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Haiqi Yang, Jianbo Song, Luming Yue, Xiaowei Mo, Jun Song, Beixin Mo
Nucleotidyl transferase proteins (NTPs) modify the 3' ends of mature small RNAs, leading to their stabilization or degradation. The first two plant NTPs, HESO1 and URT1, were identified in Arabidopsis. These two NTPs act cooperatively to uridylate the 3' terminal nucleotide of specific miRNAs, leading to their degradation and thereby affecting the expression of genes regulated by these miRNAs. Little is known about NTPs in other plants. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of 13 putative NTP genes in Oryza sativa, a major crop in global food production...
September 10, 2017: Gene
Guodong Ren, Xiaoyan Wang, Bin Yu
Uridylation (3' untemplated uridine addition) provides a mechanism to trigger the degradation of miRNAs and the 5' cleavage products (5' CP) that are produced from miRNA-directed ARGONAUTE (AGO) cleavage of target RNAs. We have recently shown that HEN1 SUPPRESSOR 1 (HESO1), a terminal uridylyltransferase, and its homolog UTP:RNA uridylyltransferase 1 (URT1) catalyze the uridylation of miRNAs and 5' CPs within the AGO complex in higher plants. In this chapter, we describe detailed protocols for analyzing 3' end uridylation of both AGO-bound miRNAs and 5' CP...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Bin Tu, Li Liu, Chi Xu, Jixian Zhai, Shengben Li, Miguel A Lopez, Yuanyuan Zhao, Yu Yu, Vanitharani Ramachandran, Guodong Ren, Bin Yu, Shigui Li, Blake C Meyers, Beixin Mo, Xuemei Chen
3' uridylation is increasingly recognized as a conserved RNA modification process associated with RNA turnover in eukaryotes. 2'-O-methylation on the 3' terminal ribose protects micro(mi)RNAs from 3' truncation and 3' uridylation in Arabidopsis. Previously, we identified HESO1 as the nucleotidyl transferase that uridylates most unmethylated miRNAs in vivo, but substantial 3' tailing of miRNAs still remains in heso1 loss-of-function mutants. In this study, we found that among nine other potential nucleotidyl transferases, UTP:RNA uridylyltransferase 1 (URT1) is the single most predominant nucleotidyl transferase that tails miRNAs...
April 2015: PLoS Genetics
Xiaoyan Wang, Shuxin Zhang, Yongchao Dou, Chi Zhang, Xuemei Chen, Bin Yu, Guodong Ren
All types of small RNAs in plants, piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in animals and a subset of siRNAs in Drosophila and C. elegans are subject to HEN1 mediated 3' terminal 2'-O-methylation. This modification plays a pivotal role in protecting small RNAs from 3' uridylation, trimming and degradation. In Arabidopsis, HESO1 is a major enzyme that uridylates small RNAs to trigger their degradation. However, U-tail is still present in null hen1 heso1 mutants, suggesting the existence of (an) enzymatic activities redundant with HESO1...
April 2015: PLoS Genetics
Guodong Ren, Meng Xie, Shuxin Zhang, Carissa Vinovskis, Xuemei Chen, Bin Yu
In plants, methylation catalyzed by HEN1 (small RNA methyl transferase) prevents microRNAs (miRNAs) from degradation triggered by uridylation. How methylation antagonizes uridylation of miRNAs in vivo is not well understood. In addition, 5' RNA fragments (5' fragments) produced by miRNA-mediated RNA cleavage can be uridylated in plants and animals. However, the biological significance of this modification is unknown, and enzymes uridylating 5' fragments remain to be identified. Here, we report that in Arabidopsis, HEN1 suppressor 1 (HESO1, a miRNA nucleotidyl transferase) uridylates 5' fragments to trigger their degradation...
April 29, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yuanyuan Zhao, Beixin Mo, Xuemi Chen
microRNAs (miRNAs) are 20-24 nucleotide RNAs that regulate a variety of developmental and metabolic processes. The accumulation of miRNAs in vivo can be controlled at multiple levels. In addition to miRNA biogenesis, mechanisms that lead to RNA degradation, such as 3' uridylation and 3' truncation, also affect the steady-state levels of miRNAs. On the other hand, 2'-O-methylation in plant miRNAs protects their 3' ends from truncation and uridylation. The recent identification of HESO1 as the key enzyme responsible for miRNA uridylation in Arabidopsis was a first step toward a full understanding of the mechanisms underlying miRNA turnover...
October 2012: RNA Biology
Yuanyuan Zhao, Yu Yu, Jixian Zhai, Vanitharani Ramachandran, Thanh Theresa Dinh, Blake C Meyers, Beixin Mo, Xuemei Chen
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) impact numerous biological processes in eukaryotes. In addition to biogenesis, turnover contributes to the steady-state levels of small RNAs. One major factor that stabilizes miRNAs and siRNAs in plants as well as siRNAs and piRNAs in animals is 2'-O-methylation on the 3' terminal ribose by the methyltransferase HUA ENHANCER1 (HEN1) [1-6]. Genetic studies with Arabidopsis, Drosophila, and zebrafish hen1 mutants show that 2'-O-methylation protects small RNAs from 3'-to-5' truncation and 3' uridylation, the addition of nontemplated nucleotides, predominantly uridine [2, 7, 8]...
April 24, 2012: Current Biology: CB
Guodong Ren, Xuemei Chen, Bin Yu
HEN1-mediated 2'-O-methylation has been shown to be a key mechanism to protect plant microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) as well as animal piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) from degradation and 3' terminal uridylation [1-8]. However, enzymes uridylating unmethylated miRNAs, siRNAs, or piRNAs in hen1 are unknown. In this study, a genetic screen identified a second-site mutation hen1 suppressor1-2 (heso1-2) that partially suppresses the morphological phenotypes of the hypomorphic hen1-2 allele and the null hen1-1 allele in Arabidopsis...
April 24, 2012: Current Biology: CB
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