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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646175/ribosome-rna-profiling-to-quantify-ovarian-development-and-identify-sex-in-fish
#1
Zhi-Gang Shen, Hong Yao, Liang Guo, Xiao-Xia Li, Han-Ping Wang
Terminologies of ovary development, by somewhat subjective describing and naming main changes of oocytes, have been criticized for confusing and inconsistency of terms and classifications, and the incurred consequences impede communication among researchers. In the present work, we developed regression between ovary development and three ribosome RNA (rRNA) indexes, namely 5S rRNA percent, 18S rRNA percent, and 5S-18S rRNA ratio, using close relationship between volume percent of primary growth stage oocytes or gonadosomatic index and rRNA content, demonstrating species-specific quantification of ovary development can be established in species with either synchronous and asynchronous oogenesis...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645097/raman-spectroscopy-differentiates-between-sensitive-and-resistant-multiple-myeloma-cell-lines
#2
Domenico Franco, Sebastiano Trusso, Enza Fazio, Alessandro Allegra, Caterina Musolino, Antonio Speciale, Francesco Cimino, Antonella Saija, Fortunato Neri, Marco S Nicolò, Salvatore P P Guglielmino
Current methods for identifying neoplastic cells and discerning them from their normal counterparts are often nonspecific and biologically perturbing. Here, we show that single-cell micro-Raman spectroscopy can be used to discriminate between resistant and sensitive multiple myeloma cell lines based on their highly reproducible biomolecular spectral signatures. In order to demonstrate robustness of the proposed approach, we used two different cell lines of multiple myeloma, namely MM.1S and U266B1, and their counterparts MM...
June 15, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644873/circular-rna-expression-profiling-of-human-granulosa-cells-during-maternal-aging-reveals-novel-transcripts-associated-with-assisted-reproductive-technology-outcomes
#3
Jing Cheng, Jia Huang, Suzhen Yuan, Su Zhou, Wei Yan, Wei Shen, Yun Chen, Xi Xia, Aiyue Luo, Da Zhu, Shixuan Wang
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a unique class of endogenous RNAs which could be used as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of many diseases. Our study aimed to investigate circRNA profiles in human granulosa cells (GCs) during maternal aging and to uncover age-related circRNA variations that potentially reflect decreased oocyte competence. CircRNAs in GCs from in vitro fertilization (IVF) patients with young age (YA, ≤ 30 years) and advanced age (AA, ≥ 38 years) were profiled by microarray, and validated in 20 paired samples...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642609/microbial-signatures-associated-with-oropharyngeal-and-oral-squamous-cell-carcinomas
#4
Sagarika Banerjee, Tian Tian, Zhi Wei, Kristen N Peck, Natalie Shih, Ara A Chalian, Bert W O'Malley, Gregory S Weinstein, Michael D Feldman, James Alwine, Erle S Robertson
The microbiome is fundamentally one of the most unique organs in the human body. Dysbiosis can result in critical inflammatory responses and result in pathogenesis contributing to neoplastic events. We used a pan-pathogen array technology (PathoChip) coupled with next-generation sequencing to establish microbial signatures unique to human oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OCSCC/OPSCC). Signatures for DNA and RNA viruses including oncogenic viruses, gram positive and negative bacteria, fungi and parasites were detected...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642484/mir-100-5p-inhibition-induces-apoptosis-in-dormant-prostate-cancer-cells-and-prevents-the-emergence-of-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#5
Noushin Nabavi, Nur Ridzwan Nur Saidy, Erik Venalainen, Anne Haegert, Abhijit Parolia, Hui Xue, Yuwei Wang, Rebecca Wu, Xin Dong, Colin Collins, Francesco Crea, Yuzhuo Wang
Carcinoma of the prostate is the most common cancer in men. Treatment of aggressive prostate cancer involves a regiment of radical prostectomy, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. Despite significant improvements in the last decade, the treatment of prostate cancer remains unsatisfactory, because a significant fraction of prostate cancers develop resistance to multiple treatments and become incurable. This prompts an urgent need to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of therapy-induced resistance of prostate cancer either in the form of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) or transdifferentiated neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC)...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637776/targeting-of-extracellular-rna-reduces-edema-formation-and-infarct-size-and-improves-survival-after-myocardial-infarction-in-mice
#6
Philipp Stieger, Jan-Marcus Daniel, Christiane Thölen, Jochen Dutzmann, Kai Knöpp, Dursun Gündüz, Muhammad Aslam, Marian Kampschulte, Alexander Langheinrich, Silvia Fischer, Hector Cabrera-Fuentes, Yong Wang, Kai C Wollert, Johann Bauersachs, Rüdiger Braun-Dullaeus, Klaus T Preissner, Daniel G Sedding
BACKGROUND: Following myocardial infarction (MI), peri-infarct myocardial edema formation further impairs cardiac function. Extracellular RNA (eRNA) released from injured cells strongly increases vascular permeability. This study aimed to assess the role of eRNA in MI-induced cardiac edema formation, infarct size, cardiac function, and survival after acute MI and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of ribonuclease 1 (RNase-1) treatment as an eRNA-degrading intervention. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6J mice were subjected to MI by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631500/pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-survival-and-proliferation-are-promoted-by-protein-kinase-g-type-i%C3%AE-and-downstream-regulation-of-akt-foxo1
#7
Janica C Wong, Van Vo, Priyatham Gorjala, Ronald R Fiscus
Early studies showed nitric oxide as a pro-inflammatory-cytokine-induced toxin involved in pancreatic β-cell destruction during pathogenesis of type-1 diabetes. However, nitric oxide has both cytotoxic and cytoprotective effects on mammalian cells, depending on concentration and micro-environmental surroundings. Our studies have shown that low/physiological-level nitric oxide selectively activates protein kinase G type Iα isoform, promoting cytoprotective/pro-cell-survival effects in many cell types. In bone marrow-derived stromal/mesenchymal stem cells, protein kinase G type Iα mediates autocrine effects of nitric oxide and atrial natriuretic peptide, promoting DNA-synthesis/proliferation and cell survival...
June 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628915/mir-495-promotes-senescence-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-targeting-bmi-1
#8
Xiujun Li, Yuxian Song, Dan Liu, Jiaojiao Zhao, Jingjing Xu, Jing Ren, Yali Hu, Zhiqun Wang, Yayi Hou, Guangfeng Zhao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play an important role in regulating angiogenesis and immune balance. Abnormal proliferation and function of MSCs were reported at maternal fetal interface in patients with pre-eclampsia (PE). Micro-RNA-495 was known to be upregulated in the MSCs derived from patients with PE. However, it is not clear whether the up-regulated miR-495 is related to the pathogenesis of PE. METHODS: We analyzed the expression of miR-495 in MSCs and umbilical cords derived from healthy pregnancies (NC) and PE, then we upregulated or downregulated the expression of miR-495 in MSCs derived from NC and tested the proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, tube formation and senescence...
June 19, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623160/basic-concepts-in-molecular-biology-related-to-genetics-and-epigenetics
#9
Dolores Corella, Jose M Ordovas
The observation that "one size does not fit all" for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, among other diseases, has driven the concept of precision medicine. The goal of precision medicine is to provide the best-targeted interventions tailored to an individual's genome. The human genome is composed of billions of sequence arrangements containing a code that controls how genes are expressed. This code depends on other nonstatic regulators that surround the DNA and constitute the epigenome...
June 13, 2017: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620300/novel-anti-fibrotic-therapies
#10
REVIEW
Benita L McVicker, Robert G Bennett
Fibrosis is a major player in cardiovascular disease, both as a contributor to the development of disease, as well as a post-injury response that drives progression. Despite the identification of many mechanisms responsible for cardiovascular fibrosis, to date no treatments have emerged that have effectively reduced the excess deposition of extracellular matrix associated with fibrotic conditions. Novel treatments have recently been identified that hold promise as potential therapeutic agents for cardiovascular diseases associated with fibrosis, as well as other fibrotic conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617420/mirna-mediated-post-transcriptional-silencing-of-transgenes-leads-to-increased-adeno-associated-viral-vector-yield-and-targeting-specificity
#11
C A Reid, S L Boye, W W Hauswirth, D M Lipinski
The production of high titer recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector is essential for treatment of genetic diseases affecting the retina and choroid, where anatomical constraints may limit injectable volumes. Problematically, cytotoxicity arising from over-expression of the transgene during vector production frequently leads to a reduction in vector yield. Herein, we evaluate the use of micro-RNA (miRNA) mediated silencing to limit over-expression of cytotoxic transgenes during packaging as a method of increasing vector yield...
June 15, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616749/mir-183-and-mir-21-expression-as-biomarkers-of-progression-and-survival-in-tongue-carcinoma-patients
#12
Gordana Supic, Katarina Zeljic, Aleksandra Divac Rankov, Ruzica Kozomara, Aleksandra Nikolic, Dragica Radojkovic, Zvonko Magic
OBJECTIVES: Micro RNAs (miRNAs) have a major role in human cancerogenesis.The current study investigated the prognostic significance of miR-183 and miR-21 expression in tongue carcinoma patients. MATERIAL AND METHOD: For qPCR of miR-183 and miR-21 expression, total RNA isolated from 60 fresh-frozen tissue of tongue carcinomas was converted into cDNA by TaqMan MicroRNA Reverse Transcription Kit and quantified by TaqMan MicroRNAs Expression Assays. Fold changes in the miRNAs expression, normalized to RNU6B, were determined using 2(-ΔΔCt) method, and dichotomized into high and low according to cut-off values derived from ROC curve analysis...
June 14, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611032/genome-wide-dynamics-of-nascent-noncoding-rna-transcription-in-porcine-heart-after-myocardial-infarction
#13
Minna U Kaikkonen, Paavo Halonen, Oscar Hsin-Fu Liu, Tiia A Turunen, Juho Pajula, Pierre Moreau, Ilakya Selvarajan, Tomi Tuomainen, Einari Aavik, Pasi Tavi, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala
BACKGROUND: Microarrays and RNA sequencing are widely used to profile transcriptome remodeling during myocardial ischemia. However, the steady-state RNA analysis lacks in sensitivity to detect all noncoding RNA species and does not provide separation between transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations. Here, we provide the first comprehensive analysis of nascent RNA profiles of mRNAs, primary micro-RNAs, long noncoding RNAs, and enhancer RNAs in a large animal model of acute infarction...
June 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600885/immunolocalization-of-tar-dna-binding-protein-of-43%C3%A2-kda-tdp-43-in-mouse-seminiferous-epithelium
#14
Hari Prasad Osuru, Patcharin Pramoonjago, Mayuresh Abhyankar, Eric Swanson, LaToya Ann Roker, Helen Cathro, Prabhakara P Reddi
TDP-43 (TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa) is an evolutionarily conserved, ubiquitously expressed, multi-functional DNA/RNA-binding protein with roles in gene transcription, mRNA splicing, stability, transport, micro RNA biogenesis, and suppression of transposons. Aberrant expression of TDP-43 in testis and sperm was recently shown to be associated with male infertility, which highlights the need to understand better the expression of TDP-43 in the testis. We previously cloned TDP-43 from a mouse testis cDNA library, and showed that it functions as a transcriptional repressor, and regulates the precise spatiotemporal expression of the Acrv1 gene, which encodes the acrosomal protein SP-10, during spermatogenesis...
June 10, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599485/mirna-34a-enhances-the-sensitivity-of-gastric-cancer-cells-to-treatment-with-paclitaxel-by-targeting-e2f5
#15
Lina Li, Cuiling Wu, Yue Zhao
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common types of malignant cancer worldwide, however improvements are required to the current therapies for GC. Although paclitaxel is one of the most promising chemotherapeutic agents in clinical use for GC, the resistance to paclitaxel that develops during treatment is a major obstacle to further treatments of GC. The present study reports that micro (mi) RNA-34a, a tumor suppressor in various types of cancer, may be an important regulator of chemoresistance in GC, as miRNA-34a mimics and inhibitors, enhance and inhibit the chemotherapeutic efficacy of paclitaxel, respectively...
June 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599409/genomic-analysis-of-drug-resistant-small-cell-lung-cancer-cell-lines-by-combining-mrna-and-mirna-expression-profiling
#16
Yitian Chen, Xiang Yang, Yichen Xu, Jiongrui Cao, Longbang Chen
Etoposide (VP16) combined with cisplatin (DDP), as the first-line chemotherapy for small cell lung cancer (SCLC), regularly confers drug resistance. The present study applied complementary (c)DNA and micro (mi)RNA microarray to identify gene and miRNA expression profiles associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) in SCLC. The VP16/DDP (VP16 combined with DDP) resistant SCLC H446/EP cell line was derived from the parental H446 cell line by continuous exposure to increasing concentrations of etoposide and cisplatin...
June 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598082/-expression-of-micro-rna-218-in-cervical-cancer-and-its-effect-on-proliferation-apoptosis-and-invasion-of-hela-cells
#17
Yu-Rong Shi, Jian Liu, Wei He, Yin Yang
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the expression and clinical significance of microRNA-218(miR-218)in human cervical cancer and the effects ofmiR-218 on proliferation, cell apoptosis and invasion of HeLa cells. METHODS: QRT-PCR was used to detect the expression ofmiR-218 in 23 cases of normal cervical tissues and 114 cases of cervical cancer, and the relationship between the expression and the clinicopathological features was analyzed; HeLa cells were devided into three groups: non transfection (control group), transfected with empty liposomes negative control goup (NC group), transfected with miR-218 mimic (miR-218M group)...
September 2016: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592823/comparison-of-the-active-and-resident-community-of-a-coastal-microbial-mat
#18
Daniela Clara Cardoso, Anna Sandionigi, Mariana Silvia Cretoiu, Maurizio Casiraghi, Lucas Stal, Henk Bolhuis
Coastal microbial mats form a nearly closed micro-scale ecosystem harboring a complex microbial community. Previous DNA based analysis did not necessarily provide information about the active fraction of the microbial community because it includes dormant, inactive cells as well as a potential stable pool of extracellular DNA. Here we focused on the active microbial community by comparing 16S rRNA sequences obtained from the ribosomal RNA pool with gene sequences obtained from the DNA fraction. In addition, we aimed to establish an optimal and feasible sampling protocol that takes potential spatial and temporal heterogeneity into account...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574022/multilocus-sequence-typing-of-cryptosporidium-hominis-from-northern-india
#19
Pooja Yadav, Bijay Ranjan Mirdha, Govind K Makharia, Rama Chaudhry
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Human cryptosporidiosis is endemic worldwide, and at least eight species have been reported in humans; the most common being Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum. Detailed understanding of the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium is increasingly facilitated using standardized universal technique for species differentiation and subtyping. In this study micro- and minisatellite targets in chromosome 6 were used to assess genetic diversity of C. hominis by sequence length polymorphisms along with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571562/advantages-and-limitations-of-current-biomarker-research-from-experimental-research-to-clinical-application
#20
Seung-Hyun Kim, Christel Weiß, Ursula Hoffmann, Martin Borggrefe
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers are indispensable tools for screening, diagnosis, and prognosis in cardiovascular diseases and their clinical application increases steadily. As cardiovascular diseases include various pathophysiological processes, no single biomarker, even natriuretic peptides, can be regarded as ideal fulfilling all necessary criteria for a comprehensive diagnostic or prognostic assessment revealing optimal clinical application. Hence, the multi-marker approaches using different biomarkers reflecting different pathophysiologies were highlighted recently...
May 31, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
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