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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656370/role-of-exosomes-in-human-retroviral-mediated-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Monique Anderson, Fatah Kashanchi, Steven Jacobson
Retroviruses comprise an ancient and varied group of viruses with the unique ability to integrate DNA from an RNA transcript into the genome, a subset of which are able to integrate in humans. The timing of these integrations during human history has dictated whether these viruses have remained exogenous and given rise to various human diseases or have become inseparable from the host genome (endogenous retroviruses). Given the ability of retroviruses to integrate into the host and subsequently co-opt host cellular process for viral propagation, retroviruses have been shown to be closely associated with several cellular processes including exosome formation...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653124/doxorubicin-triggers-bioenergetic-failure-and-p53-activation-in-mouse-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#2
Teresa Cunha-Oliveira, Luciana L Ferreira, Ana Raquel Coelho, Cláudia M Deus, Paulo J Oliveira
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used anticancer drug that could be even more effective if its clinical dosage was not limited because of delayed cardiotoxicity. Beating stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are a preferred in vitro model to further uncover the mechanisms of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Our objective was to use cultured induced-pluripotent stem cell(iPSC)-derived mouse cardiomyocytes (Cor.At) to investigate the effects of DOX on cell and mitochondrial metabolism, as well as on stress responses. Non-proliferating and beating Cor...
April 10, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651393/wound-healing-potential-of-intermittent-negative-pressure-under-limited-access-dressing-in-burn-patients-biochemical-and-histopathological-study
#3
Honnegowda Thittamaranahalli Muguregowda, Pramod Kumar, Padmanabha Udupa Echalasara Govindarama
BACKGROUND: Malondialdehyde (MDA) is an oxidant that causes damage to membranes, DNA, proteins, and lipids at the cellular level. Antioxidants minimize the effects of oxidants and thus help in formation of healthy granulation tissues with higher level of hydroxyproline and total protein. This study compared the effect of limited access dressing (LAD) with conventional closed dressing biochemically and histopathologically. METHODS: Seventy-two 12-65 years old burn patients with mean wound size of 14 cm2 were divided to two groups of LAD (n=37), and conventional dressing groups (n=35)...
January 2018: World Journal of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651107/circular-rna-circ-4099-is-induced-by-tnf-%C3%AE-and-regulates-ecm-synthesis-by-blocking-mir-616-5p-inhibition-of-sox9-in-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#4
Hua Wang, Peiheng He, Hehai Pan, Jun Long, Jianru Wang, Zemin Li, Hui Liu, Weiying Jiang, Zhaomin Zheng
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play important roles in the initiation and development of different diseases. Here, we detected their role in intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. An Arraystar human circular RNA microarray assay was used to detect circRNAs in normal and degenerated human IVD nucleus pulposus (NP) tissues. The role of circ-4099 in IVDD and its mechanism were evaluated by qRT-PCR and gain-of-function/loss-of-function studies. Interaction networks for competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs), miRNAs, and miRNA target gene were detected by bioinformatics analysis, RNA immunoprecipitation and luciferase assay...
April 13, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649641/hydrogel-derived-from-porcine-decellularized-nerve-tissue-as-a-promising-biomaterial-for-repairing-peripheral-nerve-defects
#5
Tao Lin, Sheng Liu, Shihao Chen, Shuai Qiu, Zilong Rao, Jianghui Liu, Shuang Zhu, Liwei Yan, Haiquan Mao, Qingtang Zhu, Daping Quan, Xiaolin Liu
Decellularized matrix hydrogels derived from tissues or organs have been used for tissue repair due to their biocompatibility, tunability, and tissue-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) components. However, the preparation of decellularized peripheral nerve matrix hydrogels and their use to repair nerve defects have not been reported. Here, we developed a hydrogel from porcine decellularized nerve matrix (pDNM-G), which was confirmed to have minimal DNA content and retain collagen and glycosaminoglycans content, thereby allowing gelatinization...
April 9, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649284/sulfasalazine-an-inhibitor-of-the-cystine-glutamate-antiporter-reduces-dna-damage-repair-and-enhances-radiosensitivity-in-murine-b16f10-melanoma
#6
Masaki Nagane, Eiichi Kanai, Yuki Shibata, Takuto Shimizu, Chie Yoshioka, Takuya Maruo, Tadashi Yamashita
The sodium-independent cystine-glutamate antiporter plays an important role in extracellular cystine uptake. It comprises the transmembrane protein, xCT and its chaperone, CD98. Because glutathione is only weakly cell membrane permeable, cellular uptake of its precursor, cystine, is known to be a key step in glutathione synthesis. Moreover, it has been reported that xCT expression affects the progression of tumors and their resistance to therapy. Sulfasalazine is an inhibitor of xCT that is known to increase cellular oxidative stress, giving it anti-tumor potential...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648540/editorial-ice-and-small
#7
Adam P Roberts
Bacterial genomes vary considerably in terms of size and gene content. The proportion of a genome composed of horizontally acquired DNA or mobile genetic elements also varies, but follows an ecological pattern with more mobile genetic element genes being found in facultative intracellular bacteria than those considered extracellular and both containing more than obligately intracellular bacteria.
April 12, 2018: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648539/horizontal-gene-transfer-in-thermus-spp
#8
Alba Blesa, Beate Averhoff, José Berenguer
The small amount of genetic content in thermophiles generally limits their adaptability to environmental changes. In Thermus spp., very active horizontal gene transfer (HGT) mechanisms allow the rapid spread of strain-specific adaptive gene modules among the entire population. Constitutive expression of a rather particular and highly efficient DNA transport apparatus (DTA) is at the center of this HGT-mediated enhanced adaptability. The function of the DTA is dependent on the integrity and longevity of the extracellular DNA (eDNA) being transformed, which can be improved by the production of extracellular vesicles (EV) through lysis of a fraction of the population...
April 12, 2018: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644357/the-inhibitory-effect-of-manuka-honey-on-human-colon-cancer-hct-116-and-lovo-cell-growth-part-2-induction-of-oxidative-stress-alteration-of-mitochondrial-respiration-and-glycolysis-and-suppression-of-metastatic-ability
#9
Sadia Afrin, Francesca Giampieri, Massimiliano Gasparrini, Tamara Y Forbes-Hernández, Danila Cianciosi, Patricia Reboredo-Rodriguez, Piera Pia Manna, Jiaojiao Zhang, Josè L Quiles, Maurizio Battino
Despite its high content of phenolic compounds, the chemopreventive activity of Manuka honey (MH) is still elusive. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of MH on oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes, cellular metabolism and the metastatic ability in HCT-116 and LoVo cells, paying particular attention to the molecular mechanisms involved. We observed a strong induction of oxidative stress after MH treatment since it augmented the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and increased the damage to proteins, lipids and DNA...
April 12, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626692/global-and-gene-specific-dna-methylation-effects-of-different-asbestos-fibres-on-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#10
Deniz Öner, Manosij Ghosh, Matthieu Moisse, Radu Corneliu Duca, Robin Coorens, Jeroen A J Vanoirbeek, Diether Lambrechts, Lode Godderis, Peter H M Hoet
Inhalation exposure to asbestos is associated with lung and pleural diseases in humans and remains a major public health issue worldwide. Human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) were exposed to UICC amosite, crocidolite and chrysotile. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, global DNA methylation on cytosine residues (using LC-MS/MS) were investigated at different doses (2.5-100 μg/ml). Gene-specific DNA methylation alterations at the whole genome were investigated using a microarray that interrogates >450 thousand CpG sites...
April 4, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624648/cns-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis-common-hematopoietic-origin-for-lch-associated-neurodegeneration-and-mass-lesions
#11
Kenneth L McClain, Jennifer Picarsic, Rikhia Chakraborty, Daniel Zinn, Howard Lin, Harshal Abhyankar, Brooks Scull, Albert Shih, Karen Phaik Har Lim, Olive Eckstein, Joseph Lubega, Tricia L Peters, Walter Olea, Thomas Burke, Nabil Ahmed, M John Hicks, Brandon Tran, Jeremy Jones, Robert Dauser, Michael Jeng, Robert Baiocchi, Deborah Schiff, Stanton Goldman, Kenneth M Heym, Harry Wilson, Benjamin Carcamo, Ashish Kumar, Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo, Nicholas S Whipple, Patrick Campbell, Geoffrey Murdoch, Julia Kofler, Simon Heales, Marian Malone, Randy Woltjer, Joseph F Quinn, Paul Orchard, Michael C Kruer, Ronald Jaffe, Markus G Manz, Sergio A Lira, D Williams Parsons, Miriam Merad, Tsz-Kwong Man, Carl E Allen
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system Langerhans cell histiocytosis (CNS-LCH) brain involvement may include mass lesions and/or a neurodegenerative disease (LCH-ND) of unknown etiology. The goal of this study was to define the mechanisms of pathogenesis that drive CNS-LCH. METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers including CSF proteins and extracellular BRAFV600E DNA were analyzed in CSF from patients with CNS-LCH lesions compared with patients with brain tumors and other neurodegenerative conditions...
April 6, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621667/a-comprehensive-analysis-of-human-dental-pulp-cell-spheroids-in-a-three-dimensional-pellet-culture-system
#12
Siyuan Zhang, Patricia Buttler-Buecher, Bernd Denecke, Victor E Arana-Chavez, Christian Apel
OBJECTIVE: Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture methods are of high importance to studies of biological processes. This is particularly the case with spheroid cultures, which create 3D cell aggregates without the use of exogenous materials. Compared to conventional monolayer cultures, cellular spheroid cultures have been demonstrated to improve multilineage potential and extracellular matrix production. To address this issue in depth, we present a more comprehensive analysis of 3D human dental pulp cell (hDPC) spheroids...
February 15, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621602/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-possess-anti-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-activity-possible-interaction-with-the-viral-f-protein
#13
Priscila Silva Sampaio Souza, Lia Vezenfard Barbosa, Larissa Figueiredo Alves Diniz, Gabriel Soares da Silva, Bruno Rafael Pereira Lopes, Pedro Miyadaira Ribeiro Souza, Gabriela Campos de Araujo, Diogo Pessoa, Juliana de Oliveira, Fátima Pereira Souza, Karina Alves Toledo
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is one of the main etiological agents of diseases of the lower respiratory tract, and is often responsible for the hospitalization of children and the elderly. To date, treatments are only palliative and there is no vaccine available. The airways of patients infected with hRSV exhibit intense neutrophil infiltration, which is responsible for the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). These are extracellular structures consisting of DNA associated with intracellular proteins, and are efficient in capturing and eliminating various microorganisms, including some viruses...
April 2, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619860/progerin-phosphorylation-in-interphase-is-lower-and-less-mechanosensitive-than-lamin-a-c-in-ips-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#14
Sangkyun Cho, Amal Abbas, Jerome Irianto, Irena Ivanovska, Yuntao Xia, Manu Tewari, Dennis E Discher
Interphase phosphorylation of lamin-A,C depends dynamically on a cell's microenvironment, including the stiffness of extracellular matrix. However, phosphorylation dynamics is poorly understood for diseased forms such as progerin, a permanently farnesylated mutant of LMNA that accelerates aging of stiff and mechanically stressed tissues. Here, fine-excision alignment mass spectrometry (FEA-MS) is developed to quantify progerin and its phosphorylation levels in patient iPS cells differentiated to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
April 5, 2018: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618953/dna-area-and-netosis-analysis-dana-a-high-throughput-method-to-quantify-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-fluorescent-microscope-images
#15
Ryan Rebernick, Lauren Fahmy, Christopher Glover, Mandar Bawadekar, Daeun Shim, Caitlyn L Holmes, Nicole Rademacher, Hemanth Potluri, Christie M Bartels, Miriam A Shelef
Background: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), extracellular structures composed of decondensed chromatin and antimicrobial molecules, are released in a process called NETosis. NETs, which are part of normal host defense, have also been implicated in multiple human diseases. Unfortunately, methods for quantifying NETs have limitations which constrain the study of NETs in disease. Establishing optimal methods for NET quantification holds the potential to further elucidate the role of NETs in normal and pathologic processes...
2018: Biological Procedures Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618514/activation-of-stimulator-of-interferon-genes-sting-induces-adam17-mediated-shedding-of-the-immune-semaphorin-sema4d
#16
Kou Motani, Hidetaka Kosako
Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident membrane protein that mediates cytosolic pathogen DNA-induced innate immunity and inflammatory responses in host defenses. STING is activated by cyclic di-nucleotides and is then translocated to the Golgi apparatus, an event that triggers STING assembly with the downstream enzyme TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). This assembly leads to the phosphorylation of the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), which, in turn, induces expression of type-I interferon (IFN) and chemokine genes...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617041/direct-binding-and-internalization-of-diverse-extracellular-nucleic-acid-species-through-the-collagenous-domain-of-class-a-scavenger-receptors
#17
Kaushal Baid, Srinivas Nellimarla, Angela Huynh, Stephen Boulton, Alba Guarné, Giuseppe Melacini, Susan E Collins, Karen L Mossman
Nucleic acids are potential pathogen-associated or danger-associated molecular patterns that modulate immune responses and the development of autoimmune disorders. Class A scavenger receptors (SR-As) are a diverse group of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize a variety of polyanionic ligands including nucleic acids. While SR-As are important for the recognition and internalization of extracellular dsRNA, little is known about extracellular DNA, despite its association with chronic infections and autoimmune disorders...
April 4, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616391/nardosinone-type-sesquiterpenes-from-the-hexane-fraction-of-nardostachys-jatamansi-attenuate-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mapk-signaling-pathways-in-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-bv2-microglial-cells
#18
Wonmin Ko, Jin-Soo Park, Kwan-Woo Kim, Jongwon Kim, Youn-Chul Kim, Hyuncheol Oh
Four nardosinone-type sesquiterpenes, nardosinone, isonardosinone, kanshone E, and kanshone B, were isolated from the hexane fraction of Nardostachys jatamansi (Valerianaceae) methanol extract. The structures of these compounds were mainly established by analyzing the data obtained from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). In this study, we investigated their anti-neuroinflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV2 microglial cells. The results showed that nardosinone-type sesquiterpenes inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) in LPS-induced BV2 microglial cells...
April 3, 2018: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616118/adenosine-induces-intrinsic-apoptosis-via-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway-in-human-pharyngeal-squamous-carcinoma-fadu-cells
#19
Mi Suk Choi, Sung-Min Moon, Seul Ah Lee, Bo-Ram Park, Jae-Sung Kim, Do Kyung Kim, Yong Hwan Kim, Chun Sung Kim
Adenosine has been identified to occur abundantly intra-and extracellularly, and to exert diverse biological functions, including the suppression of cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis. Adenosine has been reported to induce apoptosis in several cancer cell lines; however, to the best of our knowledge, the effect of adenosine on head and neck cancer cells has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether adenosine exerts any anticancer effect via induction of apoptosis in human pharyngeal squamous carcinoma FaDu cells...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613949/reduced-dnase-enzyme-activity-in-response-to-high-post-injury-mitochondrial-dna-concentration-provides-a-therapeutic-target-for-sirs
#20
Daniel J McIlroy, Kyra Minahan, Simon Keely, Natalie Lott, Philip Hansbro, Doug W Smith, Zsolt J Balogh
BACKGROUND: Cell free mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is pro-inflammatory and has been detected in high concentrations in trauma patients' plasma. Deoxyribonuclease (DNase) is the free plasma enzyme responsible for the digestion of extracellular DNA. The relationship between mtDNA and DNase after major trauma is unknown. We hypothesized that DNase activity would be elevated after injury and trauma surgery, and would be associated with high concentrations of extracellular DNA. METHODS: 2-year prospective study was performed on 103 consecutive trauma patients (Male 81%, Age: 38 IQR 30-59 years; ISS: 18 IQR 12-26) who underwent standardised major orthopaedic trauma surgical interventions...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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