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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107697/egcg-a-tea-polyphenol-as-a-potential-mitigator-of-hematopoietic-radiation-injury-in-mice
#1
Mrinalini Tiwari, Bhakti Dixit, Suhel Parvez, Paban K Agrawala
Agents capable of providing protection, mitigation or therapy against radiation injuries have long been of interest of radiation biologists owing to the ever expanding application of radiation in our day to day life despite the well reported ill effects of exposure. The current study investigates radiomitigating potential of EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate), a tea polyphenol with known DNMT inhibitory property, in C57 Bl/6 mice model. Treatment with 0.1833mg/kg body weight EGCG, 1.5h post-irradiation to lethally whole body irradiated mice rendered 45% survival for 30days and also helped restoring the body weight of the animals...
January 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103323/the-complete-genome-sequence-of-a-second-distinct-betabaculovirus-from-the-true-armyworm-mythimna-unipuncta
#2
Robert L Harrison, Daniel L Rowley, Joseph Mowery, Gary R Bauchan, David A Theilmann, George F Rohrmann, Martin A Erlandson
The betabaculovirus originally called Pseudaletia (Mythimna) sp. granulovirus #8 (MyspGV#8) was examined by electron microscopy, host barcoding PCR, and determination of the nucleotide sequence of its genome. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the occlusion bodies of MyspGV#8 possessed the characteristic size range and morphology of betabaculovirus granules. Barcoding PCR using cytochrome oxidase I primers with DNA from the MyspGV#8 collection sample confirmed that it had been isolated from the true armyworm, Mythimna unipuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and therefore was renamed MyunGV#8...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101160/facile-mechanical-shaking-method-is-an-improved-isolation-approach-for-islet-preparation-and-transplantation
#3
Nina Yin, Tao Chen, Yuling Yu, Yongming Han, Fei Yan, Zhou Zheng, Zebin Chen
Successful islet isolation is crucial for islet transplantation and cell treatment for type 1 diabetes. Current isolation methods are able to obtain 500-1,000 islets per rat, which results in a waste of ≥50% of total islets. In the present study, a facile mechanical shaking method for improving islet yield (up to 1,500 per rat) was developed and summarized, which was demonstrated to be more effective than the existing well-established stationary method. The present results showed that isolated islets have a maximum yield of 1,326±152 when shaking for 15 min for the fully-cannulated pancreas...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090686/effectively-enhancing-cytotoxic-and-apoptotic-effects-of-alpha-momorcharin-by-integrating-a-heparin-binding-peptide
#4
Meng-Jie Tan, Xue-Wei Cao, Peng-Fei Li, Yi-Zhou Zhai, Yu Zhou, Ye-Jun Liu, Jian Zhao, Fu-Jun Wang
Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC), a type I ribosome inactivating protein, has attracted a great deal attention because of its antitumor activity. However, the cytotoxicity of α-MMC is limited due to insufficient cellular internalization in cancer cells. To enhance the cytotoxicity of α-MMC, a heparin-binding domain derived from HB-EGF (named HBP) was used as a cell-penetrating peptide and fused to the C-terminus of α-MMC. This novel α-MMC-HBP fusion protein was expressed and purified with a Ni(2+) -resin. The N-glycosidase activity and DNase activity assay indicated that the introduction of HBP did not interfere with the intrinsic bioactivities of α-MMC...
January 16, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088361/purification-and-characterisation-of-dsrna-using-ion-pair-reverse-phase-chromatography-and-mass-spectrometry
#5
Alison O Nwokeoji, An-Wen Kung, Peter M Kilby, David E Portwood, Mark J Dickman
RNA interference has provided valuable insight into a wide range of biological systems and is a powerful tool for the analysis of gene function. The exploitation of this pathway to block the expression of specific gene targets holds considerable promise for the development of novel RNAi-based insect management strategies. In addition, there are a wide number of future potential applications of RNAi to control agricultural insect pests as well as its use for prevention of diseases in beneficial insects. The potential to synthesise large quantities of dsRNA by in-vitro transcription or in bacterial systems for RNA interference applications has generated significant demand for the development and application of high throughput analytical tools for the rapid extraction, purification and analysis of dsRNA...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081204/deletion-of-ssna-attenuates-the-pathogenicity-of-streptococcus-suis-and-confers-protection-against-serovar-2-strain-challenge
#6
Miao Li, Ru-Jian Cai, Chun-Ling Li, Shuai Song, Yan Li, Zhi-Yong Jiang, Dong-Xia Yang
Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is a major porcine and human pathogen which causes arthritis, meningitis, and septicemia. Streptococcus suis nuclease A (SsnA) is a recently discovered deoxyribonuclease (DNase), which has been demonstrated to contribute to escape killing in neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). To further determine the effects of ssnA on virulence, the ssnA deletion mutant (ΔssnA) and its complemented strain (C-ΔssnA) were constructed. The ability of ΔssnA mutant to interact with human laryngeal epithelial cell (Hep-2) was evaluated and it exhibited dramatically decreased ability to adhere to and invade Hep-2 cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079399/safety-and-efficacy-of-tissue-plasminogen-activator-tpa-and-deoxyribonuclease-dnase-for-complicated-pleural-effusions-secondary-to-abdominal-pathology
#7
Adnan Majid, Sebastian Ochoa, Sumit Chatterji, Sebastian Fernandez-Bussy, Fayez Kheir, Estefania Rivera, George Cheng, Erik Folch
RATIONALE: Exudative pleural effusions may arise secondary to inflammation of intra-abdominal structures. Pleural space loculations can complicate these effusions, preventing adequate chest tube drainage and leading to consideration of surgical intervention. Previous studies have demonstrated that intrapleural administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) combined with human recombinant deoxyribonuclease (DNase) can improve fluid drainage and reduce surgery for patients with loculated parapneumonic effusions; however, the efficacy of this treatment has not been evaluated for complicated pleural effusions attributed to intraabdominal inflammation...
January 12, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077088/integrated-rna-seq-and-dnase-seq-analyses-identify-phenotype-specific-bmp4-signaling-in-breast-cancer
#8
M Ampuja, T Rantapero, A Rodriguez-Martinez, M Palmroth, E L Alarmo, M Nykter, A Kallioniemi
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) plays an important role in cancer pathogenesis. In breast cancer, it reduces proliferation and increases migration in a cell line-dependent manner. To characterize the transcriptional mediators of these phenotypes, we performed RNA-seq and DNase-seq analyses after BMP4 treatment in MDA-MB-231 and T-47D breast cancer cells that respond to BMP4 with enhanced migration and decreased cell growth, respectively. RESULTS: The RNA-seq data revealed gene expression changes that were consistent with the in vitro phenotypes of the cell lines, particularly in MDA-MB-231, where migration-related processes were enriched...
January 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073784/platelets-and-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-collaborate-to-promote-intravascular-coagulation-during-sepsis-in-mice
#9
Braedon McDonald, Rachelle P Davis, Seok-Joo Kim, Mandy Tse, Charles T Esmon, Elzbieta Kolaczkowska, Craig N Jenne
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs; webs of DNA coated in anti-microbial proteins) are released into the vasculature during sepsis where they contribute to host defense, but also cause tissue damage and organ dysfunction. Various components of NETs have also been implicated as activators of coagulation. Using multi-color confocal intravital microscopy in mouse models of sepsis, we observed profound platelet aggregation, thrombin activation, and fibrin clot formation within (and downstream of) NETs in vivo...
January 10, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060574/the-hcp-proteins-fused-with-diverse-extended-toxin-domains-represent-a-novel-pattern-of-antibacterial-effectors-in-type-vi-secretion-systems
#10
Jiale Ma, Zihao Pan, Jinhu Huang, Min Sun, Chengping Lu, Huochun Yao
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a widespread molecular weapon deployed by many bacterial species to target eukaryotic host cells or rival bacteria. Using a dynamic injection mechanism, diverse effectors can be delivered by T6SS directly into recipient cells. Here, we report a new family of T6SS effectors encoded by extended Hcps carrying diverse toxin domains. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that these Hcps with C-terminal extension toxins, designated as Hcp-ET, exist widely in the Enterobacteriaceae...
January 6, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057466/expression-of-the-alae-gene-is-positively-regulated-by-the-global-regulator-lrp-in-response-to-intracellular-accumulation-of-l-alanine-in-escherichia-coli
#11
Kohei Ihara, Kazuki Sato, Hatsuhiro Hori, Yumiko Makino, Shuji Sigenobu, Tasuke Ando, Emiko Isogai, Hiroshi Yoneyama
The alaE gene in Escherichia coli encodes an l-alanine exporter that catalyzes the active export of l-alanine using proton electrochemical potential. In our previous study, alaE expression was shown to increase in the presence of l-alanyl-l-alanine (Ala-Ala). In this study, the global regulator leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) was identified as an activator of the alaE gene. A promoter less β-galactosidase gene was fused to an alaE upstream region (240 nucleotides). Cells that were lacZ-deficient and harbored this reporter plasmid showed significant induction of β-galactosidase activity (approximately 17-fold) in the presence of 6 mM l-alanine, l-leucine, and Ala-Ala...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056971/inhibition-of-epstein-barr-virus-reactivation-by-the-flavonoid-apigenin
#12
Chung-Chun Wu, Chih-Yeu Fang, Yu-Jhen Cheng, Hui-Yu Hsu, Sheng-Ping Chou, Sheng-Yen Huang, Ching-Hwa Tsai, Jen-Yang Chen
BACKGROUND: Lytic reactivation of EBV has been reported to play an important role in human diseases, including NPC carcinogenesis. Inhibition of EBV reactivation is considered to be of great benefit in the treatment of virus-associated diseases. For this purpose, we screened for inhibitory compounds and found that apigenin, a flavonoid, seemed to have the ability to inhibit EBV reactivation. METHODS: We performed western blotting, immunofluorescence and luciferase analyses to determine whether apigenin has anti-EBV activity...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056831/nasal-carriage-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-among-health-care-workers-at-al-shifa-hospital-in-gaza-strip
#13
Nabil Abdullah El Aila, Nahed Ali Al Laham, Basim Mohammad Ayesh
BACKGROUND: Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among hospital personnel is a common cause of hospital acquired infections. Emergence of drug resistant strains especially methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a serious problem in hospital environment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage rate of S. aureus and MRSA among Health Care Workers (HCWs) at Al Shifa Hospital, the major hospital in Gaza Strip. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted on 200 HCWs...
January 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053193/promyelocytic-extracellular-chromatin-exacerbates-coagulation-and-fibrinolysis-in-acute-promyelocytic-leukemia
#14
Muhua Cao, Tao Li, Zhangxiu He, Lixiu Wang, Xiaoyan Yang, Yan Kou, Lili Zou, Xue Dong, Valerie A Novakovic, Yayan Bi, Junjie Kou, Bo Yu, Shaohong Fang, Jinghua Wang, Jin Zhou, Jialan Shi
Despite routine treatment of unselected acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), early death due to hemorrhage remains unacceptably common and the mechanism underlying this complication remains elusive. We have recently demonstrated that APL cells undergo a novel cell death program, termed ETosis, which involves release of extracellular chromatin. However, the role of promyelocytic extracellular chromatin in APL-associated coagulation remains unclear. Our objectives were to identify the novel role of ATRA-promoted extracellular chromatin in inducing a hypercoagulable and hyperfibrinolytic state in APL and to evaluate its interaction with fibrin and endothelial cells (ECs)...
January 4, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049628/initiation-of-mtdna-transcription-is-followed-by-pausing-and-diverge-across-human-cell-types-and-during-evolution
#15
Amit Blumberg, Edward J Rice, Anshul Kundaje, Charles G Danko, Dan Mishmar
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes are long known to be co-transcribed in polycistrones, yet it remains impossible to study nascent mtDNA transcripts quantitatively in vivo using existing tools. To this end we used deep sequencing (GRO-seq and PRO-seq) and analyzed nascent mtDNA-encoded RNA transcripts in diverse human cell lines and metazoan organisms. Surprisingly, accurate detection of human mtDNA transcription initiation sites (TIS) in the heavy and light strands revealed a novel conserved transcription pausing site near the light strand TIS...
January 3, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049059/arsenic-induced-genotoxic-responses-and-their-amelioration-by-diphenylene-iodonium-24-epibrassinolide-and-proline-in-glycine-max-l
#16
Vibhuti Chandrakar, Bhumika Yadu, Rakesh Kumar Meena, Amit Dubey, S Keshavkant
Presence of the toxic metalloid, "arsenic (As)" is ubiquitous in the environment especially in the soil and water. Its excess availability in the soil retards growth and metabolism of plants via (a) slowing down the cell division/elongation, (b) overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), (c) modulation of antioxidant enzymes, and (d) alteration of DNA profile/genomic template stability (GTS). In the current study, diphenylene iodonium (DPI), 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) and proline (Pro) were used to analyze their roles in eliminating the adverse effects of As...
December 26, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046165/proteomic-analysis-of-seminal-plasma-and-sperm-cells-and-their-associations-with-semen-freezability-in-guzerat-bulls
#17
J P A Rego, J M Martins, C A Wolf, M van Tilburg, F Moreno, A C Monteiro-Moreira, R A Moreira, D O Santos, A A Moura
The objective of the present study was to describe the relationship of seminal plasma and total sperm cell proteins with the semen freezability parameters of Guzerat bulls. Thirteen bulls were subjected to breeding soundness evaluation. Semen samples were collected, cryopreserved, and then post-thawing sperm kinetics were assessed, where high ( = 7) and low ( = 6) freezability groups were defined. Seminal plasma and total sperm proteins from the 2 groups were separated by 2-dimensional SDS-PAGE, and spots were identified by mass spectrometry...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045905/human-leukocytes-kill-brugia-malayi-microfilariae-independently-of-dna-based-extracellular-trap-release
#18
Ciaran J McCoy, Barbara J Reaves, Steeve Giguère, Ruby Coates, Balázs Rada, Adrian J Wolstenholme
BACKGROUND: Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori infect over 100 million people worldwide and are the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis. Some parasite carriers are amicrofilaremic whilst others facilitate mosquito-based disease transmission through blood-circulating microfilariae (Mf). Recent findings, obtained largely from animal model systems, suggest that polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) contribute to parasitic nematode-directed type 2 immune responses. When exposed to certain pathogens PMNs release extracellular traps (NETs) in the form of chromatin loaded with various antimicrobial molecules and proteases...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040167/genetic-diversity-safety-and-technological-characterization-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-artisanal-pico-cheese
#19
M F P Domingos-Lopes, C Stanton, P R Ross, M L E Dapkevicius, C C G Silva
A total of 114 lactic acid bacteria were isolated at one and 21 days of ripening from a traditional raw cow's milk cheese without the addition of starter culture, produced by three artisanal cheese-makers in Azores Island (Pico, Portugal). Identification to species and strain level was accomplished by16S rRNA gene and PFGE analysis. Carbohydrate utilization profiles were obtained with the relevant API kits. Isolates were evaluated according to safety and technological criteria. The most frequently observed genus identified by 16S rRNA sequencing analysis was Enterococcus, whereas API system mostly identified Lactobacillus...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034522/comparison-of-two-methodologies-for-the-enrichment-of-mononuclear-cells-from-thawed-cord-blood-products-the-automated-sepax-system-versus-the-manual-ficoll-method
#20
Indreshpal Kaur, Jane M Zulovich, Marissa Gonzalez, Kara M McGee, Nirmali Ponweera, Daljit Thandi, Enrique F Alvarez, Kathy Annandale, Frank Flagge, Katayoun Rezvani, Elizabeth Shpall
BACKGROUND AIMS: Umbilical cord blood (CB) is being used as a source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and immune cells to treat many disorders. Because these cells are present in low numbers in CB, investigators have developed strategies to expand HSCs and other immune cells such as natural killer (NK) cells. The initial step in this process is to enrich mononuclear cells (MNCs) while depleting unwanted cells. The manual method of MNC enrichment is routinely used by many centers; however, it is an open system, time-consuming and operator dependent...
December 26, 2016: Cytotherapy
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