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Extracellular Histones

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095649/the-effect-of-mechanical-stress-on-the-proliferation-adipogenic-differentiation-and-gene-expression-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#1
Nora E Paul, Bernd Denecke, Bong-Sung Kim, Alice Dreser, Jürgen Bernhagen, Norbert Pallua
To allow for a better implementation of external volume expansion to clinical applications for soft tissue regeneration, it is necessary to comprehensively understand the underlying mechanisms. Since human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) play a crucial role in soft tissue enlargement, we investigated the impact of cyclic stretch on gene expression, proliferation rate, and adipogenic differentiation of these cells. After cyclic stretching, RNA was extracted and subjected to DNA microarray analysis and RT-qPCR...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073931/histones-and-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-enhance-tubular-necrosis-and-remote-organ-injury-in-ischemic-aki
#2
Daigo Nakazawa, Santhosh V Kumar, Julian Marschner, Jyaysi Desai, Alexander Holderied, Lukas Rath, Franziska Kraft, Yutian Lei, Yuichiro Fukasawa, Gilbert W Moeckel, Maria Lucia Angelotti, Helen Liapis, Hans-Joachim Anders
Severe AKI is often associated with multiorgan dysfunction, but the mechanisms of this remote tissue injury are unknown. We hypothesized that renal necroinflammation releases cytotoxic molecules that may cause remote organ damage. In hypoxia-induced tubular epithelial cell necrosis in vitro, histone secretion from ischemic tubular cells primed neutrophils to form neutrophil extracellular traps. These traps induced tubular epithelial cell death and stimulated neutrophil extracellular trap formation in fresh neutrophils...
January 10, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073784/platelets-and-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-collaborate-to-promote-intravascular-coagulation-during-sepsis-in-mice
#3
Braedon McDonald, Rachelle P Davis, Seok-Joo Kim, Mandy Tse, Charles T Esmon, Elzbieta Kolaczkowska, Craig N Jenne
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs; webs of DNA coated in anti-microbial proteins) are released into the vasculature during sepsis where they contribute to host defense, but also cause tissue damage and organ dysfunction. Various components of NETs have also been implicated as activators of coagulation. Using multi-color confocal intravital microscopy in mouse models of sepsis, we observed profound platelet aggregation, thrombin activation, and fibrin clot formation within (and downstream of) NETs in vivo...
January 10, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067305/gomisin-n-inhibits-adipogenesis-and-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#4
Min-Kyung Jang, Ye-Rang Yun, Ji-Hyun Kim, Mi-Hee Park, Myeong Ho Jung
Gomisin N (GN) is a physiological lignan derived from Schisandra chinensis. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of GN on differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and the anti-obesity effects of GN in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Incubation with GN significantly inhibited the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. This inhibitory effect primarily occurred at an early adipogenic stage through impairment of mitotic clonal expansion (MCE) caused by cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase transition...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057209/mechanisms-of-chromatin-remodeling-and-repurposing-during-extracellular-translocation
#5
D S Pisetsky
Chromatin is a highly conserved molecular structure that provides genetic information to regulate cell function. Comprised of DNA, histones and interacting proteins, chromatin is inherently dynamic and subject to remodeling. While usually conceptualized as an intranuclear event, remodeling can also involve extracellular movement. Indeed, chromatin can translocate entirely from the inside to the outside of the cell during cell death processes that include apoptosis, necrosis, and NETosis. During these processes, DNA and proteins can undergo other changes impacting on their activity...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056545/histone-deacetylase-high-mobility-group-box-1-pathway-targeted-by-hypaconitine-suppresses-the-apoptosis-of-endothelial-cells
#6
Ye Bai, Shaohui Du, Fei Li, Fengyuan Huang, Rudong Deng, Jianhong Zhou, Dongfeng Chen
Hypaconitine is an active component of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx, a Chinese medicinal herb for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, but the mechanism underlying its effect remains elusive. In this study, we found that hypaconitine, rather than aconitum alkaloids in A. carmichaelii (e.g. aconitine, mesaconitine and benzoylaconitine), prevented endothelial cells from damage due to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) challenge. Cleaved caspase 3 expression in endothelial cells was up-regulated by oxLDL and markedly attenuated by hypaconitine, suggesting that hypaconitine inhibited the oxLDL-induced cell apoptosis...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048969/on-the-developmental-self-regulatory-dynamics-and-evolution-of-individuated-multicellular-organisms
#7
Felipe A Veloso
Changes in gene expression are thought to regulate the cell differentiation process intrinsically through complex epigenetic mechanisms. In fundamental terms, however, this assumed regulation refers only to the intricate propagation of changes in gene expression or else leads to non-explanatory regresses. The developmental self-regulatory dynamics and evolution of individuated multicellular organisms also lack a unified and falsifiable description. To fill this gap, I computationally analyzed publicly available high-throughput data of histone H3 post-translational modifications and mRNA abundance for different Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, and Drosophila melanogaster cell-type/developmental-period samples...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045905/human-leukocytes-kill-brugia-malayi-microfilariae-independently-of-dna-based-extracellular-trap-release
#8
Ciaran J McCoy, Barbara J Reaves, Steeve Giguère, Ruby Coates, Balázs Rada, Adrian J Wolstenholme
BACKGROUND: Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori infect over 100 million people worldwide and are the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis. Some parasite carriers are amicrofilaremic whilst others facilitate mosquito-based disease transmission through blood-circulating microfilariae (Mf). Recent findings, obtained largely from animal model systems, suggest that polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) contribute to parasitic nematode-directed type 2 immune responses. When exposed to certain pathogens PMNs release extracellular traps (NETs) in the form of chromatin loaded with various antimicrobial molecules and proteases...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045428/butyrate-inhibits-cancerous-hct116-colon-cell-proliferation-but-to-a-lesser-extent-in-noncancerous-ncm460-colon-cells
#9
Huawei Zeng, David P Taussig, Wen-Hsing Cheng, LuAnn K Johnson, Reza Hakkak
Butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, exhibits chemoprevention effects on colon cancer development. However, the mechanistic action of butyrate remains to be determined. We hypothesize that butyrate inhibits cancerous cell proliferation but to a lesser extent in noncancerous cells through regulating apoptosis and cellular-signaling pathways. We tested this hypothesis by exposing cancerous HCT116 or non-cancerous NCM460 colon cells to physiologically relevant doses of butyrate. Cellular responses to butyrate were characterized by Western analysis, fluorescent microscopy, acetylation, and DNA fragmentation analyses...
January 1, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045214/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-acute-chorioamnionitis-a%C3%A2-mechanism-of-host-defense
#10
Nardhy Gomez-Lopez, Roberto Romero, Yaozhu Leng, Valeria Garcia-Flores, Yi Xu, Derek Miller, Sonia S Hassan
PROBLEM: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) were recently described as a mechanism for microbial killing in the amniotic cavity of women with intra-amniotic infection. Such a clinical condition can result in acute chorioamnionitis, a placental lesion characterized by the infiltration of maternal neutrophils in the chorioamniotic membranes. Herein, we investigated whether these infiltrating neutrophils form NETs in the chorioamniotic membranes from women who underwent spontaneous term or preterm labor with acute chorioamnionitis...
January 3, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043150/histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-in-plasma-cell-leukemia-treatment-effect-of-bone-marrow-microenvironment
#11
I Burianova, K Kuzelova, O Mitrovsky, I Spicka, P StOckbauer, M Zackova
In the presented study we analysed the effect of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and valproic acid (VPA) on human plasma cell leukemia (PCL) cell line UHKT-944 in the presence of bone marrow microenvironment (BMM). For the analysis, the cells were cultured alone, with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), with extracellular matrix (ECM) components or with interleukin-6, and treated with varied concentrations of SAHA and VPA for 24/48 hours. To study the effect of HDACi, we investigated cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle and changes in selected signalling pathways...
January 3, 2017: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029254/pegylated-and-functionalized-aliphatic-polycarbonate-polyplex-nanoparticles-for-intravenous-administration-of-hdac5-sirna-in-cancer-therapy
#12
Antoine Frère, Alexandra Baroni, Elodie Hendrick, Anne-Sophie Delvigne, François Orange, Olivier Peulen, George R Dakwar, Jérôme Diricq, Philippe Dubois, Brigitte Evrard, Katrien Remaut, Kevin Braeckmans, Stefaan C De Smedt, Julie Laloy, Jean-Michel Dogné, Georges Feller, Laetitia Mespouille, Denis Mottet, Geraldine Piel
Guanidine and morpholine functionalized aliphatic polycarbonate polymers able to efficiently deliver histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) siRNA into the cytoplasm of cancer cells in vitro leading to a decrease of cell proliferation were previously developed. To allow these biodegradable and biocompatible polyplex nanoparticles to overcome the extracellular barriers and be effective in vivo after an intravenous injection, polyethylene glycol chains (PEG750 or PEG2000) were grafted on the polymer structure. These nanoparticles, showed an average size of about 150 nm and a slightly positive zeta potential with complete siRNA complexation...
December 28, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012970/isoliquiritigenin-inhibits-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-release-of-high-mobility-group-box-1-through-activation-of-hdac-in-human-intestinal-epithelial-ht-29-cells
#13
Jin-Hua Chi, Geom Seog Seo, Jae Hee Cheon, Sung Hee Lee
The suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced inflammation responses is an attractive pharmacological target for the development of therapeutic strategies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the present study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory properties of flavonoid isoliquiritigenin (ISL) in intestinal epithelial cells and determined its mechanism of action. ISL suppressed the expression of inflammatory molecules, including IL-8, IL-1β and COX-2, in TNF-α-stimulated HT-29 cells. Moreover, ISL induced activation of Nrf2 and expression of its target genes, such as HO-1 and NQO1...
December 21, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005404/anti-histone-properties-of-c1-esterase-inhibitor-protect-against-lung-injury
#14
Malgorzata Wygrecka, Djuro Kosanovic, Lukasz Wujak, Katrin Reppe, Ingrid Henneke, Helena Frey, Miroslava Didiasova, Grazyna Kwapiszewska, Leigh M Marsh, Nelli Baal, Holger Hackstein, Dariusz Zakrzewicz, Holger C Müller-Redetzky, Steven de Maat, Coen Maas, Marc W Nolte, Con Panousis, Ralph T Schermuly, Werner Seeger, Martin Witzenrath, Liliana Schaefer, Philipp Markart
RATIONALE: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by alveolar epithelial cell injury, edema formation, and intraalveolar contact phase activation. OBJECTIVES: To explore whether C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH), an endogenous inhibitor of the contact phase, may protect from lung injury in vivo and to decipher the possible underlying mechanisms mediating protection. METHODS: The ability of C1INH to control the inflammatory processes was studied in vitro and in vivo...
December 22, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998729/in%C3%A2-vivo-imaging-of-inflamed-glomeruli-reveals-dynamics-of-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-in-glomerular-capillaries
#15
Clare L V Westhorpe, James E Bayard, Kim M O'Sullivan, Pam Hall, Qiang Cheng, A Richard Kitching, Michael J Hickey
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been documented in glomeruli of patients with glomerulonephritis. However, the dynamics of NET formation in the glomerulus and their functional contribution to acute glomerular injury are poorly understood. Herein, we used in vivo multiphoton microscopy to investigate NET formation in the acutely inflamed glomerulus. Glomerular inflammation was induced using an antibody against the glomerular basement membrane. After induction of glomerular inflammation, multiphoton microscopy revealed that approximately 20% of glomeruli contained structures composed of extracellular DNA within the capillaries...
December 17, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997345/mitofusin-2-attenuates-the-histone-acetylation-at-collagen-iv-promoter-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#16
Xuhua Mi, Wanxin Tang, Xiaolei Chen, Fei Liu, Xiaohong Tang
Extracellular matrix (ECM) increase in diabetic nephropathy (DN) is closely related to mitochondrial dysfunction. The mechanism of protective function of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) for mitochondria remains largely unknown. In this study, the molecular mechanisms for the effect of Mfn2 on mitochondria and subsequent collagen IV expression in DN were investigated. Ras-binding-deficient mitofusin 2 (Mfn2-Ras(Δ)) were overexpressed in rat glomerular mesangial cells, and then the cells were detected for mitochondrial morphology, cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mRNA and protein expression of collagen IV with advanced glycation end-product (AGE) stimulation...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994595/multimodal-regulation-of-net-formation-in-pregnancy-progesterone-antagonizes-the-pro-netotic-effect-of-estrogen-and-g-csf
#17
Stavros Giaglis, Maria Stoikou, Chanchal Sur Chowdhury, Guenther Schaefer, Franco Grimolizzi, Simona W Rossi, Irene Mathilde Hoesli, Olav Lapaire, Paul Hasler, Sinuhe Hahn
Human pregnancy is associated with a mild pro-inflammatory state, characterized by circulatory neutrophil activation. In order to explore the mechanism underlying this alteration, we examined NETosis during normal gestation. Our data indicate that neutrophils exhibit a pro-NETotic state, modulated in a multimodal manner during pregnancy. In general, circulatory granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, the levels of which increase during gestation, promotes neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. Early in pregnancy, NETosis is enhanced by chorionic gonadotropin, whereas toward term is stimulated by estrogen...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958278/neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-and-circulating-nucleosomes-in-patients-with-chronic-myeloproliferative-neoplasms
#18
Cecilia P Marin Oyarzún, Agostina Carestia, Paola R Lev, Ana C Glembotsky, Miguel A Castro Ríos, Beatriz Moiraghi, Felisa C Molinas, Rosana F Marta, Mirta Schattner, Paula G Heller
The mechanisms underlying increased thrombotic risk in chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are incompletely understood. We assessed whether neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which promote thrombosis, contribute to the procoagulant state in essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera and myelofibrosis (MF) patients. Although MPN neutrophils showed increased basal reactive oxygen species (ROS), enhanced NETosis by unstimulated neutrophils was an infrequent finding, whereas PMA-triggered NETosis was impaired, particularly in MF, due to decreased PMA-triggered ROS production...
December 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929534/extracellular-histones-cell-free-dna-or-nucleosomes-differences-in-immunostimulation
#19
REVIEW
Gerben Marsman, Sacha Zeerleder, Brenda M Luken
In inflammation, extensive cell death may occur, which results in the release of chromatin components into the extracellular environment. Individually, the purified chromatin components double stranded (ds)DNA and histones have been demonstrated, both in vitro and in vivo, to display various immunostimulatory effects, for example, histones induce cytotoxicity and proinflammatory signaling through toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and 4, while DNA induces signaling through TLR9 and intracellular nucleic acid sensing mechanisms...
December 8, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919911/in-vitro-activation-of-coagulation-by-human-neutrophil-dna-and-histone-proteins-but-not-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#20
Denis F Noubouossie, Matthew F Whelihan, Yuan-Bin Yu, Erica Sparkenbaugh, Rafal Pawlinski, Dougald M Monroe, Nigel S Key
NETosis is a physiological process in which neutrophils release their nuclear material in the form of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs have been reported to directly promote thrombosis in animal models. Although the effects of purified NET components including DNA, histone proteins and neutrophil enzymes on coagulation have been characterized, the mechanism by which intact NETs promote thrombosis is largely unknown. In this study, human neutrophils were stimulated to produce NETs in platelet-free plasma (PFP) or in buffer using PMA or calcium ionophore...
December 5, 2016: Blood
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