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Extracellular Traps

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820993/changing-profiles-of-bound-water-content-and-distribution-in-the-activated-sludge-treatment-by-nacl-addition-and-ph-modification
#1
Dong-Qin He, Ying-Jie Zhang, Chuan-Shu He, Han-Qing Yu
Currently the dewatering of activated sludge from wastewater treatment plants is a problem not well solved. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), including loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS), are highly hydrated biopolymers and play important roles in sludge dewatering. In the present work, two types of treatments, i.e., salt addition and pH modification, were proposed to evaluate the effects of bound water content and its distribution on the dewatering performance of activated sludge...
August 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808323/stress-hormone-rapidly-tunes-synaptic-nmda-receptor-through-membrane-dynamics-and-mineralocorticoid-signalling
#2
Lenka Mikasova, Hui Xiong, Amber Kerkhofs, Delphine Bouchet, Harm J Krugers, Laurent Groc
Stress hormones, such as corticosteroids, modulate the transmission of hippocampal glutamatergic synapses and NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent synaptic plasticity, favouring salient behavioural responses to the environment. The corticosterone-induced synaptic adaptations partly rely on changes in NMDAR signalling, although the cellular pathway underlying this effect remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate, using single molecule imaging and electrophysiological approaches in hippocampal neurons, that corticosterone specifically controls GluN2B-NMDAR surface dynamics and synaptic content through mineralocorticoid signalling...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807983/cancer-associated-pathways-and-biomarkers-of-venous-thrombosis
#3
Yohei Hisada, Nigel Mackman
Cancer patients have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). In this review, we will summarize common and cancer type-specific pathways of VTE in cancer patients. Increased levels of leukocytes, platelets and tissue factor-positive (TF+) microvesicles are all potential factors that alone or in combination increase cancer-associated thrombosis. Lung and colorectal cancer patients often exhibit leukocytosis. Neutrophils could increase VTE in cancer patients by releasing neutrophil extracellular traps whereas monocytes may express TF...
August 14, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805211/all-atom-md-indicates-ion-dependent-behavior-of-therapeutic-dna-polymer
#4
Ryan L Melvin, William H Gmeiner, Freddie R Salsbury
Understanding the efficacy of and creating delivery mechanisms for therapeutic nucleic acids requires understanding structural and kinetic properties which allow these polymers to promote the death of cancerous cells. One molecule of interest is a 10 mer of FdUMP (5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine-5'-O-monophosphate) - also called F10. Here we investigate the structural and kinetic behavior of F10 in intracellular and extracellular solvent conditions along with non-biological conditions that may be efficacious in in vitro preparations of F10 delivery systems...
August 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804484/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-open-the-pandora-s-box-in-severe-malaria
#5
Sebastian Boeltz, Luis E Muñoz, Tobias A Fuchs, Martin Herrmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800686/functionality-of-surfactants-in-waste-activated-sludge-treatment-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Renpeng Guan, Xingzhong Yuan, Zhibin Wu, Hou Wang, Longbo Jiang, Yifu Li, Guangming Zeng
Proper treatment of waste-activated sludge (WAS) involves three pivotal processes, dewatering, anaerobic digestion, and pollutants removal, which need to be re-assessed urgently. Although many traditional sludge treatments have been developed, it is prudent to enhance the efficiency of sludge treatment using multifunctional, flexible, and environmentally friendly surfactants. With regard to sludge dewatering, surfactants can weaken the binding interaction between sludge flocs and promote the dissolution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), resulting in the release of bound water...
August 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798364/characterization-of-circulating-low-density-neutrophils-intrinsic-properties-in-healthy-and-asthmatic-horses
#7
Nicolas Herteman, Amandine Vargas, Jean-Pierre Lavoie
Low-density neutrophils (LDNs) are a subset of neutrophils first described in the bloodstream upon pathological conditions, and recently, in the blood of healthy humans. LDNs may have an enhanced pro-inflammatory (low-density granulocytes, LDGs) or an immunosuppressive (Granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells, G-MDSCs) profile. Whether these characteristics are specific to LDNs or related to disease states is unknown. Thus, we sought to investigate the properties of LDNs in both health and disease states, and to compare them to those of autologous normal-density neutrophils (NDNs)...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796849/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-and-fibrin-in-otitis-media-analysis-of-human-and-chinchilla-temporal-bones
#8
Patricia A Schachern, Geeyoun Kwon, David E Briles, Patricia Ferrieri, Steven Juhn, Sebahattin Cureoglu, Michael M Paparella, Vladimir Tsuprun
Background: Bacterial resistance in acute otitis can result in bacterial persistence and biofilm formation, triggering chronic and recurrent infections. Objective: To investigate the middle ear inflammatory response to bacterial infection in human and chinchilla temporal bones. Design, Setting, and Participants: Six chinchillas underwent intrabullar inoculations with 0.5 mL of 106 colony-forming units (CFUs) of Streptococcus pneumoniae, serotype 2...
August 10, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795678/-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-and-coagulation-dysfunction-in-sepsis
#9
Fangxiao Zhang, Zhidan Zhang, Xiaochun Ma
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are net-like structure composed of DNA and nuclear proteins, which are produced by activated neutrophils under the circumstances of a variety of pathogens or drugs. As part of defensive mechanism, NETs have been proved to restrict the spread of pathogens and release of antimicrobial molecules. NETs can not only strengthen the adhesion between neutrophils and platelets, promote platelet mediated procoagulant reaction, but also lead to endothelial cell damage and coagulopathy in sepsis...
August 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783687/group-b-streptococcus-circumvents-neutrophils-and-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-during-amniotic-cavity-invasion-and-preterm-labor
#10
Erica Boldenow, Claire Gendrin, Lisa Ngo, Craig Bierle, Jay Vornhagen, Michelle Coleman, Sean Merillat, Blair Armistead, Christopher Whidbey, Varchita Alishetti, Veronica Santana-Ufret, Jason Ogle, Michael Gough, Sengkeo Srinouanprachanh, James W MacDonald, Theo K Bammler, Aasthaa Bansal, H Denny Liggitt, Lakshmi Rajagopal, Kristina M Adams Waldorf
Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Although microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) is associated with most early preterm births, the temporal events that occur during MIAC and preterm labor are not known. Group B streptococci (GBS) are β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacteria, which commonly colonize the vagina but have been recovered from the amniotic fluid in preterm birth cases. To understand temporal events that occur during MIAC, we used a chronically catheterized nonhuman primate model that closely emulates human pregnancy...
October 14, 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780505/local-dornase-alfa-treatment-reduces-nets-induced-airway-obstruction-during-severe-rsv-infection
#11
Bart Cortjens, Rineke de Jong, Judith G Bonsing, Job B M van Woensel, Adriaan F G Antonis, Reinout A Bem
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is characterised by airway obstruction with mucus plugs, containing DNA networks in the form of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). We investigated the effect of dornase alfa on histopathological NETs-induced airway obstruction and viral load in an age-relevant calf model of severe bovine RSV disease. As compared with the control animals, dornase alfa treatment resulted in a strong reduction of NETs-induced airway obstruction. Viral load in the lower respiratory tract was not different between the two groups...
August 5, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777804/neutrophil-extracellular-trap-net-levels-in-human-plasma-are-associated-with-active-tb
#12
Marcos C Schechter, Kristina Buac, Toidi Adekambi, Stephanie Cagle, Justine Celli, Susan M Ray, Christina C Mehta, Balázs Rada, Jyothi Rengarajan
Neutrophils are increasingly associated with tuberculosis (TB) disease. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are released by neutrophils as a host antimicrobial defense mechanism, are also associated with tissue damage. However, a link between NET levels and TB disease has not been studied. Here we investigate plasma NETs levels in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis using an ELISA assay that is suitable for high-throughput processing. We show that plasma NETs levels at baseline correlated with disease severity and decreased with antibiotic therapy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775074/stasis-promotes-erythrocyte-adhesion-to-von-willebrand-factor
#13
Michel W J Smeets, Marjon J Mourik, Hans W M Niessen, Peter L Hordijk
OBJECTIVE: Venous thromboembolism is a major contributor to global disease burden. Leukocytes and platelets initiate thrombogenesis on blood stasis and initiate the formation of a fibrin, VWF (von Willebrand factor), and neutrophil extracellular trap scaffolds for erythrocytes. However, there is little knowledge on how erythrocytes become stably incorporated into this scaffold. Recently, we described the adhesion of calcium-loaded erythrocytes to endothelial-derived VWF strings. Because VWF is part of the scaffold of venous thrombi, we questioned whether reduced flow or stasis promotes the adhesion of normal erythrocytes to VWF and whether venous thrombi show evidence of erythrocyte-VWF interactions...
August 3, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774773/degradation-of-extracellular-dna-by-dnase1-significantly-reduces-testicular-damage-after-testicular-torsion-in-rats
#14
Michael Boettcher, Dennis Meier, Miguel Jiménez-Alcázar, Georg Eschenburg, Stefan Mietzsch, Deirdre Vincent, Michaela Klinke, Magdalena Trochimiuk, Birgit Appl, Bastian Tiemann, Robert Bergholz, Konrad Reinshagen, Tobias A Fuchs
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of DNase1 treatment on testicular damage after TT aim of this study. It has been demonstrated that testicular torsion (TT) induces thrombus formation and that anticoagulation significantly reduces testicular damage after TT. It was hypothesized that these thrombi are dependent on neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and thus NETs disintegration would reduce testicular cell damage. METHODS: In 10 rats a sham operation was performed...
July 31, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771720/cyanidin-chloride-inhibits-ovariectomy-induced-osteoporosis-by-suppressing-rankl-mediated-osteoclastogenesis-and-associated-signaling-pathways
#15
Jianwen Cheng, Lin Zhou, Qian Liu, Jennifer Tickner, Zhen Tan, Xiaofeng Li, Mei Liu, Xixi Lin, Tao Wang, Nathan J Pavlos, Jinmin Zhao, Jiake Xu
Over-production and activation of osteoclasts is a common feature of osteolytic conditions such as osteoporosis, tumor-associated osteolysis, and inflammatory bone erosion. Cyanidin Chloride, a subclass of anthocyanin, displays antioxidant and anti-carcinogenesis properties, but its role in osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoporosis is not well understood. In this study, we showed that Cyanidin Chloride inhibits osteoclast formation, hydroxyapatite resorption, and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast marker gene expression; including ctr, ctsk and trap...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769806/a-red-blood-cell-membrane-camouflaged-nanoparticle-counteracts-streptolysin-o-mediated-virulence-phenotypes-of-invasive-group-a-streptococcus
#16
Tamara Escajadillo, Joshua Olson, Brian T Luk, Liangfang Zhang, Victor Nizet
Group A Streptococcus (GAS), an important human-specific Gram-positive bacterial pathogen, is associated with a broad spectrum of disease, ranging from mild superficial infections such as pharyngitis and impetigo, to serious invasive infections including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The GAS pore-forming streptolysin O (SLO) is a well characterized virulence factor produced by nearly all GAS clinical isolates. High level expression of SLO is epidemiologically linked to intercontinental dissemination of hypervirulent clonotypes and poor clinical outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754958/a-study-on-the-risk-of-fungal-infection-with-tofacitinib-cp-690550-a-novel-oral-agent-for-rheumatoid-arthritis
#17
Yong Chen, Fang-Yuan Gong, Zhen-Jun Li, Zheng Gong, Zhe Zhou, Shu-Yan Ma, Xiao-Ming Gao
Tofacitinib (CP-690550), an oral Janus kinase inhibitor, has shown significant efficacy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis through blocking the signaling pathways of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, recent evidence suggests that long-term tofacitinib treatment is associated with increased risk of infection (e.g. tuberculosis) in patients. In the present study, we illustrate that tofacitinib administration significantly reduced the survival rate of mice given lethal or sub-lethal dose challenge with Candida albicans...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753571/1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol-ameliorates-arthritic-joints-through-reducing-neutrophil-infiltration-mediated-by-il-6-stat3-and-mip-2-activation
#18
Young-Jun Kim, Jae Min Shin, Su-Hyun Shin, Joo Heon Kim, Ki-Young Sohn, Heung-Jae Kim, Jong-Koo Kang, Sun Young Yoon, Jae Wha Kim
The pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been implicated neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation which could generate autoantigen. Neutrophil contributes to initiate and maintain the inflammatory process in the joint. In this study, we show that 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-acetyl-rac-glycerol (PLAG) decreases neutrophil migration by regulating the activity of STAT3, a regulator of IL-6 and MIP-2 expression. PLAG caused a decrease in IL-6 production in the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line and in rheumatoid arthritis-fibroblast-like synoviocytes via the regulation of STAT3 signaling without affecting NF-κB signaling...
July 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751233/sputum-autoantibodies-in-severe-eosinophilic-asthma
#19
Manali Mukherjee, David C Bulir, Katherine Radford, Melanie Kjarsgaard, Chynna Margaret Huang, Elizabeth A Jacobsen, Sergei I Ochkur, Ana Catuneanu, Hanah Lamothe-Kipnes, James Mahony, James J Lee, Paige Lacy, Parameswaran K Nair
BACKGROUND: The persistence of eosinophils in sputum despite high doses of corticosteroids indicates disease severity in asthma. Chronic inflamed airways over time may lose tolerance to immunogenic entities released upon frequent eosinophil degranulation, which further contributes to disease severity and necessitates increase in maintenance corticosteroids. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the possibility of a polyclonal autoimmune event in asthmatic airways, and identify associated clinical and molecular characteristics...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747804/differential-signalling-and-kinetics-of-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-release-revealed-by-quantitative-live-imaging
#20
Maarten van der Linden, Geertje H A Westerlaken, Michiel van der Vlist, Joris van Montfrans, Linde Meyaard
A wide variety of microbial and inflammatory factors induce DNA release from neutrophils as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Consensus on the kinetics and mechanism of NET release has been hindered by the lack of distinctive methods to specifically quantify NET release in time. Here, we validate and refine a semi-automatic live imaging approach for quantification of NET release. Importantly, our approach is able to correct for neutrophil input and distinguishes NET release from neutrophil death by other means, aspects that are lacking in many NET quantification methods...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
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