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Extracellular DNA

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230970/the-dnabii-family-of-proteins-is-comprised-of-the-only-nucleoid-associated-proteins-required-for-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-biofilm-structure
#1
Aishwarya Devaraj, John Buzzo, Christopher J Rocco, Lauren O Bakaletz, Steven D Goodman
Biofilms play a central role in the pathobiology of otitis media (OM), bronchitis, sinusitis, conjunctivitis, and pneumonia caused by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI). Our previous studies show that extracellular DNA (eDNA) and DNABII proteins are essential components of biofilms formed by NTHI. The DNABII protein family includes integration host factor (IHF) and the histone-like protein HU and plays a central role in NTHI biofilm structural integrity. We demonstrated that immunological targeting of these proteins during NTHI-induced experimental OM in a chinchilla model caused rapid clearance of biofilms from the middle ear...
December 12, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230023/pharmacogenetics-predictors-of-methylphenidate-efficacy-in-childhood-adhd
#2
N M Myer, J R Boland, S V Faraone
Stimulant medication has long been effective in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is currently the first-line pharmacological treatment for children. Both methylphenidate and amphetamine modulate extracellular catecholamine levels through interaction with dopaminergic, adrenergic and serotonergic system components; it is therefore likely that catecholaminergic molecular components influence the effects of ADHD treatment. Using meta-analysis, we sought to identify predictors of pharmacotherapy to further the clinical implementation of personalized medicine...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229995/lysyl-oxidase-like-3-is-required-for-melanoma-cell-survival-by-maintaining-genomic-stability
#3
Patricia G Santamaría, Alfredo Floristán, Bárbara Fontanals-Cirera, Alberto Vázquez-Naharro, Vanesa Santos, Saleta Morales, Lourdes Yuste, Héctor Peinado, Antonio García-Gómez, Francisco Portillo, Eva Hernando, Amparo Cano
Lysyl oxidase-like 3 (LOXL3) is a member of the lysyl oxidase family comprising multifunctional enzymes with depicted roles in extracellular matrix maturation, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. In silico expression analyses followed by experimental validation in a comprehensive cohort of human cell lines revealed a significant upregulation of LOXL3 in human melanoma. We show that LOXL3 silencing impairs cell proliferation and triggers apoptosis in various melanoma cell lines. Further supporting a pro-oncogenic role in melanoma, LOXL3 favors tumor growth in vivo and cooperates with oncogenic BRAF in melanocyte transformation...
December 11, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228978/asiatic-acid-attenuates-methamphetamine-induced-neuroinflammation-and-neurotoxicity-through-blocking-of-nf-kb-stat3-erk-and-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis-pathway
#4
Ji-Hyun Park, Young Ho Seo, Jung-Hee Jang, Chul-Ho Jeong, Sooyeun Lee, Byoungduck Park
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (METH) is a commonly abused drug that may result in neurotoxic effects. Recent studies have suggested that involvement of neuroinflammatory processes in brain dysfunction is induced by misuse of this drug. However, the mechanism underlying METH-induced inflammation and neurotoxicity in neurons is still unclear. In this study, we investigated whether asiatic acid (AA) effected METH-mediated neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity in dopaminergic neuronal cells. And we further determined whether the effect involved in the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228300/dna-synthesis-by-fragment-assembly-using-extra-cellular-dna-delivered-by-artificial-controlled-horizontal-transfer
#5
Shinya Kaneko, Hiromi Fukushima, Misako Nakahama, Satomi Asano, Yasumasa Miyazaki, Yasunori Aizawa, Mitsuhiro Itaya
DNA synthesis in the Bacillus subtilis cells has become possible using extra-cellular DNA. Generally, purified DNAs in a test tube have been required to introduce into the host cells for molecular cloning technology in the laboratory. We have developed a cell lysis technique for natural transformation using stable extra-cellular plasmid DNAs, in which the extra-cellular plasmid DNAs are released from lysed Escherichia coli cells. DNA synthesis then proceeds by fragment assembly using the stable extracellular DNAs, without biochemical purification...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228221/oncogenic-potential-of-hepatitis-b-virus-subgenotype-d1-surpasses-d3-significance-in-the-development-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
Somenath Datta, Debanjali Dasgupta, Alip Ghosh, Suchandrima Ghosh, Alak Manna, Simanti Datta, Mitali Chatterjee, Abhijit Chowdhury, Soma Banerjee
Despite widespread distribution of HBV-genotype D, the clinical implications of its 9 subgenotypes (D1-D9) have not been well documented. Here, we have investigated the impact of two major circulating HBV/D-subgenotypes, D1 and D3 in Eastern India towards pathogenesis of liver disease progression to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBV-subgenotypes were determined using full-length genome sequences of HBV isolates from patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), liver cirrhosis (LC) and HCC. Impact of D1 and D3 on viral lifecycle and disease progression was assessed by several invitro assays...
December 8, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223730/characterization-of-a-new-decellularized-bovine-pericardial-biological-mesh-structural-and-mechanical-properties
#7
Alessandra Bielli, Roberta Bernardini, Dimitrios Varvaras, Piero Rossi, Giancarlo Di Blasi, Giuseppe Petrella, Oreste Claudio Buonomo, Maurizio Mattei, Augusto Orlandi
Implants made from naturally-derived biomaterials, also called biological meshes or biomeshes, typically derive from decellularized extracellular matrix of either animal or human tissue. Biomeshes have many biomedical applications such as ligament repair, bone and cartilage regeneration and soft tissue replacement. Bovine collagen is one of the most widely used and abundantly available xenogenic materials. In particular, bovine pericardium is widely used as extracellular matrix bioprosthetic tissue. The efficiency of a pericardial mesh to function as scaffold depends on the quality of the decellularization protocol used...
December 5, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223704/decellularized-heart-ecm-hydrogel-using-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-for-improved-angiogenesis
#8
Yoojin Seo, Youngmee Jung, Soo Hyun Kim
Initial angiogenesis within the first 3 days is critical for healing ischemic diseases such as myocardial infarction. Recently, decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) has been reported to provide tissue-derived ECM components and can be used as a scaffold for cell delivery for angiogenesis in tissue engineering. Decellularization by various detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and triton X-100 can remove the cell nuclei in tissue organs. However, this leads to ECM structure denaturation, decreased presence of various ECM proteins and cytokines, and loss of mechanical properties...
December 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223141/molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-choline-transporter-like-proteins-in-esophageal-cancer-cells-and-potential-therapeutic-targets
#9
Fumiaki Nagashima, Ryohta Nishiyama, Beniko Iwao, Yuiko Kawai, Chikanao Ishii, Tsuyoshi Yamanaka, Hiroyuki Uchino, Masato Inazu
In this study, we examined the molecular and functional characterization of choline uptake in the human esophageal cancer cells. In addition, we examined the influence of various drugs on the transport of [3H]choline, and explored the possible correlation between the inhibition of choline uptake and apoptotic cell death. We found that both choline transporter-like protein 1 (CTL1) and CTL2 mRNAs and proteins were highly expressed in esophageal cancer cell lines (KYSE series). CTL1 and CTL2 were located in the plasma membrane and mitochondria, respectively...
December 8, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222696/thrombomodulin-favors-leukocyte-microvesicle-fibrinolytic-activity-reduces-netosis-and-prevents-septic-shock-induced-coagulopathy-in-rats
#10
Julie Helms, Raphaël Clere-Jehl, Elsa Bianchini, Pierrick Le Borgne, Mélanie Burban, Fatiha Zobairi, Jean-Luc Diehl, Lelia Grunebaum, Florence Toti, Ferhat Meziani, Delphine Borgel
BACKGROUND: Septic shock-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation is responsible for increased occurrence of multiple organ dysfunction and mortality. Immunothrombosis-induced coagulopathy may contribute to hypercoagulability. We aimed at determining whether recombinant human thrombomodulin (rhTM) could control exaggerated immunothrombosis by studying procoagulant responses, fibrinolysis activity borne by microvesicles (MVs) and NETosis in septic shock. METHODS: In a septic shock model after a cecal ligation and puncture-induced peritonitis (H0), rats were treated with rhTM or a placebo at H18, resuscitated and monitored during 4 h...
December 8, 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222162/dual-inhibition-of-pik3c3-and-fgfr-as-a-new-therapeutic-approach-to-treat-bladder-cancer
#11
Chun-Han Chen, C Changou, Tsung-Han Hsieh, Yu-Ching Lee, Cheng-Ying Chu, Kai-Cheng Hsu, Hao-Ching Wang, Yu-Chen Lin, Yan-Ni Lo, Yun-Ru Liu, Jing-Ping Liou, Yun Yen
PURPOSE: MPT0L145 has been developed as a FGFR inhibitor exhibiting significant anti-bladder cancer activity in vitro and in vivo via promoting autophagy-dependent cell death. Here, we aim to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Autophagy flux, morphology and intracellular organelles were evaluated by western blotting, transmission electron microscope and fluorescence microscope. Molecular docking, surface plasmon resonance assay were performed to identify drug-protein interaction...
December 8, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222068/foetoplacental-communication-via-extracellular-vesicles-in-normal-pregnancy-and-preeclampsia
#12
REVIEW
Delia I Chiarello, Rocío Salsoso, Fernando Toledo, Alfonso Mate, Carmen M Vázquez, Luis Sobrevia
Intercellular communication is a critical process in biological mechanisms. During pregnancy foetoplacental tissues release a heterogeneous group of extracellular vesicles (EVs) that include exosomes, microvesicles, apoptotic bodies, and syncytial nuclear aggregates. These vesicles contain a complex cargo (proteins, DNA, mRNA transcripts, microRNAs, noncoding RNA, lipids, and other molecules) that actively participate in the maternal-foetal communication by modulating different processes during gestation for a successful foetal development...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216539/influence-of-extracellular-environment-on-the-motility-and-structural-properties-of-spermatozoa-collected-from-hormonally-stimulated-panamanian-golden-frog-atelopus-zeteki
#13
Gina Della Togna, Brian Gratwicke, Matthew Evans, Lauren Augustine, Han Chia, Ed Bronikowski, James B Murphy, Pierre Comizzoli
A better understanding of the factors influencing the biology of amphibian spermatozoa after release from the testis is a prerequisite to the development of sperm preservation methods. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of extracellular conditions (exposure to water and different temperatures) over time on the sperm motility and structural properties (including morphology and DNA integrity) collected from hormonally stimulated Atelopus zeteki. Following intraperitoneal injection of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (des-Gly10, D-Ala6, Pro-NHEt9 GnRH; 4 μg/g of body weight), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, 10 IU/gbw), or Amphiplex™ (0...
November 29, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216511/architecture-and-physicochemical-characterization-of-bacillus-biofilm-as-a-potential-enzyme-immobilization-factory
#14
C M Romero, P V Martorell, A Gómez López, C G Nieto Peñalver, S Chaves, M Mechetti
Biocatalysis for industrial application is based on the use of enzymes to perform complex transformations. However, these systems have some disadvantage related to the costs of the biocatalyst. In this work, an alternative strategy for producing green immobilized biocatalysts based on biofilm was developed.A study of the rheological behavior of the biofilm from Bacillus sp. Mcn4, as well as the determination of its composition, was carried out. The dynamic rheological measurements, viscosity (G") and elasticity (G') module, showed that the biofilm presents appreciable elastic components, which is a recognized property for enzymes immobilization...
November 23, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215157/knockdown-of-the-transcript-of-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-in-the-brain-modulated-hypothalamic-neuropeptide-mediated-appetite-control-in-amphetamine-treated-rats
#15
Ching-Han Yu, Yih-Shou Hsieh, Pei-Ni Chen, Jeng-Rung Chen, Dong-Yih Kuo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Amphetamine (AMPH) is a releaser of dopamine stored in synaptic terminals, which can suppress appetite by changing the expression levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the hypothalamus. This study explored whether extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) were involved in appetite control mediated by cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), NPY and POMC in AMPH-treated rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Rats were given AMPH for four days and changes in feeding behavior and expression levels of pERK, pCREB, NPY and melanocortin receptor 3 (MC3R) were examined and compared...
December 7, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215015/malaria-parasite-dna-harbouring-vesicles-activate-cytosolic-immune-sensors
#16
Xavier Sisquella, Yifat Ofir-Birin, Matthew A Pimentel, Lesley Cheng, Paula Abou Karam, Natália G Sampaio, Jocelyn Sietsma Penington, Dympna Connolly, Tal Giladi, Benjamin J Scicluna, Robyn A Sharples, Andreea Waltmann, Dror Avni, Eli Schwartz, Louis Schofield, Ziv Porat, Diana S Hansen, Anthony T Papenfuss, Emily M Eriksson, Motti Gerlic, Andrew F Hill, Andrew G Bowie, Neta Regev-Rudzki
STING is an innate immune cytosolic adaptor for DNA sensors that engage malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum) or other pathogen DNA. As P. falciparum infects red blood cells and not leukocytes, how parasite DNA reaches such host cytosolic DNA sensors in immune cells is unclear. Here we show that malaria parasites inside red blood cells can engage host cytosolic innate immune cell receptors from a distance by secreting extracellular vesicles (EV) containing parasitic small RNA and genomic DNA. Upon internalization of DNA-harboring EVs by human monocytes, P...
December 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214674/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-plasma-from-dogs-with-immune-mediated-hemolytic-anemia
#17
C Lawson, S A Smith, M O'Brien, M McMichael
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are part of the innate immune response and are essential in local pathogen control, but are associated with pathological inflammation, organ damage, autoimmunity, and thrombosis. Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) is a pro-inflammatory, prothrombotic disease associated with high mortality. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are a feature of the inflammatory process in dogs with IMHA...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214173/fabrication-and-in-vitro-study-of-tissue-engineered-cartilage-scaffold-derived-from-wharton-s-jelly-extracellular-matrix
#18
Tongguang Xiao, Weimin Guo, Mingxue Chen, Chunxiang Hao, Shuang Gao, Jingxiang Huang, Zhiguo Yuan, Yu Zhang, Mingjie Wang, Penghao Li, Jiang Peng, Aiyuan Wang, Yu Wang, Xiang Sui, Li Zhang, Wenjing Xu, Shibi Lu, Heyong Yin, Jianhua Yang, Shuyun Liu, Quanyi Guo
The scaffold is a key element in cartilage tissue engineering. The components of Wharton's jelly are similar to those of articular cartilage and it also contains some chondrogenic growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factor I and transforming growth factor-β. We fabricated a tissue-engineered cartilage scaffold derived from Wharton's jelly extracellular matrix (WJECM) and compared it with a scaffold derived from articular cartilage ECM (ACECM) using freeze-drying. The results demonstrated that both WJECM and ACECM scaffolds possessed favorable pore sizes and porosities; moreover, they showed good water uptake ratios and compressive moduli...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213277/functional-and-structural-characterization-of-a-receptor-like-kinase-involved-in-germination-and-cell-expansion-in-arabidopsis
#19
Zhen Wu, Shan Liang, Wen Song, Guangzhong Lin, Weiguang Wang, Heqiao Zhang, Zhifu Han, Jijie Chai
Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) are widespread in different plant species and play important roles in growth and development. Germination inhibition is vital for the completion of seed maturation and cell expansion is a fundamental cellular process driving plant growth. Here, we report genetic and structural characterizations of a functionally uncharacterized LRR-RLK, named GRACE (Germination Repression and Cell Expansion receptor-like kinase). Overexpression of GRACE in Arabidopsis exhibited delayed germination, enlarged cotyledons, rosette leaves and stubbier petioles...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211468/visualizing-intercellular-tensile-forces-by-dna-based-membrane-molecular-probes
#20
Bin Zhao, Casey O'Brien, Aruni P K K Karunanayake Mudiyanselage, Ningwei Li, Yousef Bagheri, Rigumula Wu, Yubing Sun, Mingxu You
Mechanical forces play critical roles in collective cell behaviors such as cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. Extensive efforts have been made to measure forces between cells and extracellular matrices. However, force studies at cell-cell junctions remain a challenge. Herein, we reported a novel strategy to construct membrane DNA tension probes to visualize tensile forces at cell junctions. These lipid-modified probes can self-assemble onto cell membranes with high efficiency and stability. Upon experiencing tensile forces generated by neighboring cells, unfolding of the probes leads to a large increase in the fluorescence intensity...
December 6, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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