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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049930/antibiotic-efficacy-context-matters
#1
REVIEW
Jason H Yang, Sarah C Bening, James J Collins
Antibiotic lethality is a complex physiological process, sensitive to external cues. Recent advances using systems approaches have revealed how events downstream of primary target inhibition actively participate in antibiotic death processes. In particular, altered metabolism, translational stress and DNA damage each contribute to antibiotic-induced cell death. Moreover, environmental factors such as oxygen availability, extracellular metabolites, population heterogeneity and multidrug contexts alter antibiotic efficacy by impacting bacterial metabolism and stress responses...
October 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047259/the-candidate-tumor-suppressor-gene-slc8a2-inhibits-invasion-angiogenesis-and-growth-of-glioblastoma
#2
Mingqi Qu, Ju Yu, Hongyuan Liu, Ying Ren, Chunxiao Ma, Xingyao Bu, Qing Lan
Glioblastoma is the most frequent and most aggressive brain tumor in adults. Solute carrier family 8 member 2 (SLC8A2) is only expressed in normal brain, but not present in other human normal tissues or in gliomas. Therefore, we hypothesized that SLC8A2 might be a glioma tumor suppressor gene and detected the role of SLC8A2 in glioblastoma and explored the underlying molecular mechanism. The glioblastoma U87MG cells stably transfected with the lentivirus plasmid containg SLC8A2 (U87MG-SLC8A2) and negative control (U87MGNC) were constructed...
October 17, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047229/enhanced-inflammation-and-attenuated-tumor-suppressor-pathways-are-associated-with-oncogene-induced-lung-tumors-in-aged-mice
#3
Neha Parikh, Ryan L Shuck, Mihai Gagea, Lanlan Shen, Lawrence A Donehower
Aging is often accompanied by a dramatic increase in cancer susceptibility. To gain insights into how aging affects tumor susceptibility, we generated a conditional mouse model in which oncogenic Kras(G12D) was activated specifically in lungs of young (3-5 months) and old (19-24 months) mice. Activation of Kras(G12D) in old mice resulted in shorter survival and development of higher-grade lung tumors. Six weeks after Kras(G12D) activation, old lung tissues contained higher numbers of adenomas than their young tissue counterparts...
October 18, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047044/exosomes-for-the-enhanced-tissue-bioavailability-and-efficacy-of-curcumin
#4
Farrukh Aqil, Radha Munagala, Jeyaprakash Jeyabalan, Ashish Kumar Agrawal, Ramesh Gupta
Exosomes are extracellular microvesicles with a particle size of 30-100 nm and carry a cargo of proteins, lipids, RNA, and DNA. Their properties of shuttling in-and-out of the cells suggest that these particles can be exploited as a nano drug carrier. In this manuscript, we show that curcumin can be delivered effectively using milk-derived exosomes. Curcumin when mixed with exosomes in the presence of 10% ethanol:acetonitrile (1:1) provided a drug load of 18-24%, and the formulation stored at - 80°C was stable for 6 months as determined by particle size analysis, drug load, and antiproliferative activity...
October 18, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044946/aquaporin-1-inhibition-reduces-metastatic-formation-in-a-mouse-model-of-melanoma
#5
Laura Simone, Concetta Domenica Gargano, Francesco Pisani, Antonio Cibelli, Maria Grazia Mola, Antonio Frigeri, Maria Svelto, Grazia Paola Nicchia
Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is a proangiogenic water channel protein promoting endothelial cell migration. We previously reported that AQP1 silencing by RNA interference reduces angiogenesis-dependent primary tumour growth in a mouse model of melanoma. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that AQP1 inhibition also affects animal survival and lung nodule formation. Melanoma was induced by injecting B16F10 cells into the back of C57BL6J mice. Intratumoural injection of AQP1 siRNA and CTRL siRNA was performed 10 days after tumour cell implantation...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044044/seawater-detection-and-biological-assessments-regarding-transmission-of-the-oyster-parasite-mikrocytos-mackini-using-qpcr
#6
Mark P Polinski, Gary R Meyer, Geoffrey J Lowe, Cathryn L Abbott
Mikrocytos mackini is an intracellular parasite of oysters and causative agent of Denman Island disease in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas. Although M. mackini has been investigated for decades, its natural mode of transmission, mechanism for host entry, and environmental stability are largely unknown. We explored these biological characteristics of M. mackini using a recently described quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay. We detected M. mackini in the flow-through tank water of experimentally infected oysters and during disease remission in host tissues following 6 wk of elevated water temperature...
October 18, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043382/cell-transfer-of-information-via-mir-loaded-exosomes-a-biophysical-approach
#7
C Potrich, L Lunelli, V Vaghi, L Pasquardini, C Pederzolli
A new communication route among cells was reported in recent years, via extracellular vesicles and their cargo. Exosomes in particular are attracting increasing interest as privileged mediators of this cell communication route. The exosome-mediated transfer of nucleic acids, especially of microRNAs, is particularly promising for their use both as biomarkers of pathologies and as a therapeutic tool. Here, a simplified model of interaction among cells, microRNAs and vesicles is studied using a biophysical approach...
October 17, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042243/extracellular-self-dna-as-a-damage-associated-molecular-pattern-damp-that-triggers-self-specific-immunity-induction-in-plants
#8
Dalia Duran-Flores, Martin Heil
Mammals sense self or non-self extracellular or extranuclear DNA fragments (hereinafter collectively termed eDNA) as indicators of injury or infection and respond with immunity. We hypothesised that eDNA acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) also in plants and that it contributes to self versus non-self discrimination. Treating plants and suspension-cultured cells of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) with fragmented self eDNA (obtained from other plants of the same species) induced early, immunity-related signalling responses such as H2O2 generation and MAPK activation, decreased the infection by a bacterial pathogen (Pseudomonas syringae) and increased an indirect defence to herbivores (extrafloral nectar secretion)...
October 14, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042016/bacteria-causing-pyometra-in-bitch-and-queen-induce-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#9
M R Rebordão, G Alexandre-Pires, M Carreira, L Adriano, C Carneiro, T Nunes, L Mateus, G Ferreira-Dias
Neutrophils are capable of releasing their DNA in response to infectious agents to form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to destroy pathogens. Even though pyometra in queens and bitches is a common disease, its pathogenesis is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of NETs in the endometrium of queens and bitches suffering from pyometra. Pyometra and normal uteri were obtained after ovariohysterectomy from adult queens and bitches in diestrus. Uterine contents were evaluated for bacterial isolation and identification and for NETs presence...
October 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038500/role-of-mast-cells-in-clearance-of-leishmania-through-extracellular-trap-formation
#10
Nilofer Naqvi, Kavita Ahuja, Angamuthu Selvapandiyan, Ranadhir Dey, Hira Nakhasi, Niti Puri
Mast Cells (MCs) are one of the first immune cells encountered by invading pathogens. Their presence in large numbers in the superficial dermis, where Leishmania is encountered, suggests that they may play a critical role in immune responses to Leishmania. In this study the interactions of Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral Leishmaniasis, and Leishmania tropica, the causative agent of cutaneous Leishmaniasis with MCs were studied. Co-culture of Leishmania with Peritoneal Mast Cells (PMCs) from BALB/c mice and Rat Basophilic Leukaemia (RBL-2H3) MCs led to significant killing of L...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034640/-preparation-and-antioxidant-activity-detection-of-collagen-peptide-from-cirrhinus-molitorella-skin
#11
Cuiling Wu, Ribang Wu, Dan Liu, Xinghao Yang, Jiang Zhang, Jiafeng Huang, Hailun He
In order to prepare antioxidant peptide through hydrolyzing low-value protein resources with bacterial extracellular proteases and to discover novel proteases, crude extracellular protease from Pseudoalteromonas sp. SHK1-2 was obtained through fermentation which was used to hydrolyze collagen extracted from Cirrhinus molitorella skin. Small peptide fraction was isolated from hydrolysate by ultrafiltration and Sephadex LH-20 size exclusion chromatography and showed 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (35...
December 25, 2016: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034633/-comparison-of-effects-of-staphylococcal-nuclease-a-fused-with-different-exogenous-dna-fragments
#12
Lixia Fu, Dejun Ji, Xubin Lu, Xian'gan Han, Wenzhi Wei
Staphylococcal nuclease A (SNA) may be used to produce bacterial ghosts for further inactivation of host bacteria and elimination of residual genetic materials. It is still controversial if SNA without signal peptide can be secreted to extracellular matrix and if fusion with other peptide is required for its function in the cytoplasm of host bacteria. To clarify this dispute, a series of temperature-inducible plasmids carrying SNA alone or SNA fused with partial sequences of λ phage cro gene (cSNA) or Mycobacterium tuberculosis urease gene (uSNA) were constructed and evaluated in Escherichia coli...
December 25, 2016: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033944/artificial-polysialic-acid-chains-as-sialidase-resistant-molecular-anchors-to-accumulate-particles-on-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#13
Christina E Galuska, Jan A Dambon, Andrea Kühnle, Kim F Bornhöfft, Gerlinde Prem, Kristina Zlatina, Thomas Lütteke, Sebastian P Galuska
Neutrophils are involved in numerous immunological events. One mechanism of neutrophils to combat pathogens is the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Thereby, neutrophils use DNA fibers to form a meshwork of DNA and histones as well as several antimicrobial components to trap and kill invaders. However, the formation of NETs can lead to pathological conditions triggering among other things (e.g., sepsis or acute lung failure), which is mainly a consequence of the cytotoxic characteristics of accumulated extracellular histones...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031729/point-mutation-of-ffar1-abrogates-fatty-acid-dependent-insulin-secretion-but-protects-against-hfd-induced-glucose-intolerance
#14
Sibylle Sabrautzki, Gabriele Kaiser, Gerhard K H Przemeck, Felicia Gerst, Estela Lorza-Gil, Madhura Panse, Tina Sartorius, Miriam Hoene, Susan Marschall, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Susanne Ullrich
OBJECTIVE: The fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1/GPR40) mediates fatty acid-dependent augmentation of glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) in pancreatic β-cells. Genetically engineered Ffar1-knockout/congenic mice univocally displayed impaired fatty acid-mediated insulin secretion, but in vivo experiments delivered controversial results regarding the function of FFAR1 in glucose homeostasis and liver steatosis. This study presents a new coisogenic mouse model carrying a point mutation in Ffar1 with functional consequence...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029014/1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d-regulation-of-glutamine-synthetase-and-glutamine-metabolism-in-human-mammary-epithelial-cells
#15
Sarah Beaudin, JoEllen Welsh
Genomic profiling has identified a subset of metabolic genes that are altered by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) in breast cells including GLUL, the gene that encodes glutamine synthetase (GS). Here, we explored the relevance of vitamin D modulation of GLUL and other metabolic genes in the context of glutamine utilization and dependence. We show that exposure of breast epithelial cells to glutamine deprivation or a GS inhibitor reduced growth and these effects were exacerbated by co-treatment with 1,25D. 1,25D down-regulation of GLUL was sufficient to reduce abundance and activity of GS...
September 28, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026191/mechanisms-involved-in-the-triggering-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-nets-by-candida-glabrata-during-planktonic-and-biofilm-growth
#16
Chad J Johnson, John F Kernien, Amanda R Hoyer, Jeniel E Nett
Candida spp. adhere to medical devices, such as catheters, forming drug-tolerant biofilms that resist killing by the immune system. Little is known about how C. glabrata, an emerging pathogen, resists attack by phagocytes. Here we show that upon encounter with planktonic (non-biofilm) C. glabrata, human neutrophils initially phagocytose the yeast and subsequently release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), complexes of DNA, histones, and proteins capable of inhibiting fungal growth and dissemination. When exposed to C...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024380/cell-to-cell-communication-micrornas-as-hormones
#17
REVIEW
Recep Bayraktar, Katrien Van Roosbroeck, George A Calin
Mammalian cells can release different types of extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies. Accumulating evidence suggests that EVs play a role in cell-to-cell communication within the tumor microenvironment. EVs' components, such as proteins, non-coding RNAs [microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs)], messenger RNAs (mRNAs), DNA, and lipids, can mediate paracrine signaling in the tumor microenvironment. Recently, miRNAs encapsulated in secreted EVs have been identified in the extracellular space...
October 11, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020037/a-conserved-fungal-glycosyltransferase-facilitates-pathogenesis-of-plants-by-enabling-hyphal-growth-on-solid-surfaces
#18
Robert King, Martin Urban, Rebecca P Lauder, Nichola Hawkins, Matthew Evans, Amy Plummer, Kirstie Halsey, Alison Lovegrove, Kim Hammond-Kosack, Jason J Rudd
Pathogenic fungi must extend filamentous hyphae across solid surfaces to cause diseases of plants. However, the full inventory of genes which support this is incomplete and many may be currently concealed due to their essentiality for the hyphal growth form. During a random T-DNA mutagenesis screen performed on the pleomorphic wheat (Triticum aestivum) pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici, we acquired a mutant unable to extend hyphae specifically when on solid surfaces. In contrast "yeast-like" growth, and all other growth forms, were unaffected...
October 11, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019588/ultrastructural-analysis-and-residual-dna-evaluation-of-rabbit-vein-scaffold
#19
Matheus Bertanha, Marcone Lima Sobreira, Ana Lívia de Carvalho Bovolato, Jaqueline de Carvalho Rinaldi, Patricia Pintor Reis, Andrei Moroz, Leonardo Nazario de Moraes, Elenice Deffune
PURPOSE: To investigate the ultrastructural characteristics and analysis of residual DNA in scaffold models, produced with decellularized vena cava in an experimental model with rabbits. METHODS: Three groups were created for ultrastructural and residual DNA analysis: group 1 - control, consisting of samples of vena cava in natura; group 2 - SD, consisting of vein fragments submitted to 2% sodium deoxycholate decellularization by shaking (160rpm - Shaker News Brunswick Scientific®) for 1 hour at controlled temperature shaker at 37°C; group 3 - SDS, consisting of vein fragments submitted to 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate decellularization under the same previous condition, for 2 hours...
September 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018429/d-ribose-interferes-with-quorum-sensing-to-inhibit-biofilm-formation-of-lactobacillus-paraplantarum-l-zs9
#20
Lei Liu, Ruiyun Wu, Jinlan Zhang, Nan Shang, Pinglan Li
Biofilms help bacteria survive under adverse conditions, and the quorum sensing (QS) system plays an important role in regulating their activities. Quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) have great potential to inhibit pathogenic biofilm formation and are considered possible replacements for antibiotics; however, further investigation is required to understand the mechanisms of action of QSIs and to avoid inhibitory effects on beneficial bacteria. Lactobacillus paraplantarum L-ZS9, isolated from fermented sausage, is a bacteriocin-producing bacteria that shows potential to be a probiotic starter...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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