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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441734/chloroviruses-have-a-sweet-tooth
#1
REVIEW
James L Van Etten, Irina Agarkova, David D Dunigan, Michela Tonetti, Christina De Castro, Garry A Duncan
Chloroviruses are large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses that infect certain isolates of chlorella-like green algae. They contain up to approximately 400 protein-encoding genes and 16 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. This review summarizes the unexpected finding that many of the chlorovirus genes encode proteins involved in manipulating carbohydrates. These include enzymes involved in making extracellular polysaccharides, such as hyaluronan and chitin, enzymes that make nucleotide sugars, such as GDP-L-fucose and GDP-D-rhamnose and enzymes involved in the synthesis of glycans attached to the virus major capsid proteins...
April 22, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441353/matrix-metalloproteinase-gene-activation-resulting-from-disordred-epigenetic-mechanisms-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#2
REVIEW
Yasuto Araki, Toshihide Mimura
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in the degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial fibroblasts (SFs) produce matrix-degrading enzymes, including MMPs, which facilitate cartilage destruction in the affected joints in RA. Epigenetic mechanisms contribute to change in the chromatin state, resulting in an alteration of gene transcription. Recently, MMP gene activation has been shown to be caused in RASFs by the dysregulation of epigenetic changes, such as histone modifications, DNA methylation, and microRNA (miRNA) signaling...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438434/connective-tissue-growth-factor-decreases-mitochondrial-metabolism-through-ubiquitin-mediated-degradation-of-mitochondrial-transcription-factor-a-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#3
Wei-Ting Lai, Yue-Ju Li, Shi-Bei Wu, Cheng-Ning Yang, Tai-Sheng Wu, Yau-Huei Wei, Yi-Ting Deng
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Deregulation of metabolic pathways is one of the hallmarks of cancer progression. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) acts as a tumor suppressor in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, the role of CTGF in modulating cancer metabolism is still unclear. METHODS: OSCC cells stably overexpressing CTGF (SAS/CTGF) and shRNA against CTGF (TW2.6/shCTGF) were established. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) were examined by the Seahorse XF24 analyzer...
April 21, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436392/the-dna-damage-response-in-neurons-die-by-apoptosis-or-survive-in-a-senescence-like-state
#4
Edward Fielder, Thomas von Zglinicki, Diana Jurk
Neurons are exposed to high levels of DNA damage from both physiological and pathological sources. Neurons are post-mitotic and their loss cannot be easily recovered from; to cope with DNA damage a complex pathway called the DNA damage response (DDR) has evolved. This recognizes the damage, and through kinases such as ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) recruits and activates downstream factors that mediate either apoptosis or survival. This choice between these opposing outcomes integrates many inputs primarily through a number of key cross-road proteins, including ATM, p53, and p21...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433417/mechanistic-insights-into-epigenetic-modulation-of-ethanol-consumption
#5
Igor Ponomarev, Claire E Stelly, Hitoshi Morikawa, Yuri A Blednov, R Dayne Mayfield, R Adron Harris
There is growing evidence that small-molecule inhibitors of epigenetic modulators, such as histone deacetylases (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferases (DNMT), can reduce voluntary ethanol consumption in animal models, but molecular and cellular processes underlying this behavioral effect are poorly understood. We used C57BL/6J male mice to investigate the effects of two FDA-approved drugs, decitabine (a DNMT inhibitor) and SAHA (an HDAC inhibitor), on ethanol consumption using two tests: binge-like drinking in the dark (DID) and chronic intermittent every other day (EOD) drinking...
March 12, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432818/characterization-of-decellularized-ovine-small-intestine-submucosal-layer-as-extracellular-matrix-based-scaffold-for-tissue-engineering
#6
Morteza Rashtbar, Jamshid Hadjati, Jafar Ai, Issa Jahanzad, Mahmoud Azami, Sadegh Shirian, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Esmaeil Sadroddiny
Extracellular matrix-based scaffolds derived from mammalian tissues have been used in tissue engineering applications. Among all the tissues, decellularized small intestine submucosal layer (SIS) has been recently investigated for its exceptional characteristics and biocompatibilities. These investigations have been mainly focused on the decellularized porcine SIS; however, there has not been any report on ovine SIS (OSIS) layer. In this study, OSIS was decellularized and its physical, chemical, and morphological properties were evaluated...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429266/corr-insights-%C3%A2-does-extracellular-dna-production-vary-in-staphylococcal-biofilms-isolated-from-infected-implants-versus-controls
#7
Devendra H Dusane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426042/antibodies-to-h2a-and-h2b-histones-from-the-sera-of-hiv-infected-patients-catalyze-site-specific-degradation-of-these-histones
#8
Svetlana V Baranova, Pavel S Dmitrienok, Nikita V Ivanisenko, Valentina N Buneva, Georgy A Nevinsky
Histones and their post-translational modifications have key roles in chromatin remodeling and gene transcription. Besides intranuclear functions, histones act as damage-associated molecules when they are released into the extracellular space. Administration of histones to animals leads to systemic inflammatory and toxic responses. Autoantibodies with enzymatic activities (abzymes) are distinctive features of some autoimmune and viral diseases. Electrophoretically homogeneous IgGs containing no canonical enzymes were isolated from the sera of HIV-infected patients by chromatography on several affinity sorbents including anti-histone Sepharose...
April 20, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424695/b-cell-tolerance-to-deiminated-histones-in-balb-c-c57bl-6-and-autoimmune-prone-mouse-strains
#9
Nishant Dwivedi, Annica Hedberg, Ying Yi Zheng, Indira Neeli, Minoru Satoh, Laurence Morel, Ole Petter Rekvig, Marko Radic
Deimination, a posttranslational modification of arginine to citrulline carried out by peptidylarginine deiminases, may compromise tolerance of self-antigens. Patients with connective tissue autoimmunity, particularly rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or Felty's syndrome, present with autoantibodies to deiminated histones (dH), which thus form a category of antibodies to citrullinated protein antigens (ACPA). In general, ACPA are a sensitive diagnostic for RA and may form in response to the release of nuclear chromatin (DNA plus dH) from granulocytes, usually referred to as neutrophil extracellular traps...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424339/discovery-of-double-stranded-genomic-dna-in-circulating-exosomes
#10
Raghu Kalluri, Valerie S LeBleu
It is becoming increasingly clear that small vesicles released from cells (extracellular vesicles [EVs]) represent a heterogeneous population implicated in cell-to-cell communication. The classifications and nomenclature of EVs are evolving as enrichment strategies and specific characteristics are being unraveled. At present, physical properties of EVs-namely, size, shape, and density-are often used to identify subpopulations of EVs. A distinct group of EVs, termed exosomes, largely defined by their small size (∼40-150 nm) and proposed subcellular origin, has been extensively studied in several aspects of cancer biology...
April 19, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422568/cgas-sting-tbk1-irf3-7-induced-interferon-%C3%AE-contributes-to-the-clearing-of-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-infection-in-mice
#11
Nanthapon Ruangkiattikul, Andreas Nerlich, Ketema Abdissa, Stefan Lienenklaus, Abdulhadi Suwandi, Nina Janze, Kristin Laarmann, Julia Spanier, Ulrich Kalinke, Siegfried Weiss, Ralph Goethe
Type I interferons (IFN-I), such as IFN-α and IFN-β are important messengers in the host response against bacterial infections. Knowledge about the role of IFN-I in infections by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is limited. Here we show that macrophages infected with pathogens of the Mycobacterium avium complex produced significantly lower amounts of IFN-β than macrophages infected with the opportunistic pathogen M. smegmatis. To dissect the molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon, we focussed on the obligate pathogen Mycobacterium avium ssp...
April 19, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422294/antiviral-activity-of-exopolysaccharides-from-arthrospira-platensis-against-koi-herpesvirus
#12
M Reichert, S M Bergmann, J Hwang, R Buchholz, C Lindenberger
Although koi herpesvirus (KHV) has a history of causing severe economic losses in common carp and koi farms, there are still no treatments available on the market. Thus, the aim of this study was to test exopolysaccharides (EPS) for its antiviral activity against KHV, by monitoring inhibition and cytotoxic effects in common carp brain cells. These substances can be easily extracted from extracellular algae supernatant and were identified as groups of sulphated polysaccharides. In order to reach this aim, Arthrospira platensis, which is well known for its antiviral activity of intra- and extracellular compounds towards mammalian herpesviruses, was investigated as standard organism and compared to commercial antiviral drug, ganciclovir, which inhibits the viral DNA polymerization...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420469/-heparin-reduces-endothelial-cell-damage-induced-by-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#13
Yanting Qiao, Jing Jiang, Zhidan Zhang, Xiaochun Ma
OBJECTIVE: Clarify the effect of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) on endothelial cell injury, and investigate whether the heparin can exert a protective effect on endothelial cells by reducing the endothelial cell injury induced by NETs. METHODS: Neutrophils (PMN) were obtained from healthy human peripheral blood by Percoll-Histopaque density gradient centrifugation, and was stimulated with phorbol ester (PMA) to induce NETs. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of NETs was detected by immunofluorescence staining combined with fluorescence detector...
April 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420468/-effect-of-heparin-pretreatment-on-the-level-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-of-serum-and-lung-tissue-in-septic-mice
#14
Jing Jiang, Shengtian Mu, Fangxiao Zhang, Yanting Qiao, Yongran Wu, Zhidan Zhang, Xiaochun Ma
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of heparin pretreatment on serum and lung tissue level of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in septic mice model and its molecular mechanism. METHODS: Ninety male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into control group (n = 30), lipopolysaccharides (LPS) group (n = 30, 30 mg/kg LPS in 100 ?L normal saline was intraperitoneally injected) and LPS+heparin group (n = 30, 8 U of heparin in 20 ?L normal saline was subcutaneously injected 30 minutes before the injection of LPS)...
April 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419534/endocrine-imbalance-associated-with-proteome-changes-in-diabetes
#15
Amr A Sayed, Ahmed M Alhawary, Aboalela Farag, Dina R Johar, Larry H Bernstein
The dynamics of cellular metabolism involves rapid interactions between proteins and nucleotides, proteins and proteins, proteins and mRNA, the action of miRNA, and signaling. These also involve the interactions with respect to the sulfur bond, oxygen radicals that initiate a change in conformation and a chain of events. We review a development in molecular medicine that is a very promising work in progress. We also review the current and future research methods involving mitochondria. Long-term effects of diabetes include glycation of proteins, e...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412238/chitosan-modified-plga-nanoparticles-tagged-with-5tr1-aptamer-for-in-vivo-tumor-targeted-drug-delivery
#16
Sahar Taghavi, Mohammad Ramezani, Mona Alibolandi, Khalil Abnous, Seyed Mohammad Taghdisi
In this study, we reported epirubicin (Epi) encapsulated nanoparticles (NPs) formulated with biocompatible and biodegradable poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) modified with chitosan (CS) through a physical adsorption method. Using chitosan, the solubility and surface charge of PLGA was modified to make efficient drug carriers for cancer cells. To improve the anti-tumor efficacy, we developed targeted therapy of tumor cells using a 5TR1 DNA aptamer (Apt) against the MUC1 receptor. To prove the MUC1 receptor-mediated uptake of Epi-PLGA-CS-Apt NPs in the cells, competition experiments were carried out...
April 12, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411227/fate-and-persistence-of-a-pathogenic-ndm-1-positive-escherichia-coli-strain-in-anaerobic-and-aerobic-sludge-microcosms
#17
David Mantilla-Calderon, Pei-Ying Hong
The presence of emerging biological pollutants in treated wastewater effluents has gained attention due to increased interest in water reuse. To evaluate the effectiveness of the removal of such contaminants by the conventional wastewater treatment process, the fate and decay kinetics of NDM-1-positive Escherichia coli strain PI7 and its plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were assessed in microcosms of anaerobic and aerobic sludge. Results showed that E. coli PI7 decayed at a significantly slower rate under anaerobic conditions...
April 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409327/heat-shock-proteins-and-kidney-disease-perspectives-of-hsp-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Natalia Chebotareva, Irina Bobkova, Evgeniy Shilov
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) mediate a diverse range of cellular functions, prominently including folding and regulatory processes of cellular repair. A major property of these remarkable proteins, dependent on intracellular or extracellular location, is their capacity for immunoregulation that optimizes immune activity while avoiding hyperactivated inflammation. In this review, recent investigations are described, which examine roles of HSPs in protection of kidney tissue from various traumatic influences and demonstrate their potential for clinical management of nephritic disease...
April 13, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408624/activated-protein-c-inhibits-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation-in-vitro-and-activation-in-vivo
#19
Laura D Healy, Cristina Puy, José A Fernández, Annachiara Mitrugno, Ravi S Keshari, Nyiawung A Taku, Tiffany T Chu, Xiao Xu, András Gruber, Florea Lupu, John H Griffin, Owen J T McCarty
Activated protein C (APC) is a multi-functional serine protease with anticoagulant, cytoprotective, and anti-inflammatory activities. In addition to the cytoprotective effects of APC on endothelial cells, podocytes, and neurons, APC cleaves and detoxifies extracellular histones, a major component of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs promote pathogen clearance but also can lead to thrombosis; the pathways that negatively regulate NETosis are largely unknown. Thus, we studied whether APC is capable of directly inhibiting NETosis via receptor-mediated cell signaling mechanisms...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403220/a-derivative-of-platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-alpha-binds-to-the-trimer-of-human-cytomegalovirus-and-inhibits-entry-into-fibroblasts-and-endothelial-cells
#20
Cora Stegmann, Daniel Hochdorfer, Diana Lieber, Narmadha Subramanian, Dagmar Stöhr, Kerstin Laib Sampaio, Christian Sinzger
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a widely distributed herpesvirus that causes significant morbidity in immunocompromised hosts. Inhibitors of viral DNA replication are available, but adverse effects limit their use. Alternative antiviral strategies may include inhibition of entry. We show that soluble derivatives of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR-alpha), a putative receptor of HCMV, can inhibit HCMV infection of various cell types. A PDGFR-alpha-Fc fusion protein binds to and neutralizes cell-free virus particles at an EC50 of 10-30 ng/ml...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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