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Extracellular Histones

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339464/propionate-enters-gabaergic-neurons-inhibits-gaba-transaminase-causes-gaba-accumulation-and-lethargy-in-a-model-of-propionic-acidemia
#1
Cecilie Morland, Anne-Sofie Frøland, Mi Nyguyen Pettersen, Jon Storm-Mathisen, Vidar Gundersen, Frode Rise, Bjørnar Hassel
Propionic acidemia is the accumulation of propionate in blood due to dysfunction of propionyl-CoA carboxylase. The condition causes lethargy and striatal degeneration with motor impairment in humans. How propionate exerts its toxic effect is unclear. Here we show that intravenous administration of propionate causes dose-dependent propionate accumulation in the brain and transient lethargy in mice. Propionate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, entered GABAergic neurons, as could be seen from increased neuronal histone H4 acetylation in striatum and neocortex...
January 16, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337251/chromatin-organization-regulated-by-ezh2-mediated-h3k27me3-is-required-for-opn-induced-migration-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#2
Lingling Liu, Qing Luo, Jinghui Sun, Yang Ju, Yasuyuki Morita, Guanbin Song
Osteopontin (OPN) is a chemokine-like extracellular matrix-associated protein involved in the migration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). An increasing number of studies have found that chromatin organization may affect cellular migration. However, whether OPN regulates chromatin organization is not understood, nor are the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the link between chromatin organization and BMSC migration and demonstrated that OPN-mediated BMSC migration leads to elevated levels of heterochromatin marker histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) through the methyltransferase EZH2...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330531/low-density-neutrophils-ldn-in-postoperative-abdominal-cavity-assist-the-peritoneal-recurrence-through-the-production-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-nets
#3
Rihito Kanamaru, Hideyuki Ohzawa, Hideyo Miyato, Shiro Matsumoto, Hidenori Haruta, Kentaro Kurashina, Shin Saito, Yoshinori Hosoya, Hironori Yamaguchi, Hiroharu Yamashita, Yasuyuki Seto, Alan Kawarai Lefor, Naohiro Sata, Joji Kitayama
Many types of immune cells appear in peritoneal cavity after abdominal surgery. In patients who underwent laparotomy due to gastric cancer, peritoneal lavages were obtained before and after surgical procedure. Cells were recovered from intermediate layer after Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation and analyzed for phenotypes and functions, especially focused on low density neutrophils (LDN). The number of CD66b (+) LDN with mature phenotype was markedly elevated in postoperative as compared with preoperative lavages...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325226/citrullinated-histone-h3-a-biomarker-of-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-predicts-the-risk-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-cancer-patients
#4
Lisa-Marie Mauracher, Florian Posch, Kimberly Martinod, Ella Grilz, Thomas Däullary, Lena Hell, Christine Brostjan, Christoph Zielinski, Cihan Ay, Denisa D Wagner, Ingrid Pabinger, Johannes Thaler
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are decondensed chromatin fibers which might play a role in the prothrombotic state of cancer patients. OBJECTIVES: Here we investigated whether citrullinated histone H3 (H3Cit), a biomarker for NET formation, cell-free DNA (cfDNA), and nucleosomes predict venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients. PATIENTS/METHODS: Nine-hundred-forty-six patients with newly-diagnosed cancer or progression after remission were enrolled in this prospective observational cohort study...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324871/citrullinated-histone-h3-as-a-novel-prognostic-blood-marker-in-patients-with-advanced-cancer
#5
Charlotte Thålin, Staffan Lundström, Cedric Seignez, Maud Daleskog, Annika Lundström, Peter Henriksson, Thomas Helleday, Mia Phillipson, Håkan Wallén, Mélanie Demers
Citrullinated histone H3 (H3Cit) is a central player in the neutrophil release of nuclear chromatin, known as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs have been shown to elicit harmful effects on the host, and were recently proposed to promote tumor progression and spread. Here we report significant elevations of plasma H3Cit in patients with advanced cancer compared with age-matched healthy individuals. These elevations were specific to cancer patients as no increase was observed in severely ill and hospitalized patients with a higher non-malignant comorbidity...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320873/does-progressive-nuclear-staining-with-hemalum-alum-hematoxylin-involve-dna-and-what-is-the-nature-of-the-dye-chromatin-complex
#6
J A Kiernan
Previous investigators have disagreed about whether hemalum stains DNA or its associated nucleoproteins. I review here the literature and describe new experiments in an attempt to resolve the controversy. Hemalum solutions, which contain aluminum ions and hematein, are routinely used to stain nuclei. A solution containing 16 Al3+ ions for each hematein molecule, at pH 2.0-2.5, provides selective progressive staining of chromatin without cytoplasmic or extracellular "background color." Such solutions contain a red cationic dye-metal complex and an excess of Al3+ ions...
January 11, 2018: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309057/macrophage-extracellular-trap-formation-promoted-by-platelet-activation-is-a-key-mediator-of-rhabdomyolysis-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#7
Koshu Okubo, Miho Kurosawa, Mako Kamiya, Yasuteru Urano, Akari Suzuki, Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Koji Hase, Koichiro Homma, Junichi Sasaki, Hiroaki Miyauchi, Tatsuo Hoshino, Matsuhiko Hayashi, Tanya N Mayadas, Junichi Hirahashi
Rhabdomyolysis is a serious syndrome caused by skeletal muscle injury and the subsequent release of breakdown products from damaged muscle cells into systemic circulation. The muscle damage most often results from strenuous exercise, muscle hypoxia, medications, or drug abuse and can lead to life-threatening complications, such as acute kidney injury (AKI). Rhabdomyolysis and the AKI complication can also occur during crush syndrome, an emergency condition that commonly occurs in victims of natural disasters, such as earthquakes, and man-made disasters, such as wars and terrorism...
January 8, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306782/the-formation-of-canine-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-induced-by-sodium-arsenic-in-polymorphonuclear-neutrophils
#8
Zhengkai Wei, Xu Zhang, Jingjing Wang, Yanan Wang, Zhengtao Yang, Yunhe Fu
As a novel defense effector mechanism of host innate immune system, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) plays an important role against pathogens infection and several diseases. In this study, we investigated the influence of sodium arsenic on novel effector mechanism of NETs generated by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and the potential molecular mechanism. Sodium arsenic-induced NETs formation was observed by fluorescence confocal microscopy. Quantitation of NETs induced by sodium arsenic was determined by fluorescence microplate...
December 28, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304522/the-pathophysiological-role-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-inflammatory-diseases
#9
Aldo Bonaventura, Luca Liberale, Federico Carbone, Alessandra Vecchié, Candela Diaz-Cañestro, Giovanni G Camici, Fabrizio Montecucco, Franco Dallegri
Neutrophil pathogen-killing mechanism termed neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) has been recently identified. NETs consist of chromatin and histones along with serine proteases and myeloperoxidase and are induced by a great variety of infectious and non-infectious stimuli. NETosis is a kind of programmed neutrophil death characterized by chromatin decondensation and release of nuclear granular contents, mainly driven by peptidylarginine deiminase 4 citrullination of histones. Although classically related to the protection against infectious pathogens, nowadays NETs have been described as a player of several pathophysiological processes...
January 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301971/intracranial-aneurysm-associated-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-alter-regulatory-dna-in-the-human-circle-of-willis
#10
Melanie D Laarman, Marit W Vermunt, Rachel Kleinloog, Jelkje J de Boer-Bergsma, Netherlands Brain Bank, Gabriël J E Rinkel, Menno P Creyghton, Michal Mokry, Jeroen Bakkers, Ynte M Ruigrok
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Genome-wide association studies significantly link intracranial aneurysm (IA) to single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 6 genomic loci. To gain insight into the relevance of these IA-associated SNPs, we aimed to identify regulatory regions and analyze overall gene expression in the human circle of Willis (CoW), on which these aneurysms develop. METHODS: We performed chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing for histone modifications H3K4me1 and H3K27ac to identify regulatory regions, including distal enhancers and active promoters, in postmortem specimens of the human CoW...
January 4, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285138/curcumin-modulates-covalent-histone-modification-and-timp1-gene-activation-to-protect-against-vascular-injury-in-a-hypertension-rat-model
#11
Jun Hu, Tingting Shen, Jun Xie, Siyang Wang, Yue He, Fu Zhu
Hypertension is a leading risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have reported that curcumin has anti-oxidation and anti-aging effects and inhibits histone deacetylase activity. However, it is still unclear whether curcumin could protect against vascular injury induced by hypertension. Thus, the current study examined the therapeutic effects and mechanism of curcumin on vascular injury induced by hypertension in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs). The present study revealed that curcumin may improve vascular structure and attenuate coronary artery pathology...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285101/proteomic-changes-of-cd4-cd25-forkhead-box-p3-regulatory-t-cells-in-a-30-day-rat-model-of-sepsis-survival
#12
Yuxia Jiao, Siqi Tan, Junyu Xiong
Sepsis is defined as life threatening organ dysfunction arising from a dysregulated host response to infection. The outcomes of sepsis include early mortality, delayed mortality and recovery, and depend on the inflammatory response. Previous studies have demonstrated that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important in determining the outcome of sepsis, as their suppressive function serves a role in maintaining immune homeostasis. However, Treg-mediated immunosuppression during the course of sepsis remains unclear and little is known about the survival of patients following diagnosis...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280310/osteogenic-stimulation-of-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-using-a-fungal-metabolite-that-suppresses-the-polycomb-group-protein-ezh2
#13
Rebekah M Samsonraj, Amel Dudakovic, Bushra Manzar, Buer Sen, Allan B Dietz, Simon M Cool, Janet Rubin, Andre J van Wijnen
Strategies for musculoskeletal tissue regeneration apply adult mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) that can be sourced from bone marrow- and lipo-aspirates. Adipose tissue-derived MSCs are more easily harvested in the large quantities required for skeletal tissue-engineering approaches, but are generally considered to be less osteogenic than bone marrow MSCs. Therefore, we tested a new molecular strategy to improve their osteogenic lineage-differentiation potential using the fungal metabolite cytochalasin D (CytoD)...
December 27, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278704/hdac6-interacts-with-ptpn1-to-enhance-melanoma-cells-progression
#14
Jiaqi Liu, Wenjie Luan, Yong Zhang, Jianying Gu, Yuedong Shi, Yanwen Yang, Zihao Feng, Fazhi Qi
Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) plays an important role in oncogenic transformation and cancer metastasis. Our previous study has demonstrated that HDAC6 was highly expressed in melanoma cells, and contributed to the proliferation and metastasis of melanoma cells. However, the underlying mechanism of HDAC6 in melanoma metastasis and progression remains largely unclear. In this study, we reported that HDAC6 directly interacted with Tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 1 (PTPN1) by performing co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
December 23, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259241/computational-detection-and-quantification-of-human-and-mouse-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-flow-cytometry-and-confocal-microscopy
#15
Brandon G Ginley, Tiffany Emmons, Brendon Lutnick, Constantin F Urban, Brahm H Segal, Pinaki Sarder
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are extracellular defense mechanisms used by neutrophils, where chromatin is expelled together with histones and granular/cytoplasmic proteins. They have become an immunology hotspot, implicated in infections, but also in a diverse array of diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes, and cancer. However, the precise assessment of in vivo relevance in different disease settings has been hampered by limited tools to quantify occurrence of extracellular traps in experimental models and human samples...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259232/cardiac-depression-in-pigs-after-multiple-trauma-characterization-of-posttraumatic-structural-and-functional-alterations
#16
M Kalbitz, S Schwarz, B Weber, B Bosch, J Pressmar, F M Hoenes, C K Braun, K Horst, T P Simon, R Pfeifer, P Störmann, H Hummler, F Gebhard, H C Pape, M Huber-Lang, F Hildebrand
The purpose of this study was to define the relationship between cardiac depression and morphological and immunological alterations in cardiac tissue after multiple trauma. However, the mechanistic basis of depressed cardiac function after trauma is still elusive. In a porcine polytrauma model including blunt chest trauma, liver laceration, femur fracture and haemorrhage serial trans-thoracic echocardiography was performed and correlated with cellular cardiac injury as well as with the occurrence of extracellular histones in serum...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259132/histone-deacetylase-6-hdac6-deacetylates-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-erk1-and-thereby-stimulates-erk1-activity
#17
Jheng-Yu Wu, Shengyan Xiang, Mu Zhang, Bin Fang, He Huang, Oh Kwang Kwon, Yingming Zhao, Zhe Yang, Wenlong Bai, Gerold Bepler, Xiaohong Mary Zhang
Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), a class IIb HDAC, plays an important role in many biological and pathological processes. Previously, we found that ERK1, a downstream kinase in the MAPK signaling pathway, phosphorylates HDAC6, thereby increasing HDAC6-mediated deacetylation of α-tubulin. However, whether HDAC6 reciprocally modulates ERK1 activity is unknown. Here, we report that both ERK1 and 2 are acetylated and that HDAC6 promotes ERK1 activity via deacetylation. Briefly, we found that both ERK1 and 2 physically interact with HDAC6...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250748/age-is-the-work-of-art-impact-of-neutrophil-and-organism-age-on-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation
#18
REVIEW
Weronika Ortmann, Elzbieta Kolaczkowska
Neutrophil extracellular traps or NETs are released by highly activated neutrophils in response to infectious agents, sterile inflammation, autoimmune stimuli and cancer. In the cells, the nuclear envelop disintegrates and decondensation of chromatin occurs that depends on peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) and neutrophil elastase (NE). Subsequently, proteins from neutrophil granules (e.g., NE, lactoferrin and myeloperoxidase) and the nucleus (histones) bind to decondensed DNA and the whole structure is ejected from the cell...
December 18, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230970/the-dnabii-family-of-proteins-is-comprised-of-the-only-nucleoid-associated-proteins-required-for-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-biofilm-structure
#19
Aishwarya Devaraj, John Buzzo, Christopher J Rocco, Lauren O Bakaletz, Steven D Goodman
Biofilms play a central role in the pathobiology of otitis media (OM), bronchitis, sinusitis, conjunctivitis, and pneumonia caused by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI). Our previous studies show that extracellular DNA (eDNA) and DNABII proteins are essential components of biofilms formed by NTHI. The DNABII protein family includes integration host factor (IHF) and the histone-like protein HU and plays a central role in NTHI biofilm structural integrity. We demonstrated that immunological targeting of these proteins during NTHI-induced experimental OM in a chinchilla model caused rapid clearance of biofilms from the middle ear...
December 12, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222696/thrombomodulin-favors-leukocyte-microvesicle-fibrinolytic-activity-reduces-netosis-and-prevents-septic-shock-induced-coagulopathy-in-rats
#20
Julie Helms, Raphaël Clere-Jehl, Elsa Bianchini, Pierrick Le Borgne, Mélanie Burban, Fatiha Zobairi, Jean-Luc Diehl, Lelia Grunebaum, Florence Toti, Ferhat Meziani, Delphine Borgel
BACKGROUND: Septic shock-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation is responsible for increased occurrence of multiple organ dysfunction and mortality. Immunothrombosis-induced coagulopathy may contribute to hypercoagulability. We aimed at determining whether recombinant human thrombomodulin (rhTM) could control exaggerated immunothrombosis by studying procoagulant responses, fibrinolysis activity borne by microvesicles (MVs) and NETosis in septic shock. METHODS: In a septic shock model after a cecal ligation and puncture-induced peritonitis (H0), rats were treated with rhTM or a placebo at H18, resuscitated and monitored during 4 h...
December 8, 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
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