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Extracellular Traps

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640782/perioperative-venous-thromboembolism-a-review
#1
Ronald J Gordon, Frederick W Lombard
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant problem in the perioperative period, increasing patient morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. It is also considered the most preventable of the major postoperative complications. Despite widespread adoption of prophylaxis guidelines, it appears that morbidity from the disease has not substantially changed within the past 2 decades. It is becoming clear that current prophylaxis efforts are not sufficient. Using more potent anticoagulants may decrease the incidence of VTE, but increase the risk for bleeding and infection...
June 20, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637952/heat-shock-protein-72-promotes-platelet-aggregation-induced-by-various-platelet-activators-in-rats
#2
Hideaki Suzuki, Yuuko Kosuge, Koji Kobayashi, Yoshifumi Kurosaki, Naohito Ishii, Naoyoshi Aoyama, Kazuhiko Ishihara, Takafumi Ichikawa
Increase of thrombus in the coronary arteries is positively correlated with the level of heat-shock protein 72 (HSP72) in the blood of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Platelet aggregation participates in thrombus formation on ruptured plaque in AMI. In this study, we aimed to clarify the role of HSP72 in thrombus formation by evaluating the effects of HSP72 on platelet aggregation. Platelet aggregation activities were measured in platelet-rich plasma obtained from male Sprague-Dawley rats with or without the platelet activators, such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen, thrombin receptor-activating peptide-6 (TRAP-6), ristocetin, and arachidonic acid...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635961/hypoxia-induced-mobilization-of-nhe6-to-the-plasma-membrane-triggers-endosome-hyperacidification-and-chemoresistance
#3
Fabrice Lucien, Pierre-Paul Pelletier, Roxane R Lavoie, Jean-Michel Lacroix, Sébastien Roy, Jean-Luc Parent, Dominique Arsenault, Kelly Harper, Claire M Dubois
The pH-dependent partitioning of chemotherapeutic drugs is a fundamental yet understudied drug distribution mechanism that may underlie the low success rates of current approaches to counter multidrug resistance (MDR). This mechanism is influenced by the hypoxic tumour microenvironment and results in selective trapping of weakly basic drugs into acidified compartments such as the extracellular environment. Here we report that hypoxia not only leads to acidification of the tumour microenvironment but also induces endosome hyperacidification...
June 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629136/zinc-in-infection-and-inflammation
#4
REVIEW
Nour Zahi Gammoh, Lothar Rink
Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation...
June 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628026/-dynamics-of-occurrence-and-regression-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-the-experimental-model-of-the-wound-infectious-inflammatory-process
#5
I Nesterova, A Evglevsky, G Chudilova, S Kovaleva, L Lomtatidze
The dynamics of the appearance and regression of neutrophilic extracellular traps (NETs) in the experimental model of the wound infectious-inflammatory process that was caused by infection of open wounds by microbes surrounding environment, was studied. It was established that on the second day from the start of the experiment a significant number of mature neutrophilic granulocytes show the ability to form NEТs. The number of NETs was reached its maximum by the 2th and 4th days from the beginning of the experiment, that was associated with maximum occurrence of symptoms of inflammation in the wound...
May 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627340/-experimental-study-on-formation-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-human-peripheral-blood-induced-by-paraquat-in-vitro
#6
Wei Jin, Jian Lu, Hui Xie, Yiqun Jiang, Xiaoxiao Meng, Yong Zhu, Ruilan Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether paraquat (PQ) can induce the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in human peripheral blood. METHODS: Neutrophils were isolated from healthy human peripheral blood, and the cells were identified by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) strain. The cells were treated with different concentrations of PQ [0 (as control), 200, 400, 600, 800, 1 000 and 1 200 μmol/L], and the cell viability was measured by cell proliferation and CCK-8 cytotoxicity detection kit, and the median lethal concentration of PQ was selected...
March 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625258/-plasma-level-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-septic-patients-and-its-clinical-significance-a-prospective-observational-study
#7
Fangxiao Zhang, Zhidan Zhang, Xiaochun Ma
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) level in plasma of sepsis patients and judge its clinical value for early diagnosing of sepsis. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted. The patients after surgery aged > 18 years and expected to stay in the ICU > 24 hours admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University from November 2014 to February 2015 were enrolled...
February 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624040/hyperglycemia-attenuates-receptor-activator-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-ligand-induced-macrophage-activation-by-suppressing-insulin-signaling
#8
Chitaru Kurihara, Teruyoshi Tanaka, Dai Yamanouchi
BACKGROUND: Although male gender, aging, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and smoking are common risk factors for abdominal aortic aneurysm, diabetes mellitus is an independent negative risk factor. In aneurysm tissue, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expressed by activated macrophages degrades extracellular matrix proteins. In our previous experimental study, we demonstrated that the aneurysmal formation and macrophage activity were suppressed by inhibiting mimicking hyperglycemia (HG) through upregulation of glucose-sensing nuclear receptor, Nr1h2...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622595/exogenous-deoxyribonuclease-has-a-protective-effect-in-a-mouse-model-of-sepsis
#9
Lucia Lauková, Barbora Konečná, Janka Bábíčková, Alexandra Wagnerová, Veronika Melišková, Barbora Vlková, Peter Celec
Sepsis is associated with the activation of white blood cells (WBCs) that leads to the production of extracellular traps. This process increases extracellular DNA (ecDNA) that can be recognized by the innate immune system and leads to inflammation. Previous studies have shown that by cleaving ecDNA deoxyribonuclease (DNase) prevents the antibacterial effects of extracellular traps, but also has beneficial effects in sepsis. The aim of our study was to analyze the effects of DNase on WBCs in vitro and on ecDNA in a mouse model of sepsis...
June 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615122/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-generation-of-heterophil-extracellular-traps-after-salmonella-exposure
#10
Jana Pieper, Maria Locke, Gunda Ruzaike, Stefanie Voigt, Ulrich Methner, Angela Berndt
The release of extracellular traps (ETs) by granulocytes is a unique strategy to stop the dissemination of microbial pathogens. This study was undertaken to elucidate the potential of avian granulocytes (heterophils) to form ETs that can arrest and kill Salmonella organisms. After in vitro exposure of isolated heterophils and in vivo infection of day-old chicks with Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars Infantis (SI) or Enteritidis (SE), the generation of ETs as well as the trapping and survivability of Salmonella organisms in the ET meshwork were determined by means of microscopy and spectrophotometry...
June 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614785/drag-reducing-polymers-decrease-hepatic-injury-and-metastases-after-liver-ischemia-reperfusion
#11
Samer Tohme, Marina V Kameneva, Hamza O Yazdani, Vikas Sud, Julie Goswami, Patricia Loughran, Hai Huang, Richard L Simmons, Allan Tsung
INTRODUCTION: Surgery, a crucial therapeutic modality in the treatment of solid tumors, can induce sterile inflammatory processes which can result in metastatic progression. Liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury, an inevitable consequence of hepatic resection of metastases, has been shown to foster hepatic capture of circulating cancer cells and accelerate metastatic growth. Efforts to reduce these negative consequences have not been thoroughly investigated. Drag reducing polymers (DRPs) are blood-soluble macromolecules that can, in nanomolar concentrations, increase tissue perfusion, decrease vascular resistance and decrease near-wall microvascular concentration of neutrophils and platelets thereby possibly reducing the inflammatory microenvironment...
May 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612332/cocaine-levamisole-induced-vasculitis-vasculopathy-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
Javier Marquez, Lina Aguirre, Carolina Muñoz, Andres Echeverri, Mauricio Restrepo, Luis F Pinto
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To understand the clinical spectrum of cocaine-levamisole-induced vasculitis. Worldwide recreational drug consumption is high among the adult population from various social strata. The use of cocaine with levamisole, a frequently added antiparasitic diluent, favors the manifestations of vasculitic lesions, especially in the skin. RECENT FINDINGS: New insights into immunological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. There are still many unknown aspects in the pathogenesis of this disease, such as the immune system interaction with p-ANCAs and the release of inflammatory NETs (neutrophil extracellular traps), which are the origin of auto-antigens and tissue damage, manifesting as vasculitic purpura on the skin...
June 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611772/bovine-polymorphonuclear-neutrophils-cast-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-against-the-abortive-parasite-neospora-caninum
#13
Rodolfo Villagra-Blanco, Liliana M R Silva, Tamara Muñoz-Caro, Zhengtao Yang, Jianhua Li, Ulrich Gärtner, Anja Taubert, Xichen Zhang, Carlos Hermosilla
Neospora caninum represents a relevant apicomplexan parasite causing severe reproductive disorders in cattle worldwide. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) generation was recently described as an efficient defense mechanism of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) acting against different parasites. In vitro interactions of bovine PMN with N. caninum were analyzed at different ratios and time spans. Extracellular DNA staining was used to illustrate the typical molecules of NETs [i.e., histones (H3), neutrophil elastase (NE), myeloperoxidase (MPO), pentraxin] via antibody-based immunofluorescence analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611461/jnk-activation-turns-on-lps-and-gram-negative-bacteria-induced-nadph-oxidase-dependent-suicidal-netosis
#14
Meraj A Khan, Armin Farahvash, David N Douda, Johann-Christoph Licht, Hartmut Grasemann, Neil Sweezey, Nades Palaniyar
Neutrophils cast neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to ensnare microbial pathogens. Nevertheless, the molecular rheostats that regulate NETosis in response to bacteria are not clearly established. We hypothesized that stress-activated protein kinase or c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (SAPK/JNK) is a molecular switch that turns on NETosis in response to increasing concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and Gram-negative bacteria. Here we show that Escherichia coli LPS (0111:B4; 10-25 μg/ml), but not phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), activates JNK in human neutrophils in a dose-dependent manner...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611024/platelet-amyloid-precursor-protein-is-a-modulator-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-mice
#15
Ilaria Canobbio, Caterina Visconte, Stefania Momi, Gianni Francesco Guidetti, Marta Zarà, Jessica Canino, Emanuela Falcinelli, Paolo Gresele, Mauro Torti
The amyloid precursor protein (APP), primarily known as the precursor of amyloid peptides that accumulate in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients, is abundant in platelets but its physiological function remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of APP in hemostasis and thrombosis using APP knockout (KO) mice. Ex vivo aggregation, secretion, and integrin αIIbβ3 inside-out activation induced by several agonists were normal in APP-deficient platelets, but the number of circulating platelets was reduced by about 20%, and their size was slightly increased...
June 13, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607100/control-of-mucosal-candidiasis-in-the-zebrafish-swimbladder-depends-on-neutrophils-that-block-filament-invasion-and-drive-extracellular-trap-production
#16
Remi L Gratacap, Allison K Scherer, Brittany G Seman, Robert T Wheeler
Candida albicans is a ubiquitous mucosal commensal that is normally prevented from causing acute or chronic invasive disease. Neutrophils contribute to protection in oral infection but exacerbate vulvovaginal candidiasis. To dissect the role of neutrophils during mucosal candidiasis we took advantage of a new, transparent zebrafish swimbladder infection model. Intravital microscopic tracking of individual animals revealed that blocking neutrophil recruitment leads to rapid mortality in this model through faster disease progression...
June 12, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606749/cardiovascular-disease-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-comprehensive-update
#17
REVIEW
Mayra Giannelou, Clio P Mavragani
Heightened rates of both cardiovascular (CV) events and subclinical atherosclerosis, documented by imaging and vascular function techniques are well established in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). While traditional CV factors such as smoking, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, central obesity and hyperhomocysteinemia have been reported to be prevalent in lupus patients, they do not fully explain the high rates of ischemic events so far reported, implying that other factors inherent to disease itself could account for the enhanced risk, including disease duration, activity and chronicity, psychosocial factors, medications, genetic variants and altered immunological mechanisms...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596373/mitochondrial-oxidative-stress-promotes-atherosclerosis-and-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-aged-mice
#18
Ying Wang, Wei Wang, Nan Wang, Alan R Tall, Ira Tabas
RATIONALE: Mitochondrial oxidative stress (mitoOS) has been shown to be increased in various cell types in human atherosclerosis and with aging. However, the role of cell type-specific mitoOS in atherosclerosis in the setting of advanced age and the molecular mechanisms remains to be determined in vivo. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the role of myeloid cell mitoOS in atherosclerosis in aged mice. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Lethally irradiated low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice (Ldlr(-/-) ) were reconstituted with bone marrow from either wild-type or mitochondrial catalase (mCAT) mice...
June 8, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593142/spontaneous-formation-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-serum-free-culture-conditions
#19
Go Kamoshida, Takane Kikuchi-Ueda, Satoshi Nishida, Shigeru Tansho-Nagakawa, Hirotoshi Kikuchi, Tsuneyuki Ubagai, Yasuo Ono
Neutrophils play a critical role in the innate immune response. Recently, a new neutrophilic biological defense mechanism, termed neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), has been attracting attention. Neutrophils have been observed to release both lysosomal enzymes and their nuclear contents, including unfolded chromatin, which together trap and inactivate bacteria. The environment in tissues where neutrophils act is thought to be different from that of the blood serum. In this study, we assessed the effect of serum on NET formation...
June 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587841/3-nucleotidase-nuclease-in-protozoan-parasites-molecular-and-biochemical-properties-and-physiological-roles
#20
Anita Leocadio Freitas-Mesquita, José Roberto Meyer-Fernandes
3'-nucleotidase/nuclease (3'NT/NU) is a bi-functional enzyme that is able to hydrolyze 3'-monophosphorylated nucleotides and nucleic acids. This review summarizes the major molecular and biochemical properties of this enzyme in different trypanosomatid species. Sequence analysis of the gene encoding 3'NT/NU in Leishmania and Crithidia species showed that the protein possesses five highly conserved regions that are characteristic of members of the class I nuclease family. 3'NT/NU presents a molecular weight of approximately 40 kDa, which is conserved among the studied species...
June 3, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
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