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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230805/uspio-labeling-in-m1-and-m2-polarized-macrophages-an-in-vitro-study-using-a-clinical-magnetic-resonance-scanner
#1
Chiara Zini, Mary Anna Venneri, Selenia Miglietta, Damiano Caruso, Natale Porta, Andrea Isidori, Daniela Fiore, Daniele Gianfrilli, Vincenzo Petrozza, Andrea Laghi
BACKGROUND: To evaluate USPIO labeling in different macrophage populations using a clinical 3.0T MR unit with optical and electron microscopy as the gold standard. METHODS: Human monocytic cell line were differentiated into macrophages. Afterwards M0 macrophages were incubated with IL-4 and IL-13 in order to obtain M2 polarized macrophages or with IFN-gamma and LPS for classical macrophage activation (M1). These groups were incubated with USPIO MR contrast agent (P904) for 36 hours; M0, M0+P904, M1+P904 and M2+P904 were analyzed in gel phantoms with a 3...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223809/cadmium-induces-bnip3-dependent-autophagy-in-chicken-spleen-by-modulating-mir-33-ampk-axis
#2
Menghao Chen, Xiaojing Li, Ruifeng Fan, Jie Yang, Xi Jin, Sattar Hamid, Shiwen Xu
Cadmium (Cd), a widespread environmental pollutant, has toxic effects on organs including spleen. However, the underlying mechanisms of Cd induced spleen toxicity and the roles of micro-RNA (miRNA) in this process remain poorly understood. To investigate this, cadmium chloride (CdCl2, 10 mg/kg) was administered in the diet of chickens for 90 days. Electron microscopy, qPCR and Western blot were performed. Results showed that Cd exposure suppressed miR-33-5q which increased the levels of AMPK. Subsequently, significant decrease in AKT/mTOR signaling and HSP70 were observed...
December 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221162/caveolin-1-mediated-stat3-activation-determines-electrotaxis-of-human-lung-cancer-cells
#3
Li Li, Kejun Zhang, Conghua Lu, Qin Sun, Sanjun Zhao, Lin Jiao, Rui Han, Caiyu Lin, Jianxin Jiang, Min Zhao, Yong He
Migration of cancer cells leads to the invasion of distant organs by primary tumors. Further, endogenous electric fields (EFs) in the tumor microenvironment direct the migration of lung cancer cells by a process referred to as electrotaxis - although the precise mechanism remains unclear. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a multifunctional scaffolding protein that is associated with directional cell migration and lung cancer invasion; however, its precise role in lung cancer electrotaxis is unknown. In the present study, we first detected outward electric currents on the tumor body surface in lung cancer xenografts using a highly-sensitive vibrating probe...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219730/a-comprehensive-profile-of-circulating-rnas-in-human-serum
#4
Sinan Uğur Umu, Hilde Langseth, Cecilie Bucher-Johannessen, Bastian Fromm, Andreas Keller, Eckart Meese, Marianne Lauritzen, Magnus Leithaug, Robert Lyle, Trine B Rounge
Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecules have fundamental roles in cells and many are also stable in body fluids as extracellular RNAs. In this study, we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to investigate the profile of small non-coding RNA (sncRNA) in human serum. We analyzed 10 billion Illumina reads from 477 serum samples, included in the Norwegian population-based Janus Serum Bank (JSB). We found that the core serum RNA repertoire includes 258 micro RNAs (miRNA), 441 piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNA), 411 transfer RNAs (tRNA), 24 small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNA), 125 small nuclear RNAs (snRNA) and 123 miscellaneous RNAs (misc-RNA)...
December 8, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209594/genome-wide-search-for-competing-endogenous-rnas-responsible-for-the-effects-induced-by-ebola-virus-replication-and-transcription-using-a-trvlp-system
#5
Zhong-Yi Wang, Zhen-Dong Guo, Jia-Ming Li, Zong-Zheng Zhao, Ying-Ying Fu, Chun-Mao Zhang, Yi Zhang, Li-Na Liu, Jun Qian, Lin-Na Liu
Understanding how infected cells respond to Ebola virus (EBOV) and how this response changes during the process of viral replication and transcription are very important for establishing effective antiviral strategies. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide screen to identify long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), circular RNAs (circRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs), and mRNAs differentially expressed during replication and transcription using a tetracistronic transcription and replication-competent virus-like particle (trVLP) system that models the life cycle of EBOV in 293T cells...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198089/-exosomes-as-mediators-of-intercellular-communication-the-cancer-and-telomerase-connection
#6
REVIEW
Orit Uziel, Anna Gutkin, Einat Beery, Meir Lahav
Exosomes, nano-vesicles secreted from all types of cells in the human body, function as inter-cell communicators. This role of exosomes is fulfilled by their specific content, dependent on the origin of donor cells from which they are secreted. Exosomes contain a plethora of nucleic acids (DNA, RNA and micro RNA), proteins and lipids. These molecules are packed in the donor cells into the exosomes which are subsequently secreted and transferred through various body fluids into the target cells which may be located far from the donor cells...
November 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194684/global-micro-rna-expression-profiling-in-the-liver-biopsies-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infected-patients-suggests-specific-mirna-signatures-for-viral-persistence-and-hepatocellular-injury
#7
Avishek Kumar Singh, Sheetalnath Babasaheb Rooge, Aditi Varshney, Madavan Vasudevan, Ankit Bhardwaj, Senthil Kumar Venugopal, Nirupama Trehanpati, Manoj Kumar, Robert Geffers, Vijay Kumar, Shiv Kumar Sarin
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can manipulate the miRNA regulatory networks in infected cells to create a permissive environment for viral replication, cellular injury, disease onset and its progression. The aim of the present study was to understand the miRNA networks and their target genes in the liver of hepatitis B patients involved in HBV replication, liver injury and liver fibrosis. We investigated differentially expressed miRNAs by microarray in the liver biopsy samples from different stages of HBV infection and liver disease [immune tolerant (IT; n= 8); acute viral hepatitis (AVH; n=8); no fibrosis (n=16); early (F1+F2) (n=19) or late fibrosis (F3+F4) (n=14) and healthy controls (n=7)]...
November 30, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192905/microbial-life-on-a-sand-grain-from-bulk-sediment-to-single-grains
#8
David Probandt, Thilo Eickhorst, Andreas Ellrott, Rudolf Amann, Katrin Knittel
Globally, marine surface sediments constitute a habitat for estimated 1.7 × 1028 prokaryotes. For benthic microbial community analysis, usually, several grams of sediment are processed. In this study, we made the step from bulk sediments to single sand grains to address the microbial community directly in its micro-habitat: the individual bacterial diversity on 17 sand grains was analyzed by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and visualized on sand grains using catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization...
December 1, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182528/circular-rnas-circrnas-in-health-and-disease
#9
REVIEW
Shahnaz Haque, Lorna W Harries
Splicing events do not always produce a linear transcript. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of RNA that are emerging as key new members of the gene regulatory milieu, which are produced by back-splicing events within genes. In circRNA formation, rather than being spliced in a linear fashion, exons can be circularised by use of the 3' acceptor splice site of an upstream exon, leading to the formation of a circular RNA species. circRNAs have been demonstrated across species and have the potential to present genetic information in new orientations distinct from their parent transcript...
November 28, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158841/autophagy-maintains-the-function-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-prevent-estrogen-deficiency-induced-osteoporosis
#10
Meng Qi, Liqiang Zhang, Yang Ma, Yi Shuai, Liya Li, Kefu Luo, Wenjia Liu, Yan Jin
Rationale: The impaired function of endogenous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) is a determinant in the development of osteoporosis (OP). Recent researches have proved that autophagy plays an important role in maintenance of skeletal phenotype. However, whether autophagy affects the development of OP through regulating the function of BMMSCs remains elusive. Methods: Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced OP model and sham model were established in 8-week-old C57 mice. The differentiation and immunoregulation properties of BMMSCs from two models were examined by osteogenic/adipogenic induction in vitro and treatment of a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mice colitis model in vivo...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157048/the-drosha-rs10719-t-c-polymorphism-is-associated-with-preeclampsia-susceptibility
#11
Mahnaz Rezaei, Fatemeh Eskandari, Abbas Mohammadpour-Gharehbagh, Batool Teimoori, Minoo Yaghmaei, Mojgan Mokhtari, Saeedeh Salimi
PURPOSE: Drosha is a member of the micro RNA (miRNA) processing machinery that affects miRNA processing. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Drosha gene might affect microRNA processing and the expression of various genes. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between SNPs in the Drosha gene and preeclampsia (PE) in the southeast of Iran. METHODS: Genotyping of Drosha rs10719 and rs6877842 was performed using blood samples from 219 PE women and 205 healthy control subjects by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method...
November 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156009/discovering-cancer-vulnerabilities-using-high-throughput-micro-rna-screening
#12
Iva Nikolic, Benjamin Elsworth, Eoin Dodson, Sunny Z Wu, Cathryn M Gould, Pieter Mestdagh, Glenn M Marshall, Lisa G Horvath, Kaylene J Simpson, Alexander Swarbrick
Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are potent regulators of gene expression and cellular phenotype. Each miRNA has the potential to target hundreds of transcripts within the cell thus controlling fundamental cellular processes such as survival and proliferation. Here, we exploit this important feature of miRNA networks to discover vulnerabilities in cancer phenotype, and map miRNA-target relationships across different cancer types. More specifically, we report the results of a functional genomics screen of 1280 miRNA mimics and inhibitors in eight cancer cell lines, and its presentation in a sophisticated interactive data portal...
November 16, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149987/inhibition-of-porcine-endogenous-retrovirus-by-multi-targeting-micro-rna-against-long-terminal-region
#13
H-C Chung, V-G Nguyen, W-T Oh, T-M-L Huynh, H-J Moon, J-H Lee, H-K Kim, S-J Park, B-K Park
BACKGROUND: There might be much benefit in xenotransplantation, however, the risk of infections across species barriers remains, especially porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV). To date, many attempts have been made to knock down active PERVs by inhibitory RNA (RNAi) and micro RNA (miRNA), which target different genes of PERV. There are a few studies that have explored whether targeting promoter regions of PERV could exert an inhibition effect. METHODS: miRNAs were automatically selected based on an online program BLOCK-iT RNAi Designer...
November 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149041/the-hmga1-pseudogene-7-induces-mir-483-and-mir-675-upregulation-by-activating-egr1-through-a-cerna-mechanism
#14
Marco De Martino, Giuseppe Palma, Amalia Azzariti, Claudio Arra, Alfredo Fusco, Francesco Esposito
Several studies have established that pseudogene mRNAs can work as competing endogenous RNAs and, when deregulated, play a key role in the onset of human neoplasias. Recently, we have isolated two HMGA1 pseudogenes, HMGA1P6 and HMGA1P7. These pseudogenes have a critical role in cancer progression, acting as micro RNA (miRNA) sponges for HMGA1 and other cancer-related genes. HMGA1 pseudogenes were found overexpressed in several human carcinomas, and their expression levels positively correlate with an advanced cancer stage and a poor prognosis...
November 17, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147088/evaluation-and-characterization-of-milk-derived-microvescicle-isolated-from-bovine-colostrum
#15
Brighton E Maburutse, Mi-Ri Park, Sangnam Oh, Younghoon Kim
Extracellular microvesicles are membranous nano-sized cellular organelles secreted by a variety of cells under normal and pathological conditions and heterogeneous in size ranging from 30 nm to 1 μm. They carry functional microRNAs that can influence immunity and development. For a particular application of microvesicles, choice of isolation method is particularly important; however, their isolation methods from colostrum in particular have not been described clearly. In this work, differential ultracentrifugation as a conventional method, ultracentrifugation with some modification such as additional precipitations, ultrafiltration, sucrose gradient separation and ExoQuick™ as a commercial reagent were compared...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145712/cartilage-microrna-dysregulation-during-the-onset-and-progression-of-mouse-osteoarthritis-is-independent-of-aggrecanolysis-and-overlaps-with-candidates-from-end-stage-human-disease
#16
Louise H W Kung, Varshini Ravi, Lynn Rowley, Constanza Angelucci, Amanda J Fosang, Katrina M Bell, Christopher B Little, John F Bateman
OBJECTIVE: To identify candidate microRNAs that potentially regulate the initiation and progression of osteoarthritis. METHODS: Osteoarthritis was induced in 10-12 week old male wild-type C57BL6 mice and in mice resistant to aggrecanase cleavage (Acan p.374ALGS→374NVYS) by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM). Osteoarthritis pathology was scored histologically. RNA from cartilage and subchondral bone were harvested in parallel by laser micro-dissection at 1 and 6 weeks post-surgery...
November 16, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143794/berberine-activates-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-but-suppresses-cyp1a1-induction-through-mir-21-3p-stimulation-in-mcf-7-breast-cancer-cells
#17
Sheng-Nan Lo, Chun-Wei Wang, Yueh-Shieh Chen, Chiung-Chiao Huang, Tian-Shung Wu, Lih-Ann Li, I-Jung Lee, Yune-Fang Ueng
Berberine and the methylenedioxy ring-opening derivatives palmatine and jatrorrhizine are active ingredients in immunomodulatory plants, such as goldenseal. This study aimed to illustrate the effects of protoberberines on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1 in the estrogen receptor (ER)α(+) MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Among protoberberines at non-cytotoxic concentrations (≤10 μM), berberine had the most potent and statistically significant effects on AhR activation and CYP1A1/1A2/1B1 mRNA induction...
October 28, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140259/ramanomics-new-omics-disciplines-using-micro-raman-spectrometry-with-biomolecular-component-analysis-for-molecular-profiling-of-biological-structures
#18
REVIEW
Andrey N Kuzmin, Artem Pliss, Paras N Prasad
Modern instrumentation for Raman microspectroscopy and current techniques in analysis of spectral data provide new opportunities to study molecular interactions and dynamics at subcellular levels in biological systems. Implementation of biomolecular component analysis (BCA) to microRaman spectrometry provides basis for the emergence of Ramanomics, a new biosensing discipline with unprecedented capabilities to measure concentrations of distinct biomolecular groups in live cells and organelles. Here we review the combined use of microRaman-BCA techniques to probe absolute concentrations of proteins, DNA, RNA and lipids in single organelles of live cells...
November 15, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140126/new-insights-into-the-role-of-vitamin-d-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#19
Dong-Bo Wu, Meng-Lan Wang, En-Qiang Chen, Hong Tang
In addition to being crucial for host immune defense, vitamin D is involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, inflammation, invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis and micro-RNA modulation. To date, clinical studies have demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency is common not only in patients with chronic liver diseases but also in those with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Experimental studies have also demonstrated that vitamin D and its receptors are related to the occurrence of HCC and the prognoses of patients with HCC...
November 15, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136461/enzyme-free-nucleic-acid-amplification-assay-using-a-cellphone-based-well-plate-fluorescence-reader
#20
Donghyuk Kim, Qingshan Wei, Dong Hyeok Kim, Derek Tseng, Jingzi Zhang, Eric Pan, Omai Brandt Garner, Aydogan Ozcan, Dino Di Carlo
Nucleic acids, DNA and RNA, provide important fingerprint information for various pathogens and have significant diag-nostic value; however, improved approaches are urgently needed to enable rapid detection of nucleic acids in simple point-of-care formats with high sensitivity and specificity. Here, we present a system that utilizes a series of toehold-triggered hy-bridization/displacement reactions that are designed to convert a given amount of RNA molecules (i.e., the analyte) into an amplified amount of signaling molecules without any washing steps or thermocycling...
November 14, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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