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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214364/in-situ-analysis-of-bacillus-licheniformis-biofilms-amyloid-like-polymers-and-edna-are-involved-in-the-adherence-and-aggregation-of-the-extracellular-matrix
#1
I Randrianjatovo-Gbalou, P Rouquette, D Lefebvre, E Girbal-Neuhauser, C-E Marcato-Romain
AIMS: This study attempts to determine which exopolymeric substances are involved in the adherence and aggregation of a Bacillus licheniformis biofilm. METHODS AND RESULTS: The involvement of extracellular proteins and eDNA were particularly investigated using DNase and proteinase K treatment. The permeability of the biofilms increased 5-fold after DNase I-treatment. Quantification of the matrix components showed that, whatever the enzyme tested, some eDNA and amyloid-like polymers were removed simultaneously...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210641/atypical-plasmacytic-proliferation-in-a-case-of-c3-glomerulopathy-pathophysiology-demystified
#2
Osama Elfituri, Nathan Aardsma, Suman Setty, Frederick Behm, Kimberly Czech
An 11-year-old Hispanic female underwent evaluation of asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria. The patient denied fever, edema, and gross hematuria. Urinalysis showed mild proteinuria, and a urine microscopic examination revealed red blood cells. Screening tests for glomerulonephritis revealed a low C3 and negative ANA, ASO, DNAse-B, and ANCA. Histological examination of a renal biopsy specimen showed glomeruli with endocapillary proliferation, a predominant C3 deposition in the capillary loops by immunofluorescence, and electron dense deposits in the mesangium, paramesangium, and capillary walls by electron microscopy consistent with a diagnosis of C3 glomerulopathy...
January 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193155/a-comparison-of-reference-based-algorithms-for-correcting-cell-type-heterogeneity-in-epigenome-wide-association-studies
#3
Andrew E Teschendorff, Charles E Breeze, Shijie C Zheng, Stephan Beck
BACKGROUND: Intra-sample cellular heterogeneity presents numerous challenges to the identification of biomarkers in large Epigenome-Wide Association Studies (EWAS). While a number of reference-based deconvolution algorithms have emerged, their potential remains underexplored and a comparative evaluation of these algorithms beyond tissues such as blood is still lacking. RESULTS: Here we present a novel framework for reference-based inference, which leverages cell-type specific DNAse Hypersensitive Site (DHS) information from the NIH Epigenomics Roadmap to construct an improved reference DNA methylation database...
February 13, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185850/an-improved-method-for-the-detection-of-nucleotide-excision-repair-factors-at-local-uv-dna-damage-sites
#4
Ilaria Dutto, Ornella Cazzalini, Lucia Anna Stivala, Ennio Prosperi
Among different DNA repair processes that cells use to face with DNA damage, nucleotide excision repair (NER) is particularly important for the removal of a high variety of lesions, including those generated by some antitumor drugs. A number of factors participating in NER, such as the TFIIH complex and the endonuclease XPG are also involved in basal processes, e.g. transcription. For this reason, localization of these factors at DNA damage sites may be difficult. Here we have applied a mild digestion of chromatin with DNase I to improve the in situ extraction necessary to detect chromatin-bound proteins by immunofluorescence...
January 17, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185196/dual-detection-of-nucleolytic-and-proteolytic-markers-of-lysosomal-cell-death-dnase-ii-type-breaks-and-cathepsin-d
#5
Candace L Minchew, Vladimir V Didenko
Lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes that can degrade proteins and DNA. Leakage of these reactive compounds through a compromised lysosomal membrane causes lysosomal cell death, which can have apoptotic, necrotic, or mixed morphology. Lysosomal cathepsin proteases, such as cathepsin D, and the lysosomal endonuclease, DNase II, have both been implicated in lysosome-related cell death. Here, we present a fluorescence dual-labeling technique for simultaneous visualization of these two markers of lysosomal activity linked to cell death...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177522/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-sequester-circulating-tumor-cells-via-%C3%AE-1-integrin-mediated-interactions
#6
Sara Najmeh, Jonathan Cools-Lartigue, Roni F Rayes, Stephen Gowing, Phil Vourtzoumis, France Bourdeau, Betty Giannias, Julie Berube, Simon Rousseau, Lorenzo E Ferri, Jonathan D Spicer
Despite advances in cancer treatment, metastasis remains today the main cause of cancer death. Local control through complete surgical resection of the primary tumor continues to be a key principle in cancer treatment. However, surgical interventions themselves lead to adverse oncologic outcomes and are associated with significantly increased rates of metastasis. Neutrophils through release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in response to infections were shown to be able to capture circulating cancer cells, and in doing so, support the development of metastatic disease...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176796/depurinized-milk-downregulates-rat-thymus-myd88-akt-p38-function-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-inflammation-caspase-1-activity-but-not-the-endonuclease-pathway-in-vitro-in-vivo-study
#7
Gordana Kocic, Andrej Veljkovic, Hristina Kocic, Miodrag Colic, Dusan Mihajlovic, Katarina Tomovic, Svetlana Stojanovic, Andrija Smelcerovic
The aim of this study was the evaluation of 15 days dietary regimen of depurinized (DP) milk (obtained using our patented technological procedures) or 1.5% fat UHT milk instead of standard chow diet, on rat thymus and bone marrow MyD88/Akt/p38, NF-κB, caspase-1 and endonuclease pathways, in relation to peripheral blood cell composition. To determine whether the reduced mass of the thymus is a consequence of the direct effect of DP/UHT milk on apoptosis of thymocytes, in vitro Annexin-V-FITC/PI assay was performed...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166238/integrin-dependent-cell-adhesion-to-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-through-engagement-of-fibronectin-in-neutrophil-like-cells
#8
Marcello Monti, Francesca Iommelli, Viviana De Rosa, Maria Vincenza Carriero, Roberta Miceli, Rosa Camerlingo, Giovanni Di Minno, Silvana Del Vecchio
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), originally recognized as a host defense mechanism, were reported to promote thrombosis and metastatic dissemination of cancer cells. Here we tested the role of integrins α5β1 and ανβ3 in the adhesion of cancer cells to NETs. Neutrophil-like cells stimulated with calcium ionophore (A23187) were used as a stable source of cell-free NETs-enriched suspensions. Using NETs as an adhesion substrate, two human K562 cell lines, differentially expressing α5β1 and ανβ3 integrins, were subjected to adhesion assays in the presence or absence of DNAse 1, blocking antibodies against α5β1 or ανβ3, alone or in combination with DNAse 1, and Proteinase K...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159794/rifz-amed_0655-is-a-pathway-specific-regulator-for-rifamycin-biosynthesis-in-amycolatopsis-mediterranei
#9
Chen Li, Xinqiang Liu, Chao Lei, Han Yan, Zhihui Shao, Ying Wang, Guoping Zhao, Jin Wang, Xiaoming Ding
: Rifamycin and its derivatives are particularly effective against the pathogenic mycobacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae Although the biosynthetic pathway of rifamycin has been extensively studied in Amycolatopsis mediterranei, little is known about the regulation in rifamycin biosynthesis. Here, an in vivo transposon system was employed to identify genes involved in the regulation of rifamycin production in A. mediterranei U32. Totally, nine rifamycin-defecient mutants were isolated, among which three mutants had the transposon inserted in AMED_0655 (namely rifZ, encoding a LuxR_family regulator)...
February 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158302/host-cell-interactions-of-outer-membrane-vesicle-associated-virulence-factors-of-enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-o157-intracellular-delivery-trafficking-and-mechanisms-of-cell-injury
#10
Martina Bielaszewska, Christian Rüter, Andreas Bauwens, Lilo Greune, Kevin-André Jarosch, Daniel Steil, Wenlan Zhang, Xiaohua He, Roland Lloubes, Angelika Fruth, Kwang Sik Kim, M Alexander Schmidt, Ulrich Dobrindt, Alexander Mellmann, Helge Karch
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are important tools in bacterial virulence but their role in the pathogenesis of infections caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157, the leading cause of life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome, is poorly understood. Using proteomics, electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy, immunoblotting, and bioassays, we investigated OMVs secreted by EHEC O157 clinical isolates for virulence factors cargoes, interactions with pathogenetically relevant human cells, and mechanisms of cell injury...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139247/synthesis-of-novel-morpholine-conjugated-benzophenone-analogues-and-evaluation-of-antagonistic-role-against-neoplastic-development
#11
Mohammed Al-Ghorbani, Prabhu Thirusangu, H D Gurupadaswamy, V Vigneshwaran, Yasser H E Mohammed, B T Prabhakar, Shaukath Ara Khanum
A series of novel 4-benzyl-morpholine-2-carboxylic acid N'-[2-(4-benzoyl-phenoxy)-acetyl]-hydrazide derivatives 8a-j has been synthesized from (4-hydroxy-aryl)-aryl methanones through a multi-step reaction sequence and then evaluated for anti-proliferative activity in vitro against various types of neoplastic cells of mouse and human such as DLA, EAC, MCF-7 and A549 cells. From the cytotoxic studies and structural activity relationship of compounds 8a-j, it is clear that methyl group on the B ring of benzophenone is essential for antiproliferative activity and bromo at ortho position (compound 8b) and methyl at para position (compound 8f) on A ring of benzophenone are significant for extensive anti-mitogenic activity...
January 18, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135772/evidence-for-a-role-of-eosinophils-in-blister-formation-in-bullous-pemphigoid
#12
Elisabeth de Graauw, Cassian Sitaru, Michael Horn, Luca Borradori, Shida Yousefi, Hans-Uwe Simon, Dagmar Simon
BACKGROUND: Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune bullous disease of the skin characterized by subepidermal blister formation due to tissue-bound and circulating autoantibodies to the hemidesmosomal antigens BP180 and BP230. Although eosinophils and their toxic mediators are found abundantly in BP lesions, their role in blister formation has remained unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of eosinophils in the pathogenesis of BP with a specific focus on blister formation and to define conditions inducing dermal-epidermal separation (DES)...
January 30, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132389/an-improved-method-for-identifying-specific-dna-protein-binding-sites-in-vitro
#13
Liangyan Wang, Huizhi Lu, Yunguang Wang, Su Yang, Hong Xu, Kaiying Cheng, Ye Zhao, Bing Tian, Yuejin Hua
Binding of proteins to specific DNA sequences is essential for a variety of cellular processes such as DNA replication, transcription and responses to external stimuli. Chromatin immunoprecipitation is widely used for determining intracellular DNA fragments bound by a specific protein. However, the subsequent specific or accurate DNA-protein-binding sequence is usually determined by DNA footprinting. Here, we report an alternative method for identifying specific sites of DNA-protein-binding (designated SSDP) in vitro...
January 28, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130304/ccpa-and-cody-coordinate-acetate-metabolism-in-streptococcus-mutans
#14
Jeong Nam Kim, Robert A Burne
: In the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans, phosphotransacetylase (Pta) and acetate kinase (Ack) convert pyruvate into acetate with the concomitant generation of ATP. The genes for this pathway are tightly regulated by multiple environmental and intracellular inputs, but the basis for differential expression of the genes for Pta and Ack in S. mutans had not been investigated. Here, we show that inactivation in S. mutans of ccpA or codY reduced the activity of the ackA promoter, whereas a ccpA mutant displayed elevated pta promoter activity...
January 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129394/characterization-of-early-phase-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-urinary-tract-infections
#15
Yanbao Yu, Keehwan Kwon, Tamara Tsitrin, Shiferaw Bekele, Patricia Sikorski, Karen E Nelson, Rembert Pieper
Neutrophils have an important role in the antimicrobial defense and resolution of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Our research suggests that a mechanism known as neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is a defense strategy to combat pathogens that have invaded the urinary tract. A set of human urine specimens with very high neutrophil counts had microscopic evidence of cellular aggregation and lysis. Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase) treatment resulted in disaggregation of such structures, release of DNA fragments and a proteome enriched in histones and azurophilic granule effectors whose quantitative composition was similar to that of previously described in vitro-formed NETs...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128054/purification-and-characterization-of-2s-albumin-from-seeds-of-wrightia-tinctoria-exhibiting-antibacterial-and-dnase-activity
#16
Anchal Sharma, Pramod Kumar, Pooja Kesari, Neetu Chaudhary, Madhusudhanarao Katiki, Manisha Mishra, Pradhyumna Kumar Singh, Bhola R Gurjar, Ashwani Kumar Sharma, Shailly Tomar, Pravindra Kumar
2S albumin is a low-molecular-weight seed storage protein belonging to the prolamin superfamily. In the present work a small 2S albumin (WTA) protein of ~16 kDa has been purified from the seeds of Wrightia tinctoria.The WTA is a heterodimer protein with a small subunit of ~5 kDa and a larger subunit of ~11 kDa bridged together through disulphide bonds. The protein exhibits deoxyribonucleases activity against closed circular pBR322 plasmid DNA and linear BL21 genomic DNA. The protein also showed antibacterial activity against Morexalla catarrhalis...
January 26, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127892/taming-hyperactive-hdnase-i-stable-inducible-expression-of-a-hyperactive-salt-and-actin-resistant-variant-of-human-deoxyribonuclease-i-in-cho-cells
#17
Cynthia Lam, Lydia Santell, Blair Wilson, Mandy Yim, Salina Louie, Danming Tang, David Shaw, Pamela Chan, Robert A Lazarus, Brad Snedecor, Shahram Misaghi
While the most common causes of clonal instability are DNA copy number loss and silencing, toxicity of the expressed protein(s) may also induce clonal instability. Human DNase I (hDNase I) is used therapeutically for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) and may have potential benefit for use in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). hDNase I is an endonuclease that catalyzes degradation of extracellular DNA and is inhibited by both salt and G-actin. Engineered versions of hDNase I, bearing multiple point mutations, which renders them Hyperactive, Salt- and Actin-Resistant (HSAR-hDNase I) have been developed previously...
January 27, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123633/different-virulence-of-candida-albicans-is-attributed-to-the-ability-of-escape-from-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-by-secretion-of-dnase
#18
Xiaohuan Zhang, Sainan Zhao, Luping Sun, Wenqing Li, Qiao Wei, Robert B Ashman, Yan Hu
Candida albicans is an important opportunistic fungus causing both disseminated and local infections. The discovery of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) has presented a new strategy to kill microorganisms in host's innate immune response. Although it has been reported that NETs can trap and kill both yeast and hyphal forms of C. albicans, the mechanism by which C. albicans escape from NETs has not been fully understood. In this study, the ability of two strains of C. albicans SC5314 and 3683 to escape NETs-mediated killing was compared...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120510/predicting%C3%A2-enhancer-activity-and-variant-impact-using-gkm-svm
#19
Michael A Beer
We participated in the Critical Assessment of Genome Interpretation eQTL challenge to further test computational models of regulatory variant impact and their association with human disease. Our prediction model is based on a discriminative gapped-kmer SVM (gkm-SVM) trained on genome-wide chromatin accessibility data in the cell type of interest. The comparisons with Massively Parallel Reporter Assays (MPRA) in lymphoblasts show that gkm-SVM is among the most accurate prediction models even though all other models used the MPRA data for model training, while gkm-SVM did not...
January 25, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115526/circulating-monocytes-exhibit-an-endotoxin-tolerance-status-after-acute-ischemic-stroke-mitochondrial-dna-as-a-putative-explanation-for-poststroke-infections
#20
Enrique Hernández-Jiménez, María Gutierrez-Fernández, Carolina Cubillos-Zapata, Laura Otero-Ortega, Berta Rodríguez-Frutos, Víctor Toledano, Patricia Martínez-Sánchez, Blanca Fuentes, Aníbal Varela-Serrano, José Avendaño-Ortiz, Alberto Blázquez, María Ángeles Mangas-Guijarro, Exuperio Díez-Tejedor, Eduardo López-Collazo
Patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) suffer from infections associated with mortality. The relevance of the innate immune system, and monocytes in particular, has emerged as an important factor in the evolution of these infections. The study enrolled 14 patients with AIS, without previous treatment, and 10 healthy controls. In the present study, we show that monocytes from patients with AIS exhibit a refractory state or endotoxin tolerance. The patients were unable to orchestrate an inflammatory response against LPS and expressed three factors reported to control the evolution of human monocytes into a refractory state: IL-1R-associated kinase-M, NFkB2/p100, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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