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Extracellular DNA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340336/a-dna-based-t-cell-receptor-reveals-a-role-for-receptor-clustering-in-ligand-discrimination
#1
Marcus J Taylor, Kabir Husain, Zev J Gartner, Satyajit Mayor, Ronald D Vale
A T cell mounts an immune response by measuring the binding strength of its T cell receptor (TCR) for peptide-loaded MHCs (pMHC) on an antigen-presenting cell. How T cells convert the lifetime of the extracellular TCR-pMHC interaction into an intracellular signal remains unknown. Here, we developed a synthetic signaling system in which the extracellular domains of the TCR and pMHC were replaced with short hybridizing strands of DNA. Remarkably, T cells can discriminate between DNA ligands differing by a single base pair...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340109/mth1-an-8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine-triphosphatase-and-myh-a-dna-glycosylase-cooperate-to-inhibit-mutations-induced-by-chronic-exposure-to-oxidative-stress-of-ionising-radiation
#2
Sara Shakeri Manesh, Traimate Sangsuwan, Ali Pour Khavari, Asal Fotouhi, S Noushin Emami, Siamak Haghdoost
Our previous results showed that in addition to the immediate interaction of ionising radiation with DNA (direct and indirect effect), low-dose and chronic low-dose rate of irradiation induce endogenous oxidative stress. During oxidative stress, free radicals react with DNA, nucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), proteins and lipids, and modify their structures. The MYH and MTH1 genes play important roles in preventing mutations induced by 8-hydroxy-guanine, which is an oxidised product of guanine. In this study, we used short-hairpin RNA to permanently knockdown MYH and MTH1 proteins in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells...
March 16, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333282/anchorless-cell-surface-proteins-function-as-laminin-binding-adhesins-in-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-fsmm22
#3
Ni Putu Desy Aryantini, Daisuke Kondoh, Keita Nishiyama, Yuji Yamamoto, Takao Mukai, I Nengah Sujaya, Tadasu Urashima, Kenji Fukuda
Anchorless cell surface proteins (CSPs) were extracted with 1 M lithium chloride solution from Lactobacillus rhamnosus FSMM22. Loss of the anchorless CSPs resulted in a two-fold decrease in FSMM22 cells bound to a constitutive extracellular matrix glycoprotein, laminin, in vitro. DNA-binding protein HU, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, and 30S ribosomal protein S19 (RpsS) were identified by mass spectrometry in the extract as laminin-binding adhesins. Among the four proteins, RpsS was immunohistochemically confirmed to exist on the cell surface...
March 9, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333068/effects-of-reactive-oxygen-species-on-tubular-transport-along-the-nephron
#4
REVIEW
Agustin Gonzalez-Vicente, Jeffrey L Garvin
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are oxygen-containing molecules naturally occurring in both inorganic and biological chemical systems. Due to their high reactivity and potentially damaging effects to biomolecules, cells express a battery of enzymes to rapidly metabolize them to innocuous intermediaries. Initially, ROS were considered by biologists as dangerous byproducts of respiration capable of causing oxidative stress, a condition in which overproduction of ROS leads to a reduction in protective molecules and enzymes and consequent damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA...
March 23, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332837/molecular-recognition-based-dna-nanoassemblies-on-the-surfaces-of-nanosized-exosomes
#5
Shuo Wan, Liqin Zhang, Sai Wang, Yuan Liu, Cuichen Wu, Cheng Cui, Hao Sun, Muling Shi, Ying Jiang, Long Li, Liping Qiu, Weihong Tan
Exosomes are membrane-enclosed extracellular vesicles derived from cells, carrying biomolecules that include pro-teins and nucleic acids for intercellular communication. Owning to their advantages of size, structure, stability and biocompatibility, exosomes have been used widely as natu-ral nanocarriers for intracellular delivery of theranostic agents. Meanwhile, surface modifications needed to endow exosomes with additional functionalities remain challeng-ing by their small size and the complexity of their mem-brane surfaces...
March 23, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332589/cell-cycle-arrest-and-biochemical-changes-accompanying-cell-death-in-harmful-dinoflagellates-following-exposure-to-bacterial-algicide-iri-160aa
#6
Kaytee L Pokrzywinski, Charles L Tilney, Mark E Warner, Kathryn J Coyne
Bacteria may play a role in regulating harmful algal blooms, but little is known about the biochemical and physiological changes associated with cell death induced by algicidal bacteria. Previous work characterized an algicidal exudate (IRI-160AA) produced by Shewanella sp. IRI-160 that is effective against dinoflagellates, while having little to no effect on other phytoplankton species in laboratory culture experiments. The objective of this study was to evaluate biochemical changes associated with cell death and impacts on the cell cycle in three dinoflagellate species (Prorocentrum minimum, Karlodinium veneficum and Gyrodinium instriatum) after exposure to IRI-160AA...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329127/listeria-monocytogenes-cadc-regulates-cadmium-efflux-and-fine-tunes-lipoprotein-localization-to-escape-the-host-immune-response-and-promote-infection
#7
Rita Pombinho, Ana Camejo, Ana Vieira, Olga Reis, Filipe Carvalho, Maria Teresa Almeida, Jorge Campos Pinheiro, Sandra Sousa, Didier Cabanes
Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a major intracellular human foodborne bacterial pathogen. We previously revealed Lm-cadC as highly expressed during mouse infection. Here we show that Lm-CadC is a sequence-specific, DNA-binding and cadmium-dependent regulator of CadA, an efflux pump conferring cadmium resistance. CadC, but not CadA, is required for Lm infection in vivo. Interestingly, CadC also directly represses lspB, a gene encoding a lipoprotein signal peptidase whose expression appears detrimental for infection...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327522/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-shewanella-phage-host-system-from-the-gut-of-the-tunicate-ciona-intestinalis
#8
Brittany Leigh, Charlotte Karrer, John P Cannon, Mya Breitbart, Larry J Dishaw
Outnumbering all other biological entities on earth, bacteriophages (phages) play critical roles in structuring microbial communities through bacterial infection and subsequent lysis, as well as through horizontal gene transfer. While numerous studies have examined the effects of phages on free-living bacterial cells, much less is known regarding the role of phage infection in host-associated biofilms, which help to stabilize adherent microbial communities. Here we report the cultivation and characterization of a novel strain of Shewanella fidelis from the gut of the marine tunicate Ciona intestinalis, inducible prophages from the S...
March 22, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326061/come-an-essential-response-regulator-negatively-regulates-the-expression-of-the-capsular-polysaccharide-locus-and-attenuates-the-bacterial-virulence-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#9
Yuqiang Zheng, Xuemei Zhang, Xiaofang Wang, Libin Wang, Jinghui Zhang, Yibing Yin
The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main virulence factors required for effective colonization and invasive disease. The capacity to regulate CPS production at the transcriptional level is critical for the survival of S. pneumoniae in different host niches, but little is known about the transcription regulators of cps locus. In the present study, we isolated and identified the response regulator ComE, the master competence switch in transformation of S. pneumoniae, as a transcriptional regulator of cps locus by DNA affinity chromatography-pulldown, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319616/dna-probes-for-monitoring-dynamic-and-transient-molecular-encounters-on-live-cell-membranes
#10
Mingxu You, Yifan Lyu, Da Han, Liping Qiu, Qiaoling Liu, Tao Chen, Cuichen Sam Wu, Lu Peng, Liqin Zhang, Gang Bao, Weihong Tan
Cells interact with the extracellular environment through molecules expressed on the membrane. Disruption of these membrane-bound interactions (or encounters) can result in disease progression. Advances in super-resolution microscopy have allowed membrane encounters to be examined, however, these methods cannot image entire membranes and cannot provide information on the dynamic interactions between membrane-bound molecules. Here, we show a novel DNA probe that can transduce transient membrane encounter events into readable cumulative fluorescence signals...
March 20, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319117/comparative-genomics-of-clavibacter-michiganensis-subspecies-pathogens-of-important-agricultural-crops
#11
James T Tambong
Subspecies of Clavibacter michiganensis are important phytobacterial pathogens causing devastating diseases in several agricultural crops. The genome organizations of these pathogens are poorly understood. Here, the complete genomes of 5 subspecies (C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Cmi; C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, Cms; C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, Cmn; C. michiganensis subsp. insidiosus, Cmi and C. michiganensis subsp. capsici, Cmc) were analyzed. This study assessed the taxonomic position of the subspecies based on 16S rRNA and genome-based DNA homology and concludes that there is ample evidence to elevate some of the subspecies to species-level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303858/role-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#12
REVIEW
Ting Liu, Fa-Ping Wang, Geng Wang, Hui Mao
OBJECTIVE: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are representative chronic inflammatory airway diseases responsible for a considerable burden of disease. In this article, we reviewed the relationship between neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and chronic inflammatory airway diseases. DATA SOURCES: Articles published up to January 1, 2017, were selected from the PubMed, Ovid Medline, Embase databases, with the keywords of "asthma" or "pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive", "neutrophils" and "extracellular traps...
March 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303365/immunoglobulin-like-domain-4-mediated-ligand-independent-dimerization-triggers-vegfr-2-activation-in-huvecs-and-vegfr2-positive-breast-cancer-cells
#13
Sheng Zhang, Xiaoping Gao, Wei Fu, Shengwei Li, Limin Yue
PURPOSE: The extracellular region (EC) of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) contains seven immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) domains that are required for specific ligand binding and receptor dimerization. Studies of domain 4-7 deletions and substitutions provided insights into the interaction between receptors in the absence of VEGF. In this study, we investigated the effect of domain 4 in ligand-independent VEGFR-2 dimerization and activation in human vascular endothelial cells and human breast cancer cells...
March 16, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302495/neural-egfl-like-1-is-a-downstream-regulator-of-runt-related-transcription-factor-2-in-chondrogenic-differentiation-and-maturation
#14
Chenshuang Li, Jie Jiang, Zhong Zheng, Kevin S Lee, Yanheng Zhou, Eric Chen, Cymbeline T Culiat, Yiqiang Qiao, Xuepeng Chen, Kang Ting, Xinli Zhang, Chia Soo
Recent studies indicate that neural EGFL-like 1 (Nell-1), a secretive extracellular matrix molecule, is involved in chondrogenic differentiation. Herein, we demonstrated that Nell-1 serves as a key downstream target of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), a central regulator of chondrogenesis. Unlike in osteoblast lineage cells where Nell-1 and Runx2 demonstrate mutual regulation, further studies in chondrocytes revealed that Runx2 tightly regulates the expression of Nell-1; however, Nell-1 does not alter the expression of Runx2...
March 13, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301393/potential-contribution-of-mitochondrial-mt-dna-damage-associated-molecular-patterns-damps-in-transfusion-products-to-the-development-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-ards-after-multiple-transfusions
#15
Jon D Simmons, Yann-Leei L Lee, Viktor M Pastukh, Gina Capley, Cherry A Muscat, David C Muscat, Michael L Marshall, Sidney B Brevard, Mark N Gillespie
INTRODUCTION: Massive transfusions are accompanied by an increased incidence of a particularly aggressive and lethal form of acute lung injury (delayed TRALI) which occurs >24 hours after transfusions. In light of recent reports showing that mtDNA DAMPs are potent pro-inflammatory mediators, and that their abundance in the sera of severely injured or septic patients is predictive of clinical outcomes, we explored the idea that mtDNA DAMPs are present in transfusion products and are associated with the occurrence of delayed TRALI...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299927/supramolecular-hydrogels-based-on-dna-self-assembly
#16
Yu Shao, Haoyang Jia, Tianyang Cao, Dongsheng Liu
Extracellular matrix (ECM) provides essential supports three dimensionally to the cells in living organs, including mechanical support and signal, nutrition, oxygen, and waste transportation. Thus, using hydrogels to mimic its function has attracted much attention in recent years, especially in tissue engineering, cell biology, and drug screening. However, a hydrogel system that can merit all parameters of the natural ECM is still a challenge. In the past decade, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has arisen as an outstanding building material for the hydrogels, as it has unique properties compared to most synthetic or natural polymers, such as sequence designability, precise recognition, structural rigidity, and minimal toxicity...
March 16, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296273/cyclic-di-gmp-signaling-meets-extracellular-polysaccharide-synthesis-in-bacillus-subtilis
#17
Jan Kampf, Jörg Stülke
In order to resist harmful environmental conditions, many bacteria form multicellular aggregates called biofilms. In these biofilms, they protect themselves in a self-produced matrix consisting of extracellular polysaccharides, proteins, and DNA. In many bacteria, biofilm formation is stimulated in the presence of the second messenger cyclic di-GMP. In this issue of Environmental Microbiology Reports, Bedrunka and Graumann have studied matrix production by the proteins encoded in the Bacillus subtilis ydaJKLMN operon...
March 13, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293399/up-regulation-of-tlr2-and-tlr4-in-high-mobility-group-box1-stimulated-macrophages-in-pulpitis-patients
#18
Javad Mahmoudi, Babak Sabermarouf, Behzad Baradaran, Leila Sadat-Hatamnezhad, Siamak Sandoghchian Shotorbani
OBJECTIVES: High Mobility Group Box1 (HMGB1) is a nonhistone, DNA-binding protein that serves a crucial role in regulating gene transcription and is involved in a variety of proinflammatory, extracellular activities. The aim of this study was to explore whether HMGB1 stimulation can up-regulate the expression of Toll-like Receptor 2 (TLR2) and Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) on macrophages from pulpitis and to clarify the subsequent events involving Th17 cells and Th17 cell-associated cytokine changes...
February 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289590/susceptibility-to-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-correlation-with-variants-of-cyp1a1-mspi-gstt1-gstm1-aldh2-ec-sod-and-lifestyle-factors
#19
T-T Dong, L-J Wang, L-Z Liu, S-N Ma
In order to investigate the association between polymorphisms in genes encoding metabolizing enzymes (CYP1A1-MspI, EC-SOD (extracellular superoxide dismutase), GSTT1, GSTM1, ALDH2), cigarette and alcohol consumption, and the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma, we conducted a prospective case-control study comprised of 750 individuals with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and 750 healthy individuals. Data about smoking and drinking habits were collected along with other demographic and clinical information...
December 1, 2016: Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics: BJMG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287705/aptasensor-with-expanded-nucleotide-using-dna-nanotetrahedra-for-electrochemical-detection-of-cancerous-exosomes
#20
Sai Wang, Liqin Zhang, Shuo Wan, Sena Cansiz, Cheng Cui, Yuan Liu, Ren Cai, Chengyi Hong, I-Ting Teng, Muling Shi, Yuan Wu, Yiyang Dong, Weihong Tan
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles (50-100 nm) circulating in biofluids as intercellular signal transmitters. Although the potential of cancerous exosomes as tumor biomarkers is promising, sensitive and rapid detection of exosomes remains challenging. Herein, we combined the strengths of advanced aptamer technology, DNA-based nanostructure, and portable electrochemical devices to develop a nanotetrahedron (NTH)-assisted aptasensor for direct capture and detection of hepatocellular exosomes. The oriented immobilization of aptamers significantly improved the accessibility of an artificial nucleobase-containing aptamer to suspended exosomes, and the NTH-assisted aptasensor could detect exosomes with 100-fold higher sensitivity when compared to the single-stranded aptamer-functionalized aptasensor...
March 20, 2017: ACS Nano
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