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Extracellular Traps

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792391/role-of-neutrophils-in-equine-asthma
#1
Benjamin Uberti, Gabriel Morán
Neutrophilic bronchiolitis is the primary lesion in asthma-affected horses. Neutrophils are key actors in host defense, migrating toward sites of inflammation and infection, where they act as early responder cells toward external insults. However, neutrophils can also mediate tissue damage in various non-infectious inflammatory processes. Within the airways, these cells likely contribute to bronchoconstriction, mucus hypersecretion, and pulmonary remodeling by releasing pro-inflammatory mediators, including the cytokines interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-17, neutrophil elastase, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)...
May 24, 2018: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789571/a-novel-extracellular-vesicle-associated-endodeoxyribonuclease-helps-streptococcus-pneumoniae-evade-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-and-is-required-for-full-virulence
#2
Hina Jhelum, Hema Sori, Devinder Sehgal
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a major bacterial pathogen that causes pneumonia and septicemia in humans. Pneumococci are cleared from the host primarily by antibody dependent opsonophagocytosis by phagocytes like neutrophils. Neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) on contacting pneumococci. NETs immobilize pneumococci and restrict its dissemination in the host. One of the strategies utilized by pneumococci to evade the host immune response involves use of DNase(s) to degrade NETs...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789550/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-promote-macrophage-pyroptosis-in-sepsis
#3
Linsong Chen, Yanfeng Zhao, Dengming Lai, Peng Zhang, Yang Yang, Yuehua Li, Ke Fei, Gening Jiang, Jie Fan
In response to infection, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are recruited in the infectious sites, and employ three major strategies to fight against the microbes including phagocytosis, degranulation, and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs are a meshwork of chromatin fibers mixed with granule-derived antimicrobial peptides and enzymes, which trap and kill the bacteria extracellularly. In this study, by using a mouse sepsis model, we identified a novel mechanism by which NETs induce macrophage (Mϕ) pyroptosis, a caspase-1-dependent regulated cell death...
May 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765013/a-new-tool-for-detection-of-extracellular-traps
#4
Alizé Proust, Julie-Christine Lévesque, Corinne Barat, Sachiko Sato, Michel J Tremblay
Extracellular traps ejected by various immune cells (neutrophils, macrophages, eosinophils and mast cells) have several immune functions, either protective against pathogens or deleterious in some autoimmune or inflammatory disorders. Since their first description in 2004, the mechanisms of extracellular traps formation have been extensively investigated though still not fully understood. We describe here a new tool for the detection of extracellular traps by fluorescence microscopy in a single-step staining protocol, which does not require any wash...
May 16, 2018: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758017/the-effects-of-dabigatran-and-rivaroxaban-on-markers-of-polymorphonuclear-leukocyte-activation
#5
Guy A Richards, Annette Theron, Gregory Tintinger, Ronald Anderson
Dabigatran is an oral direct thrombin inhibitor, and rivaroxaban, a factor Xa inhibitor. Dabigatran has been implicated in the etiology of acute coronary syndromes and as these occur following inflammatory changes in the endothelium, we investigated the inflammatory potential of these agents in vitro. In order to do so, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) were isolated from heparinized venous blood from non-smoking, healthy adults and exposed to dabigatran or rivaroxaban (0.5⁻10 µM). Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), elastase release, cytosolic Ca2+ fluxes, neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and cell viability were measured using chemiluminescence, spectrophotometric and flow cytometric procedures respectively...
May 14, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751523/annexin-a1-and-autoimmunity-from-basic-science-to-clinical-applications
#6
REVIEW
Maurizio Bruschi, Andrea Petretto, Augusto Vaglio, Laura Santucci, Giovanni Candiano, Gian Marco Ghiggeri
Annexin A1 is a protein with multifunctional roles in innate and adaptive immunity mainly devoted to the regulation of inflammatory cells and the resolution of inflammation. Most of the data regarding Annexin A1 roles in immunity derive from cell studies and from mice models lacking Annexin A1 for genetic manipulation (Annexin A1-/- ); only a few studies sought to define how Annexin A1 is involved in human diseases. High levels of anti-Annexin A1 autoantibodies have been reported in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), suggesting this protein is implicated in auto-immunity...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747217/fyco1-mediates-clearance-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-aggregates-through-a-rab7-dependent-mechanism
#7
Theodora Saridaki, Markus Nippold, Elisabeth Dinter, Andreas Roos, Leonie Diederichs, Luisa Fensky, Jörg B Schulz, Björn H Falkenburger
Parkinson disease can be caused by mutations in the α-synuclein gene and is characterized by aggregates of α-synuclein protein. We have previously shown that overexpression of the small GTPase Rab7 can induce clearance of α-synuclein aggregates. In this study, we investigate which Rab7 effectors mediate this effect. To model Parkinson disease we expressed the pathogenic A53T mutant of α-synuclein in HEK293T cells and Drosophila melanogaster. We tested the Rab7 effectors FYVE and coiled-coil domain-containing protein 1 (FYCO1) and Rab-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP)...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740848/control-of-the-inflammatory-response-during-pregnancy-potential-role-of-vip-as-a-regulatory-peptide
#8
Rosanna Ramhorst, Guillermina Calo, Daniel Paparini, Daiana Vota, Vanesa Hauk, Lucila Gallino, Fatima Merech, Esteban Grasso, Claudia Pérez Leirós
A network of cell-cell communications through contact and soluble factors supports the maternal-placental interaction and provides a suitable environment for fetal growth. Trophoblast cells take center stage at these loops: they interact with maternal leukocytes to sustain the varying demands of gestation, and they synthesize hormones, cytokines among other factors that contribute to the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Here, we discuss vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and its potential as a regulatory neuropeptide in pregnancy...
May 8, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739865/2-chlorofatty-acids-lipid-mediators-of-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation
#9
Elisa N D Palladino, Lalage A Katunga, Grant R Kolar, David A Ford
Neutrophils form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which have been implicated in microcirculatory plugging. NET formation (NETosis) involves the fusion of granule and nuclear contents, which are then released in the extracellular space. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) plays a major role in NETosis leading to the dissociation of DNA from histones. During neutrophil activation, MPO is released and activated to convert hydrogen peroxide and chloride to hypochlorous acid (HOCl). HOCl targets plasmalogens leading to the production of the chlorinated lipids, 2-chlorofatty aldehyde (2-ClFALD) and 2-chlorofatty acid (2-ClFA)...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733456/oxidative-damage-of-sp-d-abolishes-control-of-eosinophil-extracellular-dna-trap-formation
#10
Shida Yousefi, Satish K Sharma, Darko Stojkov, Nina Germic, Salome Aeschlimann, Moyar Q Ge, Cameron H Flayer, Erik D Larson, Imre G Redai, Suhong Zhang, Cynthia J Koziol-White, Katalin Karikó, Hans-Uwe Simon, Angela Haczku
The asthmatic airways are highly susceptible to inflammatory injury by air pollutants such as ozone (O3 ), characterized by enhanced activation of eosinophilic granulocytes and a failure of immune protective mechanisms. Eosinophil activation during asthma exacerbation contributes to the proinflammatory oxidative stress by high levels of nitric oxide (NO) production and extracellular DNA release. Surfactant protein-D (SP-D), an epithelial cell product of the airways, is a critical immune regulatory molecule with a multimeric structure susceptible to oxidative modifications...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727465/biphasic-zinc-compartmentalisation-in-a-human-fungal-pathogen
#11
Aaron C Crawford, Laura E Lehtovirta-Morley, Omran Alamir, Maria J Niemiec, Bader Alawfi, Mohammad Alsarraf, Volha Skrahina, Anna C B P Costa, Andrew Anderson, Sujan Yellagunda, Elizabeth R Ballou, Bernhard Hube, Constantin F Urban, Duncan Wilson
Nutritional immunity describes the host-driven manipulation of essential micronutrients, including iron, zinc and manganese. To withstand nutritional immunity and proliferate within their hosts, pathogenic microbes must express efficient micronutrient uptake and homeostatic systems. Here we have elucidated the pathway of cellular zinc assimilation in the major human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Bioinformatics analysis identified nine putative zinc transporters: four cytoplasmic-import Zip proteins (Zrt1, Zrt2, Zrt3 and orf19...
May 4, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721396/m7824-a-novel-bifunctional-anti-pd-l1-tgf%C3%AE-trap-fusion-protein-promotes-anti-tumor-efficacy-as-monotherapy-and-in-combination-with-vaccine
#12
Karin M Knudson, Kristin C Hicks, Xiaoling Luo, Jin-Qiu Chen, Jeffrey Schlom, Sofia R Gameiro
Tumors evade host immune surveillance through multiple mechanisms, including the generation of a tumor microenvironment that suppresses immune effector function. Secretion of TGFβ and upregulation of immune checkpoint programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) are two main contributors to immune evasion and tumor progression. Here, we examined the efficacy of a first-in-class bifunctional checkpoint inhibitor, the fusion protein M7824, comprising the extracellular domain of human TGFβRII (TGFβ Trap) linked to the C-terminus of human anti-PD-L1 heavy chain (αPD-L1)...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717278/role-of-obesity-in-the-release-of-extracellular-nucleosomes-in-acute-pancreatitis-a-clinical-and-experimental-study
#13
Salvador Pérez, Isabela Finamor, Pablo Martí-Andrés, Javier Pereda, Ana Campos, Rosário Domingues, Fawaz Haj, Luis Sabater, Enrique de-Madaria, Juan Sastre
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: A high body mass index increases the risk of severe pancreatitis and associated mortality. Our aims were: (1) To determine whether obesity affects the release of extracellular nucleosomes in patients with pancreatitis; (2) To determine whether pancreatic ascites confers lipotoxicity and triggers the release of extracellular nucleosomes in lean and obese rats. METHODS: DNA and nucleosomes were determined in plasma from patients with mild or moderately severe acute pancreatitis either with normal or high body mass index (BMI)...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714810/divergent-effects-of-strontium-and-calcium-sensing-receptor-positive-allosteric-modulators-calcimimetics-on-human-osteoclast-activity
#14
Natalie A Diepenhorst, Katie Leach, Andrew N Keller, Patricia Rueda, Anna E Cook, Tracie L Pierce, Cameron Nowell, Philippe Pastoureau, Massimo Sabatini, Roger J Summers, William N Charman, Patrick M Sexton, Arthur Christopoulos, Christopher J Langmead
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Strontium ranelate, a drug approved, and until recently used for the treatment of osteoporosis, mediates its effects on bone at least in part via the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). However, it is not known whether bone-targeted CaSR positive allosteric modulators (PAMs; calcimimetics) represent an alternative (or adjunctive) therapy to strontium (Sr2+ o ). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We assessed three structurally distinct calcimimetics (cinacalcet, AC-265347 and a benzothiazole tri-substituted urea [BTU-compound 13]), alone and in combination with extracellular calcium (Ca2+ o ) or Sr2+ o , in G protein-dependent signalling assays and trafficking experiments in HEK293 cells and for their effects on cell differentiation, tartrate-resistant alkaline phosphatase (TRAP) activity and hydroxyapatite resorption assays in human blood-derived osteoclasts...
May 1, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712770/redd1-autophagy-pathway-is-associated-with-neutrophil-driven-il-1%C3%AE-inflammatory-response-in-active-ulcerative-colitis
#15
Iliana Angelidou, Akrivi Chrysanthopoulou, Alexandros Mitsios, Stella Arelaki, Athanasios Arampatzioglou, Konstantinos Kambas, Dimitrios Ritis, Victoria Tsironidou, Ioannis Moschos, Vasiliki Dalla, Dimitrios Stakos, Georgios Kouklakis, Ioannis Mitroulis, Konstantinos Ritis, Panagiotis Skendros
Infiltration of neutrophils into colonic mucosa has been associated with the severity of ulcerative colitis (UC). We investigated the effect of disease microenvironment on the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) as well as the involved mechanisms in NETosis and whether certain NET proteins are correlated with disease phenotype. Peripheral blood neutrophils, sera, and colonic tissue were collected from treatment-naive and mesalazine-treated patients with active UC, treatment-naive patients with active Crohn's disease, patients suffering from infectious colitis, or healthy individuals (controls)...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709950/an-autopsy-case-of-myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-mpo-anca-associated-vasculitis-accompanied-by-cryoglobulinemic-vasculitis-affecting-the-kidneys-skin-and-gastrointestinal-tract
#16
Jumpei Hasegawa, Sachiko Wakai, Momoko Kono, Yusuke Imaizumi, Sakiko Masuda, Akihiro Ishizu, Kazuho Honda
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) -associated vasculitis (AAV) and cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (CV) rarely coexist. An 83-year-old woman was admitted with rapidly progressive renal failure, gastrointestinal hemorrhage and purpura with myeloperoxidase (MPO) -ANCA positivity and cryoglobulinemia. Despite intensive immunosuppressive treatment, she died of aspergillus pneumonia. Autopsy revealed necrotizing crescentic glomerulitis in the majority of the glomeruli, accompanied by partially membranoproliferative-like glomerular changes...
April 27, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703474/platelets-nets-and-cancer
#17
Jessica Cedervall, Anahita Hamidi, Anna-Karin Olsson
In addition to the central role of platelets in hemostasis, they contribute to pathological conditions such as inflammation and tumor progression. Aberrant expression and/or exposure of pro-coagulant factors in the tumor microenvironment induce platelet activation and subsequent release of growth factors from platelet granules. Cancer patients are commonly affected by thrombotic events, as a result of tumor-induced platelet activation. A novel player potentially contributing to cancer-associated thrombosis is the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)...
April 2018: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702229/map-kinase-slt2-orthologs-play-similar-roles-in-conidiation-trap-formation-and-pathogenicity-in-two-nematode-trapping-fungi
#18
Zhengyi Zhen, Xinjing Xing, Meihua Xie, Le Yang, Xuewei Yang, Yaqing Zheng, Yuanli Chen, Ni Ma, Qing Li, Ke-Qin Zhang, Jinkui Yang
Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase Slt2 is a key player in the cell-wall integrity pathway of budding yeast. In this study, we functionally characterized Slt2 orthologs AoSlt2 and MhSlt2 from the nematode-trapping fungi Arthrobotrys oligospora and Monacrosporium haptotylum, respectively. We found that disruption of AoSlt2 and MhSlt2 led to reduced mycelial growth, increased sensitivity to environmental stresses such as sodium dodecyl sulfate, Congo red, and H2 O2 , and an inability to produce conidia and nematode-trapping structures...
April 24, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694885/wnt-signaling-mediates-ltp-dependent-spine-plasticity-and-ampar-localization-through-frizzled-7-receptors
#19
Faye McLeod, Alessandro Bossio, Aude Marzo, Lorenza Ciani, Sara Sibilla, Saad Hannan, Gemma A Wilson, Ernest Palomer, Trevor G Smart, Alasdair Gibb, Patricia C Salinas
The structural and functional plasticity of synapses is critical for learning and memory. Long-term potentiation (LTP) induction promotes spine growth and AMPAR accumulation at excitatory synapses, leading to increased synaptic strength. Glutamate initiates these processes, but the contribution from extracellular modulators is not fully established. Wnts are required for spine formation; however, their impact on activity-mediated spine plasticity and AMPAR localization is unknown. We found that LTP induction rapidly increased synaptic Wnt7a/b protein levels...
April 24, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691453/author-correction-particles-of-different-sizes-and-shapes-induce-neutrophil-necroptosis-followed-by-the-release-of-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-like-chromatin
#20
Jyaysi Desai, Orestes Foresto-Neto, Mohsen Honarpisheh, Stefanie Steiger, Daigo Nakazawa, Bastian Popper, Eva Miriam Buhl, Peter Boor, Shrikant R Mulay, Hans-Joachim Anders
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
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