircRNAs) are a novel type of endogenous noncoding RNAs that regulate target gene expression by interacting with microRNA (miRNA). Emerging evidence shows that dysregulation of circRNAs plays important roles in biological and pathological processes, including cancer development and progression. The functional role of circRNA in PDAC (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma) remains to be investigated. In this study, high throughput microarray assay revealed that hsa_circ_0000977 was aberrantly up-regulated in pancreatic cancer tissues; this was also validated by qRT-PCR...
February 14, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454061/activation-of-nlrx1-mediated-autophagy-accelerates-the-ototoxic-potential-of-cisplatin-in-auditory-cells
#2
Haiyan Yin, Qianqian Yang, Zhixin Cao, Hongrui Li, Zhaoyan Yu, Guodong Zhang, Gaoying Sun, Rongjun Man, Haibo Wang, Jianfeng Li
To date, the mechanism (s) underlying the cisplatin-elicited ototoxicity has not been elucidated fully. Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich-repeat-containing family member ×1 (NLRX1), a cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor, is tightly related to mitochondrial function, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and autophagy. In this work, autophagy alteration, NLRX1 expression, ROS generation and cell injury were investigated correspondingly by immunofluorescence staining, western-blot, TEM, flow cytometry and MTT in HEI-OC1 cells of both NLRX1 overexpression and silencing in response to cisplatin stimulus...
February 14, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453988/silencing-calreticulin-gene-might-protect-cardiomyocytes-from-angiotensin-ii-induced-apoptosis
#3
Wen Zhang, Zhiyue Liu, Yanmei Zhang, Qinxue Bao, Wenchao Wu, He Huang, Xiaojing Liu
AIMS: Calreticulin (CRT), as a chaperone, contributes to protein folding and quality control cycle. CRT is an important factor regulating Ca 2+ that participates in cell apoptosis. However, the function of CRT in the heart is still controversial. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the potential role of CRT in angiotensin II-induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis. MAIN METHODS: Primary cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes were stimulated with angiotensin II to induce the apoptosis...
February 14, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453983/aldolase-a-overexpression-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis-and-promotes-tumor-progression-by-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-colon-cancer
#4
Feng Ye, Yixing Chen, Lu Xia, Jiabian Lian, Shuyu Yang
There is increasing evidence that glycolysis is involved in cancer progression. Aldolase is a glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Disruption of the aldolase genes also plays a role in the progression of multiple types of cancer. However, the underlying mechanism of the action of aldolases in colon cancer progression remains elusive. In this study, aldolase A expression was investigated and found to be upregulated along with human colon cancer progression and metastasis at both the mRNA and protein levels in human colon cancer tissues...
February 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453938/barley-stripe-mosaic-virus-infection-requires-pka-mediated-phosphorylation-of-%C3%AE-b-for-suppression-of-both-rna-silencing-and-the-host-cell-death-response
#5
Xuan Zhang, Kai Dong, Kai Xu, Kun Zhang, Xuejiao Jin, Meng Yang, Yongliang Zhang, Xianbing Wang, Chenggui Han, Jialin Yu, Dawei Li
The Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) γb protein is a viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) and symptom determinant. However, it is unclear how post-translational modification affects the different functions of γb. Here, we demonstrate that γb is phosphorylated at Ser-96 by a PKA-like kinase in vivo and in vitro. Mutant viruses containing a nonphosphorylatable substitution (BSMV S 96A or BSMV S 96R ) exhibited reduced viral accumulation in Nicotiana benthamiana due to transient induction of the cell death response that constrained the virus to necrotic areas...
February 17, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453900/downregulation-of-reticulocalbin-1-differentially-facilitates-apoptosis-and-necroptosis-in-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#6
Xiaofei Liu, Nianzhao Zhang, Dawei Wang, Deyu Zhu, Quan Yuan, Xiulei Zhang, Lilin Qian, Huanmin Niu, Yi Lu, Guijie Ren, Keli Tian, Huiqing Yuan
Reticulocalbin 1 (RCN1), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident Ca 2+ -binding protein, is dysregulated in cancers, but its pathophysiological roles are largely unclear. Here, we demonstrate that RCN1 is overexpressed in clinical prostate cancer (PCa) samples, associated with Cyclin B, not Cyclin D1 expression, compared to that of benign tissues in a Chinese Han population. Downregulation of endogenous RCN1 significantly suppresses PCa cell viability and arrests the cell cycles of DU145 and LNCaP cells at the S and G2/M phases, respectively...
February 17, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453862/insights-into-transcriptional-silencing-and-anti-silencing-in-shigella-flexneri-a-detailed-molecular-analysis-of-the-icsp-virulence-locus
#7
Natasha Weatherspoon-Griffin, Michael A Picker, Krystle L Pew, Hiromichi S Park, Daren Ginete, Monika M Karney, Pashtana Usufzy, Maria I Castellanos, Juan Carlos Duhart, Dustin J Harrison, Jillian N Socea, Alexander D Karabachev, Christopher T Hensley, Amber J Howerton, Rosa Ojeda-Daulo, Joy A Immak, Helen J Wing
Transcriptional silencing and anti-silencing mechanisms modulate bacterial physiology and virulence in many human pathogens. In Shigella species, many virulence plasmid genes are silenced by the histone-like nucleoid structuring protein H-NS and anti-silenced by the virulence gene regulator VirB. Despite the key role that these regulatory proteins play in Shigella virulence, their mechanisms of transcriptional control remain poorly understood. Here, we characterize the regulatory elements and their relative spacing requirements needed for the transcriptional silencing and anti-silencing of icsP, a locus that requires remotely located regulatory elements for both types of transcriptional control...
February 17, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453573/gene-silencing-of-human-sertoli-cells-utilizing-small-interfering-rnas
#8
Hong Wang, Qingqing Yuan, Minghui Niu, Liping Wen, Hongyong Fu, Fan Zhou, Weihui Zhang, Zuping He
Sertoli cells, as the unique somatic cells within the seminiferous tubules, play essential roles in regulating normal spermatogenesis. In addition, recent studies have demonstrated that Sertoli cells could have significant applications in regenerative medicine due to their great plasticity. However, the roles of genes in controlling the fate determinations of human Sertoli cells remain largely unknown. Silencing genes of human Sertoli cells utilizing small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is an important method to explore their functions and mechanisms in human Sertoli cells...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453443/role-of-the-mesolimbic-dopamine-system-in-relief-learning
#9
Dana Mayer, Evelyn Kahl, Taygun C Uzuneser, Markus Fendt
The relief from an aversive event is rewarding. Since organisms are able to learn which environmental cues can cease an aversive event, relief learning helps to better cope with future aversive events. Literature data suggest that relief learning is affected in various psychopathological conditions, such as anxiety disorders. Here, we investigated the role of the mesolimbic dopamine system in relief learning. Using a relief learning procedure in Sprague Dawley rats, we applied a combination of behavioral experiments with anatomical tracing, c-Fos immunohistochemistry, and local chemogenetic and pharmacological interventions to broadly characterize the role of the mesolimbic dopamine system...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453334/%C3%AE-catenin-independent-regulation-of-wnt-target-genes-by-ror2-and-atf2-atf4-in-colon-cancer-cells
#10
Oksana Voloshanenko, Uwe Schwartz, Dominique Kranz, Benedikt Rauscher, Michael Linnebacher, Iris Augustin, Michael Boutros
Wnt signaling is an evolutionarily conserved signaling route required for development and homeostasis. While canonical, β-catenin-dependent Wnt signaling is well studied and has been linked to many forms of cancer, much less is known about the role of non-canonical, β-catenin-independent Wnt signaling. Here, we aimed at identifying a β-catenin-independent Wnt target gene signature in order to understand the functional significance of non-canonical signaling in colon cancer cells. Gene expression profiling was performed after silencing of key components of Wnt signaling pathway and an iterative signature algorithm was applied to predict pathway-dependent gene signatures...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453333/scleraxis-is-a-transcriptional-activator-that-regulates-the-expression-of-tenomodulin-a-marker-of-mature-tenocytes-and-ligamentocytes
#11
Chisa Shukunami, Aki Takimoto, Yuriko Nishizaki, Yuki Yoshimoto, Seima Tanaka, Shigenori Miura, Hitomi Watanabe, Tetsushi Sakuma, Takashi Yamamoto, Gen Kondoh, Yuji Hiraki
Tenomodulin (Tnmd) is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein predominantly expressed in tendons and ligaments. We found that scleraxis (Scx), a member of the Twist-family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, is a transcriptional activator of Tnmd expression in tenocytes. During embryonic development, Scx expression preceded that of Tnmd. Tnmd expression was nearly absent in tendons and ligaments of Scx-deficient mice generated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases-mediated gene disruption...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453251/a-novel-adipokine-fam19a5-inhibits-postinjury-neointima-formation-through-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-2
#12
Yingbao Wang, Dixin Chen, Yan Zhang, Pingzhang Wang, Can Zheng, Songyang Zhang, Bing Yu, Lu Zhang, Guizhen Zhao, Baihui Ma, Zeyu Cai, Nan Xie, Shiyang Huang, Ziyi Liu, Xiaoning Mo, Youfei Guan, Xian Wang, Yi Fu, Dalong Ma, Ying Wang, Wei Kong
Background -Obesity plays crucial roles in the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, the mechanisms that link obesity and CVDs remain elusive. Compelling evidence indicates that adipokines play an important role in obesity-related CVDs. Here, we found a new adipokine named family with sequence similarity 19, member A5 (FAM19A5), a protein with unknown function that was predicted to be distantly related to the CC-chemokine family. We aimed to test whether adipose-derived FAM19A5 regulates vascular pathology upon injury...
February 16, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453098/control-of-viral-transcripts-as-a-concept-for-future-hbv-therapies
#13
REVIEW
Christoph Seeger
Chronic hepatitis B virus infections affect over 250 million people world-wide, and, at present, are not curable. Of those, over 800000 are expected to die yearly from complications including cirrhosis and primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A viral episomal DNA intermediate, covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) can persist in nuclei of infected hepatocytes and trigger production of infectious virus. Current standard of care treatments against chronic HBV infections primarily rely on nucleoside analogs (NA) that inhibit de novo virus production by inhibiting the viral reverse transcriptase and, as a consequence, reducing virus titers...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452948/photo-tearable-tape-close-wrapped-upconversion-nanocapsules-for-near-infrared-modulated-efficient-sirna-delivery-and-therapy
#14
Yue Zhang, Kewei Ren, Xiaobo Zhang, Zhicong Chao, Yuqin Yang, Deju Ye, Zhihui Dai, Ying Liu, Huangxian Ju
RNA interference (RNAi) has become an appealing therapeutic approach for cancer and other diseases. One key challenge is the effective protection of these small fragile biomolecules against complicated physiological environments as well as efficient on-demand release. Here we design a photo-tearable polymer tape close-wrapped nanocapsule for efficient NIR modulated siRNA delivery. The photo-tearable nanocapsules comprise core-shell upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) coated with mesoporous silica layer for loading of photosensitizer hypocrellin A (HA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) against polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), and covalently bound thin membranes of polyethylene glycol (PEG) via a synthesized photocleavable linker (PhL)...
February 9, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452903/extracellular-vesicles-as-key-mediators-of-plant-microbe-interactions
#15
REVIEW
Brian D Rutter, Roger W Innes
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid compartments capable of trafficking proteins, lipids, RNA and metabolites between cells. Plant cells have been shown to secrete EVs during immune responses, but virtually nothing is known about their formation, contents or ultimate function. Recently developed methods for isolating plant EVs have revealed that these EVs are enriched in stress response proteins and signaling lipids, and appear to display antifungal activity. Comparison to work on animal EVs, and the observation that host-derived small interfering RNAs and microRNAs can silence fungal genes, suggests that plant EVs may also mediate trans-kingdom RNA interference...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452237/a-redox-sensitive-signaling-pathway-mediates-pro-angiogenic-effect-of-chlordecone-via-estrogen-receptor-activation
#16
Eid Alabed Alibrahim, Ramaroson Andriansitohaina, Kévin Hardonnière, Raffaella Soleti, Sébastien Faure, Gilles Simard
AIM: Chlordecone is able to induce pro-angiogenic effect through an estrogen receptor (ERα) pathway involving NO release and VEGF. The present study aimed to determine the molecular mechanisms by which chlordecone promotes angiogenesis in human endothelial cells. RESULTS: High but not low concentration of chlordecone increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity and mitochondrial DNA content in endothelial cells. The ROS scavenger MnTMPyP was able to prevent the increase of both VEGF expression and capillary length induced by chlordecone...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452209/prolactin-improves-hepatic-steatosis-via-cd36-pathway
#17
Pengzi Zhang, Zhijuan Ge, Hongdong Wang, Wenhuan Feng, Xitai Sun, Xuehui Chu, Can Jiang, Yan Wang, Dalong Zhu, Yan Bi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Prolactin (PRL) is a multifunctional polypeptide with effects on metabolism; however, little is known about its effect on hepatic steatosis and lipid metabolism. METHODS: The serum PRL levels of 456 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients and 403 non-NAFLD controls diagnosed by ultrasound, and 85 subjects with liver histology obtained during metabolic surgery (44 female and 30 male NAFLD patients and 11 age-matched non-NAFLD female subjects) were evaluated...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451908/cas9-mediated-excision-of-proximal-dnasei-h3k4me3-signatures-confers-robust-silencing-of-microrna-and-long-non-coding-rna-genes
#18
Harshavardhan Janga, Marina Aznaourova, Fabian Boldt, Katrin Damm, Arnold Grünweller, Leon N Schulte
CRISPR/Cas9-based approaches have greatly facilitated targeted genomic deletions. Contrary to coding genes however, which can be functionally knocked out by frame-shift mutagenesis, non-coding RNA (ncRNA) gene knockouts have remained challenging. Here we present a universal ncRNA knockout approach guided by epigenetic hallmarks, which enables robust gene silencing even in provisionally annotated gene loci. We build on previous work reporting the presence of overlapping histone H3 lysine 4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3) and DNaseI hypersensitivity sites around the transcriptional start sites of most genes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451902/an-artificial-mirna-system-reveals-that-relative-contribution-of-translational-inhibition-to-mirna-mediated-regulation-depends-on-environmental-and-developmental-factors-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#19
Patrick von Born, Marti Bernardo-Faura, Ignacio Rubio-Somoza
Development and fitness of any organism rely on properly controlled gene expression. This is especially true for plants, as their development is determined by both internal and external cues. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are embedded in the genetic cascades that integrate and translate those cues into developmental programs. miRNAs negatively regulate their target genes mainly post-transcriptionally through two co-existing mechanisms; mRNA cleavage and translational inhibition. Despite our increasing knowledge about the genetic and biochemical processes involved in those concurrent mechanisms, little is known about their relative contributions to the overall miRNA-mediated regulation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451434/the-elr-sobir1-complex-functions-as-a-two-component-rlk-to-mount-defense-against-phytophthora-infestans
#20
Emmanouil Domazakis, Doret Wouters, Richard Visser, Sophien Kamoun, Matthieu Haj Joosten, Vivianne G A A Vleeshouwers
The ELICITIN RESPONSE (ELR) protein from Solanum microdontum can recognize INF1 elicitin of Phytophthora infestans and trigger defense responses. ELR is a receptor-like protein (RLP) that lacks a cytoplasmic signaling domain and is anticipated to require interaction with a signaling-competent receptor-like kinase (RLK). SUPPRESSOR OF BIR1-1 (SOBIR1) has been proposed as a general interactor for RLPs involved in immunity and as such, is a potential interactor for ELR. Here we investigate whether SOBIR1 is required for response to INF1 and resistance to P...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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