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Extracellular DNA

Eng-Zhuan Ban, Munn-Sann Lye, Pei Pei Chong, Yoke-Yeow Yap, Siew Ying Crystale Lim, Hejar Abdul Rahman
BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a rare form of cancer across the world except in certain areas such as Southern China, Hong Kong and Malaysia. NPC is considered a relatively radiosensitive tumor and patients diagnosed at early stages tend to survive longer compared to those with advanced disease. Given that early symptoms of NPC are non-specific and that the nasopharynx is relatively inaccessible, less invasive screening methods such as biomarker screening might be the key to improve NPC survival and management...
2018: PloS One
Sanni Kumar, Ena Gupta, Sanket Kaushik, Anupam Jyoti
Neutrophils are the forerunner in innate immunity by defending the host organisms against infectious pathogens. During such process, neutrophils reach the site of inflammation/infection and eliminate the pathogens by phagocytosis as well as by forming the neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs trap and eradicate a number of microbes including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses. NETs consist of DNA which is decorated with histones and granular proteins such as neutrophil elastase (NE), gelatinase, myeloperoxidase...
June 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Waqas Muhammad Usman, Tin Chanh Pham, Yuk Yan Kwok, Luyen Tien Vu, Victor Ma, Boya Peng, Yuen San Chan, Likun Wei, Siew Mei Chin, Ajijur Azad, Alex Bai-Liang He, Anskar Y H Leung, Mengsu Yang, Ng Shyh-Chang, William C Cho, Jiahai Shi, Minh T N Le
Most of the current methods for programmable RNA drug therapies are unsuitable for the clinic due to low uptake efficiency and high cytotoxicity. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) could solve these problems because they represent a natural mode of intercellular communication. However, current cellular sources for EV production are limited in availability and safety in terms of horizontal gene transfer. One potentially ideal source could be human red blood cells (RBCs). Group O-RBCs can be used as universal donors for large-scale EV production since they are readily available in blood banks and they are devoid of DNA...
June 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Sarfaraj Niazi, Madhusudan Purohit, Archana Sonawani, Javed H Niazi
Single-stranded (ss) oligonucleotide aptamers are emerging as the promising substitutes for monoclonal antibodies because of their low production cost and good batch-to-batch consistency. Aptamers vividly bind to a variety of cellular targets and alter their functions with a remarkable degree of specificities. In this study, the positive clones of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) specific binding ssDNA aptamers which were previously identified by in vitro Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX) process, hitherto lacking the putative binding site information and residues crucial for aptamer recognition are studied...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Biqiong Ren, Shudi Luo, Xuefei Tian, Zhichao Jiang, Guoying Zou, Fei Xu, Tieqiu Yin, Yiran Huang, Junlong Liu
Curcumin has been revealed to inhibit liver cancer, however, no studies have reported that the mechanism of curcumin's action on liver cancer is related to damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. This study aimed to investigate whether the activation of TLR4 signaling by HSP70 could be inhibited by curcumin, thus investigating the possible mechanism of curcumin in the inhibition of liver cancer. Western blotting was used to evaluate the expression of the HSP70 and TLR4 in HepG2 cells and ELISA was used to detect the concentration of HSP70 in cell culture medium...
June 11, 2018: Oncology Reports
Yu Jiang, Gang Liu, Li Zhang, Sheng Cheng, Chun Luo, Yang Liao, Shuliang Guo
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of combination therapy of LY294002, a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K), with hydrogen‑rich saline on the proliferation and apoptosis of the non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cell line and the mechanisms underpinning this. Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may induce DNA mutations, DNA damage, genomic instability and cell proliferation, and ROS are involved in several types of cancer, particularly lung cancer...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Frances C Bach, Anna R Tellegen, Martijn Beukers, Alberto Miranda-Bedate, Michelle Teunissen, Willem A M de Jong, Stefan A H de Vries, Laura B Creemers, Karin Benz, Björn P Meij, Keita Ito, Marianna A Tryfonidou
The socioeconomic burden of chronic back pain related to intervertebral disc (IVD) disease is high and current treatments are only symptomatic. Minimally invasive strategies that promote biological IVD repair should address this unmet need. Notochordal cells (NCs) are replaced by chondrocyte-like cells (CLCs) during IVD maturation and degeneration. The regenerative potential of NC-secreted substances on CLCs and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has already been demonstrated. However, identification of these substances remains elusive...
May 29, 2018: Oncotarget
G Salvadori, R Junges, H A Åmdal, T Chen, D A Morrison, F C Petersen
BACKGROUND: In streptococci of the mitis group, competence for natural transformation is a transient physiological state triggered by competence stimulating peptides (CSPs). Although low transformation yields and the absence of a widespread functional competence system have been reported for Streptococcus mitis, recent studies revealed that, at least for some strains, high efficiencies can be achieved following optimization protocols. To gain a deeper insight into competence in this species, we used RNA-seq, to map the global CSP response of two transformable strains: the type strain NCTC12261T and SK321...
June 13, 2018: BMC Genomics
Marzena Garley, Dorota Dziemiańczyk-Pakieła, Kamil Grubczak, Arkadiusz Surażyński, Dorota Dąbrowska, Wioletta Ratajczak-Wrona, Jolanta Sawicka-Powierza, Jan Borys, Marcin Moniuszko, Jerzy A Pałka, Ewa Jabłońska
Taking into account the previously reported relationship between inflammation and carcinogenesis, and the scant amount of data concerning the role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in carcinogenesis, we decided to study the process of extracellular trap formation in patients with inflammation as well as in patients with cancer occurring in the same location. For preliminary isolation of neutrophils (PMNs), we used Polymorphprep™, then sorted with Microbeads. The cells were recorded in the incubation chamber with a BD Pathway 855 microscope system...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Heather L Clark, Serena Abbondante, Martin S Minns, Elyse N Greenberg, Yan Sun, Eric Pearlman
Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation requires chromatin decondensation before nuclear swelling and eventual extracellular release of DNA, which occurs together with nuclear and cytoplasmic antimicrobial proteins. A key mediator of chromatin decondensation is protein deiminase 4 (PAD4), which catalyzes histone citrullination. In the current study, we examined the role of PAD4 and NETosis following activation of neutrophils by A. fumigatus hyphal extract or cell wall β-glucan (curdlan) and found that both induced NET release by human and murine neutrophils...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Melissa Wee, Fariba Chegini, John H T Power, Shohreh Majd
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology consists of intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles, made of hyperphosphorylated tau and extracellular accumulation of beta amyloid (Aβ) in Aβ plaques. There is an extensive debate as to which pathology initiates and responsible for cellular loss in AD. METHODS: Using confocal and light microscopy, post mortem brains from control and AD cases, an antibody to SOD2 as a marker for mitochondria and an antibody to all forms of tau, we analyzed mitochondrial density in tau positive neurons along with nuclear degradation by calculating the raw integrative density...
June 12, 2018: Current Alzheimer Research
Yan-Yun Liu, Gregory A Brent
TR phosphorylation promotes TR binding to DNA and heterodimerization with RXR. TRβ phosphorylation is induced by thyroid hormone on the cell membrane and phosphorylation by extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), presumably at serine 142. TRα1 N-termini harbors two phosphorylation sites at serine 12 and serine 28/29. Serine 12 is phosphorylated by casein 2 and serine 28/29 by protein kinase A. Mutation analysis of TRα2 identified 2 serine sites, S472 and S473, as the substrates for casein kinase II...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Marcia Campillo-Navarro, Kahiry Leyva-Paredes, Luis Donis-Maturano, Gloria M Rodríguez-López, Rodolfo Soria-Castro, Blanca Estela García-Pérez, Nahum Puebla-Osorio, Stephen E Ullrich, Julieta Luna-Herrera, Leopoldo Flores-Romo, Héctor Sumano-López, Sonia M Pérez-Tapia, Sergio Estrada-Parra, Iris Estrada-García, Rommel Chacón-Salinas
Tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of human morbidity and mortality. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) employs different strategies to evade and counterattack immune responses persisting for years. Mast cells are crucial during innate immune responses and help clear infections via inflammation or by direct antibacterial activity through extracellular traps (MCETs). Whether Mtb induce MCETs production is unknown. In this study, we report that viable Mtb did not induce DNA release by mast cells, but heat-killed Mtb (HK-Mtb) did...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Courtney K Ellison, Triana N Dalia, Alfredo Vidal Ceballos, Joseph Che-Yen Wang, Nicolas Biais, Yves V Brun, Ankur B Dalia
Natural transformation is a broadly conserved mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in bacterial species that can shape evolution and foster the spread of antibiotic resistance determinants, promote antigenic variation and lead to the acquisition of novel virulence factors. Surface appendages called competence pili promote DNA uptake during the first step of natural transformation 1 ; however, their mechanism of action has remained unclear owing to an absence of methods to visualize these structures in live cells...
June 11, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Bangrong Cai, Kyung-Joo Seong, Sun-Woong Bae, Changju Chun, Won-Jae Kim, Ji-Yeon Jung
Diosgenin, a precursor of steroid hormones in plants, is known to exhibit diverse pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, (3β, 25R)‑spirost‑5‑en‑3‑oxyl (2‑((2((2‑aminoethyl)amino)ethyl)amino)ethyl) carbamate (DGP), a new synthetic diosgenin derivative incorporating primary amine was used to investigate its anti-inflammatory effects and underlying mechanisms of action in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglial BV2 cells. Pretreatment with DGP resulted in significant inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, and down-regulation of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in LPS-stimulated microglial BV2 cells...
June 8, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Jennifer Gansau, Lara Kelly, Conor Buckley
Cell delivery and leakage during injection remains a challenge for cell-based intervertebral disc regeneration strategies. Cellular microencapsulation may offer a promising approach to overcome these limitations by providing a protective niche during intradiscal injection. Electrohydrodynamic spraying (EHDS) is a versatile one-step approach for microencapsulation of cells using a high voltage electric field. The primary objective of this work was to characterise key processing parameters such as applied voltage (0, 5, 10 or 15kV), emitter needle gauge (21, 26 or 30G), alginate concentration (1, 2 or 3%) and flow rate (50, 100, 250 or 500 µl/min) to regulate the morphology of alginate microcapsules and subsequent cell viability when altering these parameters...
June 11, 2018: Biofabrication
Beatriz Helena Dias Panariello, Marlise I Klein, Ewerton Garcia De Oliveira Mima, Ana Cláudia Pavarina
Background : Fluconazole (FLZ) is a drug commonly used for the treatment of Candida infections. However, β-glucans in the extracellular matrices (ECMs) hinder FLZ penetration into Candida biofilms, while extracellular DNA (eDNA) contributes to the biofilm architecture and resistance. Methods : This study characterized biofilms of FLZ-sensitive (S) and -resistant (R) Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in the presence or absence of FLZ focusing on the ECM traits. Biofilms of C. albicans American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 90028 (CaS), C...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Xia Liu, Qin Xu, Liyan Mei, Hang Lei, Quan Wen, Jifei Miao, Huina Huang, Dongfeng Chen, Shaohui Du, Saixia Zhang, Jianhong Zhou, Rudong Deng, Yiwei Li, Chun Li, Hui Li
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a highly conserved DNA-binding nuclear protein that facilitates gene transcription and the DNA repair response. However, HMGB1 may be released by necrotic cells as well as activated monocytes and macrophages following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Extracellular HMGB1 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) through activating the nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) P65 pathway, thus, it may be a promising therapeutic target in shock-induced ALI...
June 5, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Estelle Rousselet, Nicole I Stacy, David S Rotstein, Tom B Waltzek, Matt J Griffin, Ruth Francis-Floyd
This report describes a case of systemic bacterial infection caused by Edwardsiella tarda in a Western African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) exposed to poor environmental and husbandry conditions. The fish presented with a large, external ulcerative lesion and died 2 weeks after developing anorexia. Histological evaluation revealed multifocal areas of necrosis and heterophilic and histiocytic inflammation throughout multiple tissues. Gram stain identified small numbers of intra- and extracellular monomorphic Gram-negative 1 to 2 μm rod-shaped bacilli...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Federica Franchino, Roberta Rudà, Riccardo Soffietti
Advances in chemotherapy and targeted therapies have improved survival in cancer patients with an increase of the incidence of newly diagnosed brain metastases (BMs). Intracranial metastases are symptomatic in 60-70% of patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium is more sensitive than computed tomography and advanced neuroimaging techniques have been increasingly used in the detection, treatment planning, and follow-up of BM. Apart from the morphological analysis, the most effective tool for characterizing BM is immunohistochemistry...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
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