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Anshu Babbar, Andreas Itzek, Dietmar H Pieper, D Patric Nitsche-Schmitz
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE), belonging to the group C and G streptococci, are human pathogens reported to cause clinical manifestations similar to infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. To scrutinize the distribution of gene coding for S. pyogenes virulence factors in SDSE, 255 isolates were collected from humans infected with SDSE in Vellore, a region in southern India, with high incidence of SDSE infections. Initial evaluation indicated SDSE isolates comprising of 82.35% group G and 17...
March 12, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Purushottam R Lomate, Bryony C Bonning
Management of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an invasive, agricultural pest in the United States, has presented significant challenges. This polyphagous insect uses both extra-oral and gut-based digestion thwarting protein- or nucleotide-based control strategies. The objective of this study was to biochemically characterize the digestive enzymes (proteases and nucleases) from the saliva, salivary gland and the gut of H. halys. Enzyme profiles for the two tissues and saliva radically differ: The pH optimum for proteases in the gut was six, with cysteine proteases predominant...
March 12, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Lei Gao, Keliang Wu, Zhenbo Liu, Xuelong Yao, Shenli Yuan, Wenrong Tao, Lizhi Yi, Guanling Yu, Zhenzhen Hou, Dongdong Fan, Yong Tian, Jianqiao Liu, Zi-Jiang Chen, Jiang Liu
The dynamics of the chromatin regulatory landscape during human early embryogenesis remains unknown. Using DNase I hypersensitive site (DHS) sequencing, we report that the chromatin accessibility landscape is gradually established during human early embryogenesis. Interestingly, the DHSs with OCT4 binding motifs are enriched at the timing of zygotic genome activation (ZGA) in humans, but not in mice. Consistently, OCT4 contributes to ZGA in humans, but not in mice. We further find that lower CpG promoters usually establish DHSs at later stages...
February 28, 2018: Cell
Junya Zhang, Qianwen Sui, Hui Zhong, Xiaoshan Meng, Ziyue Wang, Yawei Wang, Yuansong Wei
This study investigated the fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during mesophilic (mAD) and thermophilic digestion (tAD) of swine manure through zero valent iron (ZVI), natural zeolite and Dnase addition. Changes of microbial community, intI1, heavy metal resistance genes (MRGs) and virulence factors (VFs) were followed to clarify the influencing factors to ARGs reduction. Results showed that AD could realize ARGs reduction with tAD superior to mAD, and ZVI and natural zeolite could further enhance the reduction, especially for natural zeolite addition at mAD...
March 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Archana Singh, Deepti Jain, Chetna Tyagi, Sujata Singh, Sumit Kumar, Indrakant K Singh
Plants are endowed with an innate immune system, which enables them to protect themselves from pest and pathogen. The participation of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins is one of the most crucial events of inducible plant defense response. Herein, we report the characterization of CaHaPR-4, a Helicoverpa-inducible class II PR-4 protein from chickpea. Bioinformatic analysis of CaHaPR-4 protein indicated the presence of a signal peptide, barwin domain but it lacks the chitin-binding site/hevein domain. The recombinant CaHaPR-4 is bestowed with RNase and bivalent ion-dependent DNase activity...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Katarzyna Talaga, Dalma Odrowąż-Konduracka, Beata Paradowska, Barbara Jagiencarz-Starzec, Zdzisław Wolak, Małgorzata Bulanda, Anna Szczypta
BACKGROUND: In the Małopolska province, the first case of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) occurrence was an outbreak in 2001 caused by strains of the genus E. faecium carrying the vanA operon. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial resistance and the occurrence of virulence determinants among Enterococcus spp. in patients hospitalized in the Małopolska region in 2015. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by disc diffusion and the E test...
January 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
K H Lee, L Cavanaugh, H Leung, F Yan, Z Ahmadi, B H Chong, F Passam
INTRODUCTION: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are networks of extracellular fibres produced from neutrophil DNA with a pathogenic role in infection, thrombosis and other conditions. Reliable assays for measuring NETs are desirable as novel treatments targeting NETs are being explored for the treatment of these conditions. We compare a whole blood flow cytometry method with serum assays to measure NETs-associated markers in patients with sepsis and thrombosis. METHODS: Patients with deep venous thrombosis (n = 25), sepsis (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 23) were included in the study...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
Agnieszka Sałamaszyńska-Guz, Ilona Stefańska, Paweł Bącal, Marian Binek
A total of 43 Campylobacter isolates from poultry, cattle and pigs were investigated for their ability to form biofilm. The studied strains were also screened for motility, adhesion and invasion of Caco-2 cells as well as extracellular DNase activity. The relation between biofilm formation and selected phenotypes was examined. Biofilm formation by the tested strains was found as irrespective from their motility and not associated with colonization abilities of human Caco-2 cells. Results of our study show that Campylobacter isolates from various animal sources are able to form biofilm and invade human Caco-2 cells in vitro...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Yongzhi Wang, Lingtao Luo, Oscar Ö Braun, Johannes Westman, Raed Madhi, Heiko Herwald, Matthias Mörgelin, Henrik Thorlacius
Abdominal sepsis is associated with dysfunctional hemostasis. Thrombin generation (TG) is a rate-limiting step in systemic coagulation. Neutrophils can expell neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and/or microparticles (MPs) although their role in pathological coagulation remains elusive. Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced TG in vivo was reflected by a reduced capacity of plasma from septic animals to generate thrombin. Depletion of neutrophils increased TG in plasma from CLP mice. Sepsis was associated with increased histone 3 citrullination in neutrophils and plasma levels of cell-free DNA and DNA-histone complexes and administration of DNAse not only eliminated NET formation but also elevated TG in sepsis...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gulnaz Vafina, Elmira Zainutdinova, Emil Bulatov, Maria N Filimonova
One of the approaches to effective airway cleansing is the degradation of DNA into smaller fragments. For this purpose Pulmozyme® is used with high efficacy because it contains recombinant DNase I as its active component. The aim of the study was to comparatively analyze DNase activity of Pulmozyme® and the nuclease from gram-negative bacteria Serratia marcescens , because at optimal conditions the catalytic efficiency of the nuclease is much higher than the efficiency of DNase I. Highly polymerized DNA and purulent-mucous sputum were used as substrates...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Ken-Ichi Okuda, Ryuichi Nagahori, Satomi Yamada, Shinya Sugimoto, Chikara Sato, Mari Sato, Tadayuki Iwase, Kazuhiro Hashimoto, Yoshimitsu Mizunoe
The present study aimed to understand the biofilm formation mechanism of Propionibacterium acnes by analyzing the components and structure of the biofilms. P. acnes strains were isolated from the surface of explanted cardiac pacemaker devices that exhibited no clinical signs of infection. Culture tests using a simple stamp culture method (pressing pacemakers against the surface of agar plates) revealed frequent P. acnes colonization on the surface of cardiac pacemaker devices. P . acnes was isolated from 7/31 devices, and the isolates were categorized by multilocus sequence typing into five different sequence types (STs): ST4 (JK18...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shan-Shan Li, Qing-Ying Kong, Miao Zhang, Fan Yang, Bin Kang, Jing-Juan Xu, Hong-Yuan Chen
The small absorption cross sections of most molecules led to the low sensitivity of traditional optical absorption spectroscopy. This obstacle might be overcome by applying the near-field plasmon resonance energy transfer (PRET) between plasmonic nanoparticle and surrounding molecules. In this work, we utilized PRET-based spectroscopy on single gold nanostars to study the specific biomolecule recognition and enzyme kinetics choosing biotin-SA pair and DNase I as models. By analyzing the changes of absorption spectra for black hole quencher 3 (BHQ3), derived from spectra difference, we explored the kinetics of specific biomolecule recognition and enzyme digestion in different physiological environment, and we found that the viscosities of media and the sizes of molecules play vital role in biomolecular recognition and enzyme digestion...
March 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Zhaowei Chen, Zhenzhen Wang, Jinsong Ren, Xiaogang Qu
Bacterial infection continues to be a growing global health problem with the most widely accepted treatment paradigms restricted to antibiotics. However, antibiotics overuse and misuse have triggered increased multidrug resistance, frustrating the therapeutic outcomes and leading to higher mortalities. Even worse, the tendency of bacteria to form biofilms on living and nonliving surfaces further increases the difficulty in confronting bacteria because the extracellular matrix can act as a robust barrier to prevent the penetration of antibiotics and resist environmental stress...
February 28, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Shenghao Xu, Yongyin Nie, Liping Jiang, Jun Wang, Guiyun Xu, Wei Wang, Xiliang Luo
A novel fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based platform using polydopamine nanospheres (PDANSs) as energy acceptors and dual colored Au NCs as energy donors for simultaneous detection of multiple tumor-related microRNAs with DNase-I-assisted target recycling amplification was developed for the first time. On the basis of monitoring the change of the recovered fluorescence intensity at 445 and 575 nm upon the addition of targets miRNA-21 and let-7a, these two microRNAs (miRNAs) can be simultaneously quantitatively detected, with detection limits of 4...
March 2, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Qi Liu, Karl A Hassan, Heather E Ashwood, Hasinika K A H Gamage, Liping Li, Bridget C Mabbutt, Ian T Paulsen
Objectives: To investigate the function of AceR, a putative transcriptional regulator of the chlorhexidine efflux pump gene aceI in Acinetobacter baumannii. Methods: Chlorhexidine susceptibility and chlorhexidine induction of aceI gene expression were determined by MIC and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively, in A. baumannii WT and ΔaceR mutant strains. Recombinant AceR was prepared as both a full-length protein and as a truncated protein, AceR (86-299), i...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Vivek Behera, Perry Evans, Carolyne J Face, Nicole Hamagami, Laavanya Sankaranarayanan, Cheryl A Keller, Belinda Giardine, Kai Tan, Ross C Hardison, Junwei Shi, Gerd A Blobel
Single-nucleotide variants that underlie phenotypic variation can affect chromatin occupancy of transcription factors (TFs). To delineate determinants of in vivo TF binding and chromatin accessibility, we introduce an approach that compares ChIP-seq and DNase-seq data sets from genetically divergent murine erythroid cell lines. The impact of discriminatory single-nucleotide variants on TF ChIP signal enables definition at single base resolution of in vivo binding characteristics of nuclear factors GATA1, TAL1, and CTCF...
February 22, 2018: Nature Communications
Parminder K Ajji, Shailendra P Sonkar, Ken Walder, Munish Puri
Balsamin, a type I ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP), has been shown to inhibit HIV-1 replication at the translation step. Our recent studies have shown that balsamin also possess anti-tumor, antibacterial and DNase-like activity, however, the amount of natural balsamin in Momordica balsamina seeds is limited and preclinical studies require large quantities of pure, bioactive balsamin. Therefore, in this study, we cloned the balsamin gene, expressed it in E. coli BL21(DE3) strain and purified it by nickel affinity chromatography...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Dhivya Thiyagarajan, Hege L Pedersen, Natalya Seredkina, Kjersti D Horvei, Lorena Arranz, Ramon Sonneveld, Tom Nijenhuis, Johan van der Vlag, Ole P Rekvig
Recently we described that endonuclease inactive DNase I translocated into the nucleus in response to increased endogenous IL-1β expression. Here, we demonstrate impact and function of translocated DNase I in tubular cells. Effect of cytokines on expression level and nuclear localisation of DNase I and corresponding levels of Fas receptor (FasR) and IL-1β were determined by confocal microscopy, qPCR and western blot analyses, in presence or absence of siRNA against IL-1β and DNase I mRNA. Nuclear DNase I bound to the FAS promotor region as determined by chromatin immuno-precipitation analysis...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Ming Lei, Cynthia Quan, Y John Wang, Yung-Hsiang Kao, Christian Schöneich
PURPOSE: Light is known to induce histidine (His) oxidation and His-His crosslinking in proteins. The crosslinking is resulted from the nucleophilic attack of a His to a photooxidized His from another protein. The goal of this work is to understand if covalent buffer adducts on His residues can be generated by light through similar mechanisms in nucleophilic buffers such as Tris and His. METHODS: A model protein (DNase) was buffer exchanged into nucleophilic buffers before light exposure...
February 20, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Hainan Zhao, Wenli Zhang, Lifen Chen, Lei Wang, Alexandre P Marand, Yufeng Wu, Jiming Jiang
Genomic regions free of nucleosomes are hypersensitive to DNase I digestion. These genomic regions are known as DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) and frequently contain cis-regulatory DNA elements. We developed high-resolution genome-wide DHS maps in maize using a modified DNase-seq technique. Maize DHSs exhibit depletion of nucleosomes and low levels of DNA methylation, and are enriched with conserved non-coding sequences (CNSs). We developed a protoplast-based transient transformation assay to validate the potential enhancer and/or promoter functions associated with DHSs...
February 20, 2018: Plant Physiology
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