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Extracellular Histones

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911367/a-simple-fluorescence-assay-for-quantification-of-canine-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-release
#1
Unity Jeffery, Robert D Gray, Dana N LeVine
Neutrophil extracellular traps are networks of DNA, histones and neutrophil proteins released in response to infectious and inflammatory stimuli. Although a component of the innate immune response, NETs are implicated in a range of disease processes including autoimmunity and thrombosis. This protocol describes a simple method for canine neutrophil isolation and quantification of NETs using a microplate fluorescence assay. Blood is collected using conventional venipuncture techniques. Neutrophils are isolated using dextran sedimentation and a density gradient using conditions optimized for dog blood...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906828/presence-of-cytotoxic-extracellular-histones-in-machine-perfusate-of-donation-after-circulatory-death-kidneys
#2
Tim C van Smaalen, Daniëlle M H Beurskens, E R Pieter Hoogland, Bjorn Winkens, Maarten H L Christiaans, Chris P Reutelingsperger, L W Ernest van Heurn, Gerry A F Nicolaes
BACKGROUND: Extracellular histones are cytotoxic molecules that are related to cell stress and death. They have been shown to play a crucial role in multiple pathophysiologic processes like sepsis, inflammation, vascular dysfunction and thrombosis. Their role in organ donation and graft function and survival is still unknown. The aim of this study was to assess whether an association exists between the presence of extracellular histones in machine perfusates and deceased donor kidney viability...
December 1, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904046/cocl2-decreases-ec-sod-expression-through-histone-deacetylation-in-cos7-cells
#3
Shuhei Hattori, Tetsuro Kamiya, Hirokazu Hara, Masayuki Ninomiya, Mamoru Koketsu, Tetsuo Adachi
Extracellular-superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD), one of the SOD isozymes, is negatively regulated under hypoxic conditions, and decreases in its expression may exacerbate vascular diseases. Moreover, epigenetics, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, are known to play a critical role in the progression of cancer, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. We previously investigated the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in decreases in EC-SOD expression in hypoxic COS7 cells; however, the role of epigenetics in this process currently remains unknown...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902771/piceatannol-attenuates-renal-fibrosis-induced-by-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction-via-downregulation-of-histone-deacetylase-4-5-or-p38-mapk-signaling
#4
Sin Young Choi, Zhe Hao Piao, Li Jin, Jung Ha Kim, Gwi Ran Kim, Yuhee Ryu, Ming Quan Lin, Hyung-Seok Kim, Hae Jin Kee, Myung Ho Jeong
Piceatannol, a resveratrol metabolite, is a phenolic compound found in red wine and grapes. We investigated the effect of piceatannol on renal fibrosis and histone deacetylase (HDAC) expression in a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Fibrosis was established by UUO and piceatannol was intraperitoneally injected for 2 weeks. Piceatannol suppressed extracellular matrix (ECM) protein deposition including collagen type I and fibronectin as well as connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in UUO kidneys...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895384/exendin-4-induces-extracellular-superoxide-dismutase-through-histone-h3-acetylation-in-human-retinal-endothelial-cells
#5
Hiroyuki Yasuda, Atsuko Ohashi, Shohei Nishida, Tetsuro Kamiya, Tetsuya Suwa, Hirokazu Hara, Jun Takeda, Yoshinori Itoh, Tetsuo Adachi
Extracellular-superoxide dismutase (genetic name SOD3) is a secreted anti-oxidative enzyme, and its presence in vascular walls may play an important role in protecting the vascular system against oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy; therefore, increases in extracellular-superoxide dismutase have been suggested to inhibit the progression of diabetic retinopathy. Incretin-based drugs such as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists are used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885378/netosis-provides-the-link-between-activation-of-neutrophils-on-hemodialysis-membrane-and-comorbidities-in-dialyzed-patients
#6
REVIEW
Marie Korabecna, Vladimir Tesar
INTRODUCTION: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are formed by activated neutrophils during the process of NETosis in which the nuclear material is released into extracellular space, including DNA molecules, citrullinated histones, and neutrophil granule enzymes, such as elastase. This material forms networks that are able not only to physically entrap bacteria but also to provide elevated concentration of bactericidal components. Over the last years, it has become clear that NETs can also be formed under numerous sterile inflammatory conditions, i...
November 24, 2016: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884950/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-the-amniotic-cavity-of-women-with-intra-amniotic-infection-a-new-mechanism-of-host-defense
#7
Nardhy Gomez-Lopez, Roberto Romero, Yi Xu, Derek Miller, Ronald Unkel, Majid Shaman, Suzanne M Jacques, Bogdan Panaitescu, Valeria Garcia-Flores, Sonia S Hassan
OBJECTIVE: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) control microbial infections through their antimicrobial activities attributed to DNA, histones, granules, and cytoplasmic proteins (eg, elastase). Intra-amniotic infection is characterized by the influx of neutrophils into the amniotic cavity; therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether amniotic fluid neutrophils form NETs in this inflammatory process. METHODS: Amniotic fluid samples from women with intra-amniotic infection (n = 15) were stained for bacteria detection using fluorescent dyes...
November 23, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871277/pulmonary-endothelial-activation-caused-by-extracellular-histones-contributes-to-neutrophil-activation-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#8
Yanlin Zhang, Li Guan, Jie Yu, Zanmei Zhao, Lijun Mao, Shuqiang Li, Jinyuan Zhao
BACKGROUND: During the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), neutrophils play a central role in the pathogenesis, and their activation requires interaction with the endothelium. Extracellular histones have been recognized as pivotal inflammatory mediators. This study was to investigate the role of pulmonary endothelial activation during the extracellular histone-induced inflammatory response in ARDS. METHODS: ARDS was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by intravenous injection with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or exogenous histones...
November 21, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863907/evidence-of-epigenetic-tags-in-cardiac-fibrosis
#9
REVIEW
Vincenzo Grimaldi, Maria Rosaria De Pascale, Alberto Zullo, Andrea Soricelli, Teresa Infante, Francesco Paolo Mancini, Claudio Napoli
In cardiac fibrosis, following an injury or a stress, non-functional fibrotic tissue substitutes normal myocardium, thus leading to progressive heart failure. Activated fibroblasts are principal determinants of cardiac fibrosis by producing excessive fibrotic extracellular matrix and causing hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes. Epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and miRNAs have been involved in these mechanisms. Therefore, there is a strong interest in reverting such epigenetic transformations in order to arrest myocardial fibrotic degeneration...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862500/antibodies-to-h1-histone-from-the-sera-of-hiv-infected-patients-recognize-and-catalyze-site-specific-degradation-of-this-histone
#10
Svetlana V Baranova, Pavel S Dmitrienok, Nikita V Ivanisenko, Valentina N Buneva, Georgy A Nevinsky
Histones and their posttranslational modifications have key roles in chromatin remodeling and gene transcription. Besides intranuclear functions, histones act as damage-associated molecules when they are released into the extracellular space. Administration of histones to animals leads to systemic inflammatory and toxic responses. Autoantibodies with enzymatic activities (abzymes) are distinctive feature of some autoimmune and viral diseases. Electrophoretically and immunologically homogeneous IgGs containing no canonical enzymes were isolated from sera of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients by chromatography on several affinity sorbents...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858503/high-throughput-sequencing-of-two-populations-of-extracellular-vesicles-provides-an-mrna-signature-that-can-be-detected-in-the-circulation-of-breast-cancer-patients
#11
Andrew Conley, Valentina R Minciacchi, Dhong Hyun Lee, Beatrice S Knudsen, Beth Y Karlan, Luigi Citrigno, Giuseppe Viglietto, Muneesh Tewari, Michael R Freeman, Francesca Demichelis, Dolores Di Vizio
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) contain a wide range of RNA types with a reported prevalence of non-coding RNA. To date a comprehensive characterization of the protein coding transcripts in EVs is still lacking. We performed RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) of two EV populations and identified a small fraction of transcripts that were expressed at significantly different levels in large oncosomes and exosomes, suggesting they may mediate specialized functions. However, these two EV populations exhibited a common mRNA signature that, in comparison to their donor cells, was significantly enriched in mRNAs encoding E2F transcriptional targets and histone proteins...
November 18, 2016: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855185/aberrant-expression-of-timp-2-and-pbef-genes-in-the-placentae-of-cloned-mice-due-to-epigenetic-reprogramming-error
#12
Hong Rye Kim, Jae Eun Lee, Reza Kheirkhahi Oqani, So Yeon Kim, Teruhiko Wakayama, Chong Li, Su Jin Sa, Je Seok Woo, Dong Il Jin
Cloned mice derived from somatic or ES cells show placental overgrowth (placentomegaly) at term. We had previously analyzed cloned and normal mouse placentae by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify differential protein expression patterns. Cloned placentae showed upregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), which is involved in extracellular matrix degradation and tissue remodeling, and downregulation of pre-B cell colony enhancing factor 1 (PBEF), which inhibits apoptosis and induces spontaneous labor...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854516/evasion-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-by-respiratory-pathogens
#13
Daniel M L Storisteanu, Joanna M Pocock, Andrew S Cowburn, Jatinder K Juss, Angalee Nadesalingam, Victor Nizet, Edwin R Chilvers
The release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a major immune mechanism intended to capture pathogens. These histone and protease-coated DNA structures are released by neutrophils in response to a variety of stimuli, including respiratory pathogens, and have been identified in the airways of patients with respiratory infection, cystic fibrosis, acute lung injury, primary graft dysfunction and COPD. NET production has been demonstrated in the lungs of mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Aspergillus fumigatus...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849031/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-are-indirectly-triggered-by-lipopolysaccharide-and-contribute-to-acute-lung-injury
#14
Shuai Liu, Xiaoli Su, Pinhua Pan, Lemeng Zhang, Yongbin Hu, Hongyi Tan, Dongdong Wu, Ben Liu, Haitao Li, Haosi Li, Yi Li, Minhui Dai, Yuanyuan Li, Chengping Hu, Allan Tsung
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) facilitate the extracellular killing of pathogens. However, excessive NETs formation and poor degradation are associated with exacerbated immune responses and tissue injury. In this study, we investigated the role of NETs in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated acute lung injury (ALI) and assessed the use of DNase I, for the treatment of ALI. Additionally, we focused on the controversial issue of whether LPS directly induces NETs release in vitro. NETs formation was detected in murine ALI tissue in vivo and was associated with increased NETs markers, citrullinated-histone H3 tissue levels and NET-DNA levels in BALF...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826099/post-translational-modified-proteins-are-biomarkers-of-autoimmune-processes-netosis-and-the-inflammatory-autoimmunity-connection
#15
REVIEW
Maurizio Bruschi, Andrea Petretto, Roberta Bertelli, Maricla Galetti, Alice Bonanni, Federico Pratesi, Paola Migliorini, Giovanni Candiano, Augusto Vaglio, Gian Marco Ghiggeri
Basic research is showing new mechanisms involved in early immune responses and Neutrophil Extracellular Trap (NET) formation (or NETosis) is of key importance as first line defense against bacteria, virus and protozoa. Enzymatic modification of arginine in citrulline in histones is the prerequisite of NETosis being it necessary for decondensation and extrusion of DNA from cells; it is conceivable that other post translational modifications may occur during this event. There is consensus in considering that post translational modified proteins may elicit an autoimmune response that leads to the formation of autoantibodies...
November 5, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820735/consequences-of-extracellular-trap-formation-in-sepsis
#16
Xian M O'Brien, Bethany M Biron, Jonathan S Reichner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will focus on in-vivo findings derived from animal models of sepsis regarding the trapping role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) which is difficult to assess ex vivo. The NETotic response of neutrophils at sites of sterile injury or autoimmune disease is destructive as no antimicrobial advantage to the host is realized and dampening NETosis is largely beneficial. In early stages of local infection or in sepsis, the trapping function of NETs may help abscess formation and limit microbial dissemination...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807713/effects-of-soybean-meal-on-digestive-enzymes-activity-expression-of-inflammation-related-genes-and-chromatin-modifications-in-marine-fish-sparus-aurata-l-larvae
#17
Erick Perera, Manuel Yúfera
The effects of soybean meal (SBM) in early diet of Sparus aurata larvae at two developmental windows were assessed. Prolonged (beyond 14 days post-hatch, dph) feeding with SBM decreased the activity of pancreatic enzymes of larvae. In the absence of SBM these larvae later resumed enzyme activities, but exhibited a significant delay in development. Larvae response to SBM involved up-regulation of extracellular matrix remodeling enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines, coupled with a drop in putative intestinal enzymes...
November 2, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796477/neutrophils-from-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-patients-exhibit-an-increased-capacity-to-release-extracellular-traps-nets
#18
Enrique Podaza, Florencia Sabbione, Denise Risnik, Mercedes Borge, María B Almejún, Ana Colado, Horacio Fernández-Grecco, María Cabrejo, Raimundo F Bezares, Analía Trevani, Romina Gamberale, Mirta Giordano
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by immune defects that contribute to a high rate of infections and autoimmune cytopenias. Neutrophils are the first line of innate immunity and respond to pathogens through multiple mechanisms, including the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). These web-like structures composed of DNA, histones, and granular proteins are also produced under sterile conditions and play important roles in thrombosis and autoimmune disorders. Here we show that neutrophils from CLL patients are more prone to release NETs compared to those from age-matched healthy donors (HD)...
October 28, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788716/-damage-associated-molecular-patterns-and-liver-failure
#19
Y Y Yan, S Lin, Y Y Zhu
Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are a series of intracellular molecules with immunoregulatory activity which are released by the damaged or activated cells and can induce autoimmunity or immune tolerance via pattern recognition receptors. At present, the DAMPs which have been discovered include extracellular histone, high-mobility group box-1, chromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid, interleukin-18, interleukin-32, uric acid, and mitochondrial transcription factors. The discovery of DAMPs and clarification of their mechanisms of action help to know the pathophysiological process of liver failure and provide new thoughts for the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of liver failure...
August 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777576/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-form-a-barrier-between-necrotic-and-viable-areas-in-acute-abdominal-inflammation
#20
Rostyslav Bilyy, Volodymyr Fedorov, Volodymyr Vovk, Moritz Leppkes, Tetiana Dumych, Valentyna Chopyak, Georg Schett, Martin Herrmann
Neutrophils form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) of decondensed DNA and histones that trap and immobilize particulate matter and microbial pathogens like bacteria. NET aggregates reportedly surround and isolate large objects like monosodium urate crystals, which cannot be sufficiently cleared from tissues. In the setting of acute necrotizing pancreatitis, massive tissue necrosis occurs, which is organized as pancreatic pseudocysts (1). In contrast to regular cysts, these pseudocysts are not surrounded by epithelial layers...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
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