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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781870/pregnancy-and-the-apoptotic-pathway-in-experimental-melanoma
#1
Anamaria S Facina, Gil Facina, Ismael D C Guerreiro da Silva, Silvana A A Corrêa, Sandra M Alexandre, Ângela F Logullo, Jorge K Hosomi, Mary U Nakamura
Pregnancy-associated melanoma is defined as melanoma diagnosed during pregnancy or within 1 year of delivery. The association of pregnancy with melanoma is well known, but its underlying molecular mechanisms of association are poorly understood. The aim was to assess the expression of apoptosis-related genes in melanoma tumors during pregnancy in an attempt to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying apoptosis-driven activation of melanoma cells in this period. Mice were allocated across two experimental groups (nonpregnant and pregnant) and implanted with the melanoma cell line BF16-F10...
May 17, 2018: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779226/phenotypic-characterization-of-enzymatic-activity-of-clinical-dermatophyte-isolates-from-animals-with-and-without-skin-lesions-and-humans
#2
Sebastian Gnat, Dominik Łagowski, Aneta Nowakiewicz, Przemysław Zięba
AIMS: The pathogenesis of dermatophytoses is associated with the secretion of enzymes degrading the infected tissue components. Although many studies on enzymatic activity of dermatophytes have been conducted over the years, there have been no concrete proposals on construction of the profile of enzymes characteristic of individual species, genus, or ecological types of dermatophytes. The aim of this study was to assess the capability of clinical dermatophyte isolates from both symptomatic and asymptomatic animals and humans to produce different enzymes...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776310/preparation-and-evaluation-of-ribonuclease-resistant-viral-hiv-rna-standards-based-on-armored-rna-technology
#3
Mohammad Gholami, Mehrdad Ravanshad, Kazem Baesi, Siamak M. Samiee, Negin Hosseini Rozbahani, Minoo Mohraz
BAckground: The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is an infectious viral agent that gradually extinguishes the immune system, resulting in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The aim of this study was to construct an RNA-positive control based on armored (AR) RNA technology, using HIV-1 RNA as a model. Methods: The MS2 maturase, a coat protein gene (at positions 1765 to 1787) and HIV-1 pol gene were cloned into pET-32a plasmid. The prepared plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli strain BL2 (DE3), and the expression of the construct was induced by 1 mM of isopropyl-L-thio-D-galactopyranoside (IPTG) at 37 °C for 16 h to obtain the fabricated AR RNA...
May 19, 2018: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772476/fate-of-nuclear-material-during-subsequent-steps-of-the-kinetin-induced-pcd-in-apical-parts-of-vicia-faba-ssp-minor-seedling-roots
#4
Andrzej Kaźmierczak, Kamila Soboska
In animals during apoptosis, the best examined type of programmed cell death (PCD), three main phases are distinguished: (i) specification (signaling), (ii) killing and (iii) execution one. It has bean postulated that plant PCD also involves three subsequent phases: (i) transmission of death signals to cells (signaling), (ii) initiation of killing processes and (iii) destruction of cells. One of the most important hallmarks of animal and plant PCD are those regarding nucleus, not thoroughly studied in plants so far...
April 30, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772251/advances-of-dnase-seq-for-mapping-active-gene-regulatory-elements-across-the-genome-in-animals
#5
REVIEW
Ailing Chen, Daozhen Chen, Ying Chen
Expression of the eukaryotic genome is a highly complex and tightly regulated process, and its regulation depends on interactions among cis-acting elements and transcription factors. Identification of active gene regulatory elements is key to understanding transcriptional control of biological processes including differentiation, development, proliferation, cell-type specificity, and responses to the environment. DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) are markers of open chromatin that provide a very effective method of targeting all types of cis-regulatory elements (CREs) including enhancers, promoters, insulators, silencers, and locus control regions...
May 14, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769563/expressed-repetitive-elements-are-broadly-applicable-reference-targets-for-normalization-of-reverse-transcription-qpcr-data-in-mice
#6
Marjolijn Renard, Suzanne Vanhauwaert, Marine Vanhomwegen, Ali Rihani, Niels Vandamme, Steven Goossens, Geert Berx, Pieter Van Vlierberghe, Jody J Haigh, Bieke Decaesteker, Jolien Van Laere, Irina Lambertz, Frank Speleman, Jo Vandesompele, Andy Willaert
Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is the gold standard method for gene expression analysis on mRNA level. To remove experimental variation, expression levels of the gene of interest are typically normalized to the expression level of stably expressed endogenous reference genes. Identifying suitable reference genes and determining the optimal number of reference genes should precede each quantification study. Popular reference genes are not necessarily stably expressed in the examined conditions, possibly leading to inaccurate results...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768195/reprogramming-of-chromatin-accessibility-in-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-is-dna-replication-independent
#7
Mohamed Nadhir Djekidel, Azusa Inoue, Shogo Matoba, Tsukasa Suzuki, Chunxia Zhang, Falong Lu, Lan Jiang, Yi Zhang
Mammalian oocytes have the ability to reset the transcriptional program of differentiated somatic cells into that of totipotent embryos through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, the mechanisms underlying SCNT-mediated reprogramming are largely unknown. To understand the mechanisms governing chromatin reprogramming during SCNT, we profiled DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) in donor cumulus cells and one-cell stage SCNT embryos. To our surprise, the chromatin accessibility landscape of the donor cells is drastically changed to recapitulate that of the in vitro fertilization (IVF)-derived zygotes within 12 hr...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766361/genetic-dissection-of-the-brca2-promoter-and-transcriptional-impact-of-dna-variants
#8
Eugenia Fraile-Bethencourt, Alberto Valenzuela-Palomo, Beatriz Díez-Gómez, Mar Infante, Mercedes Durán, Germán Marcos, Enrique Lastra, Susana Gómez-Barrero, Eladio A Velasco
PURPOSE: Promoter mutations may affect transcription and can be associated with human diseases. However, the promoters of the breast cancer (BC) genes are not regularly screened. Our goal was to investigate the BRCA2 promoter in order to study a possible correlation between impaired transcription and disease. METHODS: The proximal and core promoter of the BRCA2 gene was sequenced in 95 high-risk BC patients. A BRCA2-promoter insert [- 938 to + 312 from the transcription start site (TSS)] was generated and cloned into the firefly luciferase vector pGL4...
May 15, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765957/genetic-insights-into-frailty-association-of-9p21-23-locus-with-frailty
#9
Sanish Sathyan, Nir Barzilai, Gil Atzmon, Sofiya Milman, Emmeline Ayers, Joe Verghese
Frailty is a complex aging phenotype associated with increased vulnerability to disability and death. Understanding the biological antecedents of frailty may provide clues to healthy aging. The genome-wide association study hotspot, 9p21-23 region, is a risk locus for a number of age-related complex disorders associated with frailty. Hence, we conducted an association study to examine whether variations in 9p21-23 locus plays a role in the pathogenesis of frailty in 637 community-dwelling Ashkenazi Jewish adults aged 65 and older enrolled in the LonGenity study...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764945/a-mechanism-of-unidirectional-transformation-leading-to-antibiotic-resistance-occurs-within-nasopharyngeal-pneumococcal-biofilm-consortia
#10
Santiago M Lattar, Xueqing Wu, Jennifer Brophy, Fuminori Sakai, Keith P Klugman, Jorge E Vidal
Streptococcus pneumoniae acquires genes for resistance to antibiotics such as streptomycin (Str) or trimethoprim (Tmp) by recombination via transformation of DNA released by other pneumococci and closely related species. Using naturally transformable pneumococci, including strain D39 serotype 2 (S2) and TIGR4 (S4), we studied whether pneumococcal nasopharyngeal transformation was symmetrical, asymmetrical, or unidirectional. Incubation of S2Tet and S4Str in a bioreactor simulating the human nasopharynx led to the generation of SpnTet/Str recombinants...
May 15, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760686/the-transcriptional-regulator-tfb-rf1-activates-transcription-of-a-putative-abc-transporter-in-pyrococcus-furiosus
#11
Robert Reichelt, Katharina M A Ruperti, Martina Kreuzer, Stefan Dexl, Michael Thomm, Winfried Hausner
Transcription factor B recruiting factor 1 (TFB-RF1; PF1088) is a transcription regulator which activates transcription on archaeal promoters containing weak TFB recognition elements (BRE) by recruiting TFB to the promoter. The mechanism of activation is described in detail, but nothing is known about the biological function of this protein in Pyrococcus furiosus . The protein is located in an operon structure together with the hypothetical gene pf1089 and western blot as well as end-point RT-PCR experiments revealed an extremely low expression rate of both proteins...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736984/estimation-of-the-bacteriocin-cole7-conjugation-based-kill-anti-kill-antimicrobial-system-by-real-time-pcr-fluorescence-staining-and-bioluminescence-assays
#12
I L Maslennikova, M V Kuznetsova, N Toplak, I V Nekrasova, D Žgur Bertok, M Starčič Erjavec
The efficiency of the bacteriocin, colicin ColE7, bacterial conjugation-based "kill" - "anti-kill" antimicrobial system, was assessed using real-time PCR, flow cytometry and bioluminescence. The ColE7 antimicrobial system consists of the genetically modified Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 harbouring a conjugative plasmid (derivative of the F-plasmid) encoding the "kill" gene (ColE7 activity gene) and a chromosomally encoded "anti-kill" gene (ColE7 immunity gene)...
May 7, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727833/cytomegalovirus-sequence-variability-amplicon-length-and-dnase-sensitive-non-encapsidated-genomes-are-obstacles-to-standardization-and-commutability-of-plasma-viral-load-results
#13
Klaudia Naegele, Irmeli Lautenschlager, Rainer Gosert, Raisa Loginov, Katia Bir, Ilkka Helanterä, Stefan Schaub, Nina Khanna, Hans H Hirsch
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) management post-transplantation relies on quantification in blood, but inter-laboratory and inter-assay variability impairs commutability. An international multicenter study demonstrated that variability is mitigated by standardizing plasma volumes, automating DNA extraction and amplification, and calibration to the 1st-CMV-WHO-International-Standard as in the FDA-approved Roche-CAP/CTM-CMV. However, Roche-CAP/CTM-CMV showed under-quantification and false-negative results in a quality assurance program (UK-NEQAS-2014)...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722915/the-global-regulator-of-pathogenesis-pncon7-positively-regulates-tox3-effector-gene-expression-through-direct-interaction-in-the-wheat-pathogen-parastagonospora-nodorum
#14
Shao-Yu Lin, Yit-Heng Chooi, Peter S Solomon
To investigate effector gene regulation in the wheat pathogenic fungus Parastagonospora nodorum, the promoter and expression of Tox3 was characterised through a series of complementary approaches. Promoter deletion and DNase I footprinting experiments identified a 25 bp region in the Tox3 promoter as being required for transcription. Subsequent yeast one-hybrid analysis using the DNA sequence as bait identified that interacting partner as the C2H2 zinc finger transcription factor PnCon7, a putative master regulator of pathogenesis...
May 3, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721021/molecular-typing-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-bovine-milk-in-tanzania
#15
Jibril Mohammed, Michael Henry Ziwa, Yaovi Mahuton Gildas Hounmanou, Adela Kisanga, Huruma Nelwike Tuntufye
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in raw milk can be transmitted from animals to humans, and in Tanzania raw milk is sold in local markets and consumed as purchased. This study was performed to determine the molecular characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of MRSA strains isolated from raw bovine milk sold at local markets in Tanzania. A total of 117 raw milk samples were cultured on Baird-Parker medium to isolate S. aureus and PCR was used for amplification of gltB gene for S...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715506/similar-bowtie-structures-and-distinct-largest-strong-components-are-identified-in-the-transcriptional-regulatory-networks-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-during-photomorphogenesis-and-heat-shock
#16
Shitao Luo, Fengming Zhang, Yingfei Ruan, Jie Li, Zheng Zhang, Yan Sun, Shixiong Deng, Rui Peng
Photomorphogenesis and heat shock are critical biological processes of plants. A recent research constructed the transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) of Arabidopsis thaliana during these processes using DNase-seq. In this study, by strong decomposition, we revealed that each of these TRNs can be represented as a similar bowtie structure with only one non-trivial and distinct strong component. We further identified distinct patterns of variation of a few light-related genes in these bowtie structures during photomorphogenesis...
April 28, 2018: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710373/transforming-plant-biology-and-breeding-with-crispr-cas9-cas12-and-cas13
#17
REVIEW
Patrick Schindele, Felix Wolter, Holger Puchta
Currently, biology is revolutionized by ever growing applications of the CRISPR/Cas system. As discussed in this Review, new avenues have opened up for plant research and breeding by the use of the sequence-specific DNases Cas9 and Cas12 (formerly named Cpf1) and, more recently, the RNase Cas13 (formerly named C2c2). Although double strand break-induced gene editing based on error-prone non-homologous end joining has been applied to obtain new traits, such as powdery mildew resistance in wheat or improved pathogen resistance and increased yield in tomato, improved technologies based on CRISPR/Cas for programmed change of plant genomes via homologous recombination have recently been developed...
April 30, 2018: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703784/ancestral-state-reconstruction-of-the-apoptosis-machinery-in-the-common-ancestor-of-eukaryotes
#18
Joanna Klim, Arkadiusz Gładki, Roza Kucharczyk, Urszula Zielenkiewicz, Szymon Kaczanowski
Apoptotic cell death is a type of eukaryotic cell death. In animals, it regulates development, is involved in cancer suppression, and causes cell death during pathological aging of neuronal cells in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. Mitochondrial apoptotic-like cell death, a form of primordial apoptosis, also occurs in unicellular organisms. Here, we ask the question why the apoptosis machinery has been acquired and maintained in unicellular organisms and attempt to answer it by performing ancestral state reconstruction...
April 27, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680502/evaluation-of-hyaluronic-acid-combined-ternary-complexes-for-serum-resistant-and-targeted-gene-delivery-system
#19
Woong-Gil Hong, Gyeong-Won Jeong, Jae-Woon Nah
Branched polyethylenimine (bPEI) was well known as high transfection agent, which has many amine group. However, utilization of bPEI was limited due to high toxicity. To solve these problems, bPEI was introduced to low molecular weight water-soluble chitosan (LMWSC) with coupling agent. In addition, hyaluronic acid (HA), one of natural anion polymer, was introduced to binary complex of pDNA/bPEI-grafted LMWSC (LMPEI) to target the specific cancer cell and impart the serum resistant. Ternary complexes of pDNA/LMPEI/HA were prepared by electrostatic charge interaction and their binding affinity and DNase protection assay were conducted by gel retardation assay...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678175/gene-repression-via-multiplex-grna-strategy-in-y-lipolytica
#20
Jin-Lai Zhang, Yang-Zi Peng, Duo Liu, Hong Liu, Ying-Xiu Cao, Bing-Zhi Li, Chun Li, Ying-Jin Yuan
BACKGROUND: The oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is a promising microbial cell factory due to their biochemical characteristics and native capacity to accumulate lipid-based chemicals. To create heterogenous biosynthesis pathway and manipulate metabolic flux in Y. lipolytica, numerous studies have been done for developing synthetic biology tools for gene regulation. CRISPR interference (CRISPRi), as an emerging technology, has been applied for specifically repressing genes of interest...
April 20, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
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