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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819200/periostin-binding-dna-aptamer-treatment-attenuates-renal-fibrosis-under-diabetic-conditions
#1
Jae Eun Um, Jung Tak Park, Bo Young Nam, Jung Pyo Lee, Jong Ha Jung, Youndong Kim, Seonghun Kim, Jimin Park, Meiyan Wu, Seung Hyeok Han, Tae-Hyun Yoo, Shin-Wook Kang
Diabetic nephropathy, the major cause of chronic kidney disease, is associated with progressive renal fibrosis. Recently, accumulation of periostin, an extracellular matrix protein, was shown to augment renal fibrosis. Aptamers have higher binding affinities without developing the common side effects of antibodies. Thus, we evaluated the effect of periostin inhibition by an aptamer-based inhibitor on renal fibrosis under diabetic conditions. In vitro, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) treatment significantly upregulated periostin, fibronectin, and type I collagen mRNA and protein expressions in inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818778/potential-effect-of-compounds-isolated-from-coffea-arabica-against-uv-b-induced-skin-damage-by-protecting-fibroblast-cells
#2
Yong-Hun Cho, Ashutosh Bahuguna, Han-Hyuk Kim, Dong-In Kim, Hyeon-Jeong Kim, Jae-Myo Yu, Hyun-Gug Jung, Jae-Yoon Jang, Jae-Hoon Kwak, Geun-Hye Park, O-Jun Kwon, Young Je Cho, Jeong Yeon An, Cheorun Jo, Sun Chul Kang, Bong-Jeun An
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has adverse effects on extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, leading to formation of wrinkles a hallmark of premature skin aging. The adverse effects of UV radiation are associated with induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression and degradation of collagen and elastin. The present study investigated anti-wrinkle effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA), pyrocatechol (PC) and 3,4,5-tricaffeoyl quinic acid (TCQ), isolated from beans of Coffea arabica, against UV-B stimulated mouse fibroblast cells (CCRF) by measuring expression levels of MMP-1, 3, 9, and type-I procollagen...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818101/a-new-method-for-sequencing-the-hypervariable-plasmodium-falciparum-gene-var2csa-from-clinical-samples
#3
Antoine Dara, Mark A Travassos, Matthew Adams, Sarah Schaffer DeRoo, Elliott F Drábek, Sonia Agrawal, Miriam K Laufer, Christopher V Plowe, Joana C Silva
BACKGROUND: VAR2CSA, a member of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family, mediates the binding of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes to chondroitin sulfate A, a surface-associated molecule expressed in placental cells, and plays a central role in the pathogenesis of placental malaria. VAR2CSA is a target of naturally acquired immunity and, as such, is a leading vaccine candidate against placental malaria. This protein is very polymorphic and technically challenging to sequence...
August 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817611/the-directed-migration-of-gonadal-distal-tip-cells-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-requires-ngat-1-a-%C3%A3-1-4-n-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-enzyme
#4
Joseph Veyhl, Robert J Dunn, Wendy L Johnston, Alexa Bennett, Lijia W Zhang, James W Dennis, Harry Schachter, Joseph G Culotti
Glycoproteins such as growth factor receptors and extracellular matrix have well-known functions in development and cancer progression, however, the glycans at sites of modification are often heterogeneous molecular populations which makes their functional characterization challenging. Here we provide evidence for a specific, discrete, well-defined glycan modification and regulation of a stage-specific cell migration in Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that a chain-terminating, putative null mutation in the gene encoding a predicted β1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, named ngat-1, causes a maternally rescued temperature sensitive (ts) defect in the second phase of the three phase migration pattern of the posterior, but not the anterior, hermaphrodite Distal Tip Cell (DTC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816920/similar-metabolic-innate-immunity-and-adipokine-profiles-in-adult-and-pediatric-sepsis-versus-systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-a-pilot-study
#5
Theonymfi Tavladaki, Anna Maria Spanaki, Helen Dimitriou, Efmorfia Kondili, Christianna Choulaki, Dimitris Georgopoulos, George Briassoulis
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the septic profiles of heat shock protein 72, heat shock protein 90α, resistin, adiponectin, oxygen consumption, CO2 production, energy expenditure, and metabolic pattern, along with illness severity, nutritional, and inflammatory indices, differ between adult and pediatric patients compared with systemic inflammatory response syndrome and healthy controls. To evaluate whether these biomolecules may discriminate sepsis from systemic inflammatory response syndrome in adult and pediatric patients...
August 12, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814721/acceleration-of-osteoblast-differentiation-by-a-novel-osteogenic-compound-dmp-pyt-through-activation-of-both-the-bmp-and-wnt-pathways
#6
Su Jung Bae, Hye Joo Kim, Hee Yeon Won, Yong Ki Min, Eun Sook Hwang
Osteoblast differentiation is regulated through the successive activation of signaling molecules by a complex interplay of extracellular signals such as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Wnt ligands. Numerous studies have identified natural as well as synthetic compounds with osteogenic activity through the regulation of either BMP/SMADs or the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Here, we attempted to isolate small molecules that concurrently activated both SMADs and β-catenin, which led to the discovery of a novel potent osteogenic compound, DMP-PYT...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811843/transcriptomics-and-methylomics-in-chronic-periodontitis-with-tobacco-use-a-pilot-study
#7
Young-Dan Cho, Pil-Jong Kim, Hong-Gee Kim, Yang-Jo Seol, Yong-Moo Lee, Young Ku, In-Chul Rhyu, Hyun-Mo Ryoo
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that tobacco smoking affects the susceptibility to and severity of chronic periodontitis. Epigenetics may explain the role of smoking in the development and progress of periodontal disease. In this study, we performed transcriptomic and methylomic analyses of non-periodontitis and periodontitis-affected gingival tissues according to smoking status. METHODS: Human gingival tissues were obtained from 20 patients, including non-smokers with and without periodontitis (n = 5 per group) and smokers with and without periodontitis (n = 5 per group)...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811610/antibiotic-induced-release-of-small-extracellular-vesicles-exosomes-with-surface-associated-dna
#8
Andrea Németh, Norbert Orgovan, Barbara W Sódar, Xabier Osteikoetxea, Krisztina Pálóczi, Katalin É Szabó-Taylor, Krisztina V Vukman, Ágnes Kittel, Lilla Turiák, Zoltán Wiener, Sára Tóth, László Drahos, Károly Vékey, Robert Horvath, Edit I Buzás
Recently, biological roles of extracellular vesicles (which include among others exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies) have attracted substantial attention in various fields of biomedicine. Here we investigated the impact of sustained exposure of cells to the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin on the released extracellular vesicles. Ciprofloxacin is widely used in humans against bacterial infections as well as in cell cultures against Mycoplasma contamination. However, ciprofloxacin is an inducer of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction of mammalian cells...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811546/serum-derived-extracellular-vesicles-evs-impact-on-vascular-remodeling-and-prevent-muscle-damage-in-acute-hind-limb-ischemia
#9
Claudia Cavallari, Andrea Ranghino, Marta Tapparo, Massimo Cedrino, Federico Figliolini, Cristina Grange, Valentina Giannachi, Paolo Garneri, Maria Chiara Deregibus, Federica Collino, Pietro Rispoli, Giovanni Camussi, Maria Felice Brizzi
Serum is an abundant and accessible source of circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs). Serum-EV (sEV) pro-angiogenic capability and mechanisms are herein analyzed using an in vitro assay which predicts sEV angiogenic potential in vivo. Effective sEVs (e-sEVs) also improved vascular remodeling and prevented muscle damage in a mouse model of acute hind limb ischemia. e-sEV angiogenic proteomic and transcriptomic analyses show a positive correlation with matrix-metalloproteinase activation and extracellular matrix organization, cytokine and chemokine signaling pathways, Insulin-like Growth Factor and platelet pathways, and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor signaling...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811542/identification-replication-and-characterization-of-epigenetic-remodelling-in-the-aging-genome-a-cross-population-analysis
#10
Shuxia Li, Lene Christiansen, Kaare Christensen, Torben A Kruse, Paul Redmond, Riccardo E Marioni, Ian J Deary, Qihua Tan
Aging is a complex biological process regulated by multiple cellular pathways and molecular mechanisms including epigenetics. Using genome-wide DNA methylation data measured in a large collection of Scottish old individuals, we performed discovery association analysis to identify age-methylated CpGs and replicated them in two independent Danish cohorts. The double-replicated CpGs were characterized by distribution over gene regions and location in relation to CpG islands. The replicated CpGs were further characterized by involvement in biological pathways to study their functional implications in aging...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810289/targeted-gene-replacement-at-the-ura3-locus-of-the-basidiomycetous-yeast-pseudozyma-antarctica-and-its-transformation-using-lithium-acetate-treatment
#11
Tohru Yarimizu, Hitoshi Shimoi, Yuka Sameshima-Yamashita, Tomotake Morita, Hideaki Koike, Takashi Watanabe, Hiroko Kitamoto
The basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma antarctica is a remarkable producer of industrially-valuable enzymes and extracellular glycolipids. In this study, we developed a method for targeted gene replacement in P. antarctica. In addition, transformation conditions were optimized using lithium acetate, single-stranded carrier DNA, and polyethylene glycol (lithium acetate treatment) generally used for ascomycetous yeast transformation. In the rice-derived P. antarctica strain GB-4(0), PaURA3, a homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase gene (URA3), was selected as the target locus...
August 15, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808131/intercellular-communication-via-the-comx-inducing-peptide-xip-of-streptococcus-mutans
#12
Justin Kaspar, Simon A M Underhill, Robert C Shields, Adrian Reyes, Suzanne Rosenzweig, Stephen J Hagen, Robert A Burne
Gram-positive bacteria utilize exported peptides to coordinate genetic and physiological processes required for biofilm formation, stress responses and ecological competitiveness. One example is activation of natural genetic competence by ComR and the comX-inducing peptide (XIP) in Streptococcus mutans Although the competence pathway can be activated by addition of synthetic XIP in defined medium, the hypothesis that XIP is able to function as an intercellular signal molecule has not been rigorously tested...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805937/new-data-on-hyperpigmentation-disorders
#13
REVIEW
S Schalka
Recently visible light (VL) and vascularization triggered by infrared light (IR) play a role in hyperpigmentation disorders of the skin. The aim of this article is to provide an update on the aetiology of hyperpigmentation disorders and means of prevention against UV, visible (VL) and infrared light (IR). The author conducted a literature review of the most recent data about hyperpigmentation disorders and means of prevention and protection. VL impacts on pigmentation, especially in individuals with phototype III, IV or V and also causes the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), erythema and DNA damage through ROS production as well as photodermatoses...
September 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805376/discovery-and-biosensing-applications-of-diverse-rna-cleaving-dnazymes
#14
Meng Liu, Dingran Chang, Yingfu Li
DNA-based enzymes, or DNAzymes, are not known to exist in Nature but can be isolated from random-sequence DNA pools using test tube selection techniques. Since the report of the first DNAzyme in 1994, many catalytic DNA molecules for catalyzing wide-ranging chemical transformations have been isolated and studied. Our laboratory has a keen interest in searching for diverse DNAzymes capable of cleaving RNA-containing substrates, determining their sequence requirements and structural properties, and examining their potential as biosensors...
August 14, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805301/the-lymphocytes-stimulation-induced-dna-release-a-phenomenon-similar-to-netosis
#15
Yermis Carolina Rocha, Mauricio Rojas, Gloria Vásquez, Juan López
The release of DNA into the extracellular milieu by neutrophil during a process called NETosis has been postulated as an additional source of autoantigens; a process believed to be important in the pathogenesis of some autoimmune disease, such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). However, it is not established if the B and T cells undergo the release of DNA to the extracellular milleu, in response to different stimuli. In this study, it was observed that, the treatment of B and T cells with PMA, ionomycin, and the serum from patients with SLE induced the extracellular DNA presence in B and T cells...
August 11, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805211/all-atom-md-indicates-ion-dependent-behavior-of-therapeutic-dna-polymer
#16
Ryan L Melvin, William H Gmeiner, Freddie R Salsbury
Understanding the efficacy of and creating delivery mechanisms for therapeutic nucleic acids requires understanding structural and kinetic properties which allow these polymers to promote the death of cancerous cells. One molecule of interest is a 10 mer of FdUMP (5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine-5'-O-monophosphate) - also called F10. Here we investigate the structural and kinetic behavior of F10 in intracellular and extracellular solvent conditions along with non-biological conditions that may be efficacious in in vitro preparations of F10 delivery systems...
August 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803246/biofunctional-ionic-doped-calcium-phosphates-silk-fibroin-composites-for-bone-tissue-engineering-scaffolding
#17
S Pina, R F Canadas, G Jiménez, M Perán, J A Marchal, R L Reis, J M Oliveira
The treatment and regeneration of bone defects caused by traumatism or diseases have not been completely addressed by current therapies. Lately, advanced tools and technologies have been successfully developed for bone tissue regeneration. Functional scaffolding materials such as biopolymers and bioresorbable fillers have gained particular attention, owing to their ability to promote cell adhesion, proliferation, and extracellular matrix production, which promote new bone growth. Here, we present novel biofunctional scaffolds for bone regeneration composed of silk fibroin (SF) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and incorporating Sr, Zn, and Mn, which were successfully developed using salt-leaching followed by a freeze-drying technique...
August 12, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798742/preservation-and-significance-of-extracellular-dna-in-ferruginous-sediments-from-lake-towuti-indonesia
#18
Aurèle Vuillemin, Fabian Horn, Mashal Alawi, Cynthia Henny, Dirk Wagner, Sean A Crowe, Jens Kallmeyer
Extracellular DNA is ubiquitous in soil and sediment and constitutes a dominant fraction of environmental DNA in aquatic systems. In theory, extracellular DNA is composed of genomic elements persisting at different degrees of preservation produced by processes occurring on land, in the water column and sediment. Extracellular DNA can be taken up as a nutrient source, excreted or degraded by microorganisms, or adsorbed onto mineral matrices, thus potentially preserving information from past environments. To test whether extracellular DNA records lacustrine conditions, we sequentially extracted extracellular and intracellular DNA from anoxic sediments of ferruginous Lake Towuti, Indonesia...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798731/mechanisms-and-regulation-of-extracellular-dna-release-and-its-biological-roles-in-microbial-communities
#19
REVIEW
Alejandra L Ibáñez de Aldecoa, Olga Zafra, José E González-Pastor
The capacity to release genetic material into the extracellular medium has been reported in cultures of numerous species of bacteria, archaea, and fungi, and also in the context of multicellular microbial communities such as biofilms. Moreover, extracellular DNA (eDNA) of microbial origin is widespread in natural aquatic and terrestrial environments. Different specific mechanisms are involved in eDNA release, such as autolysis and active secretion, as well as through its association with membrane vesicles. It is noteworthy that in microorganisms, in which DNA release has been studied in detail, the production of eDNA is coordinated by the population when it reaches a certain cell density, and is induced in a subpopulation in response to the accumulation of quorum sensing signals...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798340/predictable-chronic-mild-stress-during-adolescence-promotes-fear-memory-extinction-in-adulthood
#20
Jia-Hui Deng, Wei Yan, Ying Han, Chen Chen, Shi-Qiu Meng, Cheng-Yu Sun, Ling-Zhi Xu, Yan-Xue Xue, Xue-Jiao Gao, Na Chen, Fei-Long Zhang, Yu-Mei Wang, Jie Shi, Lin Lu
Early-life stress in adolescence has a long-lasting influence on brain function in adulthood, and it is mostly recognized as a predisposing factor for mental illnesses, such as anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder. Previous studies also indicated that adolescent predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS) in early life promotes resilience to depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in adulthood. However, the role of PCMS in associated memory process is still unclear. In the present study, we found that adolescent PCMS facilitated extinction and inhibited fear response in reinstatement and spontaneous recovery tests in adult rats, and this effect was still present 1 week later...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
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