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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636991/non-invasive-detection-of-somatic-mutations-using-next-generation-sequencing-in-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma
#1
Maxime Fontanilles, Florent Marguet, Élodie Bohers, Pierre-Julien Viailly, Sydney Dubois, Philippe Bertrand, Vincent Camus, Sylvain Mareschal, Philippe Ruminy, Catherine Maingonnat, Stéphane Lepretre, Elena-Liana Veresezan, Stéphane Derrey, Hervé Tilly, Jean-Michel Picquenot, Annie Laquerrière, Fabrice Jardin
PURPOSE: Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL) have recurrent genomic alterations. The main objective of our study was to demonstrate that targeted sequencing of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) released by PCNSL at the time of diagnosis could identify somatic mutations by next-generation sequencing (NGS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: PlasmacfDNA and matched tumor DNA (tDNA) from 25 PCNSL patients were sequenced using an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (Life Technologies®)...
June 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636544/analysis-of-esr1-and-pik3ca-mutations-in-plasma-cell-free-dna-from-er-positive-breast-cancer-patients
#2
Takashi Takeshita, Yutaka Yamamoto, Mutsuko Yamamoto-Ibusuki, Mai Tomiguchi, Aiko Sueta, Keiichi Murakami, Yoko Omoto, Hirotaka Iwase
BACKGROUND: The measurement of ESR1 and PIK3CA mutations in plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has been studied as a non-invasive method to quickly assess and monitor endocrine therapy (ET) resistant metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients. METHODS: The subjects of this retrospective study were a total of 185 plasma samples from 86 estrogen receptor-positive BC patients, of which 151 plasma samples were from 69 MBC patients and 34 plasma samples were from 17 primary BC (PBC) patients...
June 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636317/downsizing-proto-oncogene-cfos-to-short-helix-constrained-peptides-that-bind-jun
#3
Daniel Baxter, Samuel R Perry, Timothy A Hill, W Mei Kok, Nathan R Zaccai, R Leo Brady, David P Fairlie, Jody M Mason
The oncogenic transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) is a DNA-binding protein that assembles through dimerization of Fos and Jun protein subunits, their leucine-rich helical sequences entwining into a coiled-coil structure. This study reports on downsizing the proto-oncogene cFos protein (380 residues) to shorter peptides (37-25 residues) modified with helix-inducing constraints to enhance binding to Jun. A crystal structure is reported for a 37-residue Fos-derived peptide (FosW) bound to Jun. This guided iterative downsizing of FosW to shorter peptide sequences that were constrained into stable water-soluble α-helices by connecting amino acid side chains to form cyclic pentapeptide components...
June 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635528/clinical-social-and-ethical-issues-associated-with-non-invasive-prenatal-testing-for-aneuploidy
#4
Blanche Griffin, Samantha Edwards, Lyn S Chitty, Celine Lewis
Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT), based on analysis of cell-free foetal DNA, is rapidly becoming a preferred method to screen for chromosomal aneuploidy with the technology now available in over 90 countries. This review provides an up-to-date discussion of the key clinical, social and ethical implications associated with this revolutionary technology. Stakeholders are positive about a test that is highly accurate, safe, can be perfomed early in pregnancy, identifies affected pregnancies that might otherwise have been missed and reduces the need for invasive testing...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635329/lead-induces-siberian-tiger-fibroblast-apoptosis-by-interfering-with-intracellular-homeostasis
#5
Zheng Liu, Hui Wang, Wenxiu Zhang, Ziao Yuan, Hongyi Yuan, Xueting Liu, Minghai Zhang, Xuesong Guo, Weijun Guan
Lead (Pb(2+)) is a poisonous heavy metal that causes many pathophysiological effects in living systems. Its toxicological effects are well known as it causes apoptosis of several cell types and tissues. This study aimed to determine the criteria required for early diagnosis of Pb(2+) poisoning in the Siberian tiger using a tiger population in China, to identify a safety Pb(2+) concentration threshold, and to provide suggestions for preventing Pb(2+) poisoning in Siberian tigers. We investigated the apoptotic effects of Pb(2+) (0, 32, 64, and 125 μM) for 12-48 h on Siberian tiger fibroblasts in vitro...
June 21, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632936/peritumoral-cuffing-by-t-cell-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-distinguishes-hpv-related-oropharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-from-oral-cavity-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#6
Kate Poropatich, David Hernandez, Joel Fontanarosa, Koshonna Brown, Gayle Woloschak, Ajit Paintal, Kirtee Raparia, Sandeep Samant
BACKGROUND: It is unclear why human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has improved clinical behavior compared to HPV-negative HNSCC. We sought to better characterize the immune microenvironment of tongue cancers by examining the CD3 and CD8 TIL pattern in HPV-positive and -negative tumors. METHODS: Histologic sections from 40 oral tongue and oropharyngeal cases were analyzed (n= 21 HPV DNA-positive, n= 19 HPV DNA-negative)...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631801/morphology-of-elastic-nematic-liquid-crystal-membranes
#7
Pardis Rofouie, Damiano Pasini, Alejandro D Rey
Liquid crystalline phases found in many biological materials, such as actin, DNA, cellulose, and collagen can be responsible for the deformation of cell membranes. In this paper, cell membrane deformation is investigated through the coupling between liquid crystal anisotropy and membrane bending elasticity. The generalized shape equation for anisotropic interfaces, which resort to the Cahn-Hoffman capillarity vector, the Rapini-Papoular anchoring energy, and the Helfrich elastic energy, is applied to gain insight into the deformation of closed liquid crystal membranes...
June 20, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631163/evaluation-of-streck-bct-and-paxgene-stabilised-blood-collection-tubes-for-cell-free-circulating-dna-studies-in-plasma
#8
Kristina Warton, Nicole L Yuwono, Mark J Cowley, Mark J McCabe, Alwin So, Caroline E Ford
INTRODUCTION: Blood samples for studies of circulating DNA in disease are often collected in clinical settings where prompt processing of samples is not possible. In order to avoid problems associated with leukocyte lysis after prolonged blood storage, stabilised blood tubes have been developed containing preservatives that prevent cell lysis. We evaluated Streck BCT tubes and PAXgene ccfDNA tubes, as well as standard EDTA blood collection tubes, in terms of DNA yield and fragment size...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629450/interaction-with-adipocyte-stromal-cells-induces-breast-cancer-malignancy-via-s100a7-upregulation-in-breast-cancer-microenvironment
#9
Minako Sakurai, Yasuhiro Miki, Kiyoshi Takagi, Takashi Suzuki, Takanori Ishida, Noriaki Ohuchi, Hironobu Sasano
BACKGROUND: Breast adipocytes play important roles in both the development and function of mammary epithelial cells. Therefore, carcinoma-adipose stromal cell (ASC) interactions have been considered pivotal in supporting tumor growth in breast cancer. In addition, it has been demonstrated that the biological features of cancer-associated adipocytes differ from those of normal ASCs. Therefore, we investigated an interaction between ASCs and carcinoma cell lines to identify genes associated with ASC invasion of carcinoma cells...
June 19, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629339/droplet-digital-pcr-for-detection-and-quantification-of-circulating-tumor-dna-in-plasma-of-head-and-neck-cancer-patients
#10
Joost H van Ginkel, Manon M H Huibers, Robert J J van Es, Remco de Bree, Stefan M Willems
BACKGROUND: During posttreatment surveillance of head and neck cancer patients, imaging is insufficiently accurate for the early detection of relapsing disease. Free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may serve as a novel biomarker for monitoring tumor burden during posttreatment surveillance of these patients. In this exploratory study, we investigated whether low level ctDNA in plasma of head and neck cancer patients can be detected using Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR). METHODS: TP53 mutations were determined in surgically resected primary tumor samples from six patients with high stage (II-IV), moderate to poorly differentiated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)...
June 19, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629197/reply-to-the-letter-to-the-editor-by-c-nicolazzo-et-al-circulating-cell-free-dna-and-circulating-tumor-cells-as-prognostic-and-predictive-biomarkers-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-treated-with-first-line-chemotherapy
#11
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627886/experimentally-validated-model-enables-debottlenecking-of-in-vitro-protein-synthesis-and-identifies-a-control-shift-under-in-vivo-conditions
#12
Alexander Nieß, Jurek Failmezger, Maike Kuschel, Martin Siemann-Herzberg, Ralf Takors
Cell-free (in vitro) protein systems (CFPS) provide a versatile tool that can be used to investigate different aspects of the transcription-translation machinery by reducing cells to the basic functions of protein formation. Recent improvements in reaction stability and lysate preparation offer the potential to expand the scope of in vitro biosynthesis from a research tool to a multifunctional and versatile platform for protein production and synthetic biology. To date, even the best-performing CFPS are drastically slower than in vivo references...
June 19, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627340/-experimental-study-on-formation-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-human-peripheral-blood-induced-by-paraquat-in-vitro
#13
Wei Jin, Jian Lu, Hui Xie, Yiqun Jiang, Xiaoxiao Meng, Yong Zhu, Ruilan Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether paraquat (PQ) can induce the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in human peripheral blood. METHODS: Neutrophils were isolated from healthy human peripheral blood, and the cells were identified by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) strain. The cells were treated with different concentrations of PQ [0 (as control), 200, 400, 600, 800, 1 000 and 1 200 μmol/L], and the cell viability was measured by cell proliferation and CCK-8 cytotoxicity detection kit, and the median lethal concentration of PQ was selected...
March 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626552/a-new-microfluidic-approach-for-the-one-step-capture-amplification-and-label-free-quantification-of-bacteria-from-raw-samples
#14
Iago Pereiro, Amel Bendali, Sanae Tabnaoui, Lucile Alexandre, Jana Srbova, Zuzana Bilkova, Shane Deegan, Lokesh Joshi, Jean-Louis Viovy, Laurent Malaquin, Bruno Dupuy, Stéphanie Descroix
A microfluidic method to specifically capture and detect infectious bacteria based on immunorecognition and proliferative power is presented. It involves a microscale fluidized bed in which magnetic and drag forces are balanced to retain antibody-functionalized superparamagnetic beads in a chamber during sample perfusion. Captured cells are then cultivated in situ by infusing nutritionally-rich medium. The system was validated by the direct one-step detection of Salmonella Typhimurium in undiluted unskimmed milk, without pre-treatment...
February 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625828/precision-monitoring-of-immunotherapies-in-solid-organ-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#15
Rose Diloreto, Kiran Khush, Iwijn De Vlaminck
Pharmacological immunotherapies are a key component of post-transplant therapy in solid-organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In current clinical practice, immunotherapies largely follow a one-size fits all approach, leaving a large portion of transplant recipients either over- or under-immunosuppressed, and consequently at risk of infections or immune-mediated complications. Our goal here is to review recent and rapid advances in precision and genomic medicine approaches to monitoring of post-transplant immunotherapies...
June 15, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625258/-plasma-level-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-septic-patients-and-its-clinical-significance-a-prospective-observational-study
#16
Fangxiao Zhang, Zhidan Zhang, Xiaochun Ma
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) level in plasma of sepsis patients and judge its clinical value for early diagnosing of sepsis. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted. The patients after surgery aged > 18 years and expected to stay in the ICU > 24 hours admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University from November 2014 to February 2015 were enrolled...
February 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624783/malignant-pericytes-expressing-gt198-give-rise-to-tumor-cells-through-angiogenesis
#17
Liyong Zhang, Yan Wang, Mohammad H Rashid, Min Liu, Kartik Angara, Nahid F Mivechi, Nita J Maihle, Ali S Arbab, Lan Ko
Angiogenesis promotes tumor development. Understanding the crucial factors regulating tumor angiogenesis may reveal new therapeutic targets. Human GT198 (PSMC3IP or Hop2) is an oncoprotein encoded by a DNA repair gene that is overexpressed in tumor stromal vasculature to stimulate the expression of angiogenic factors. Here we show that pericytes expressing GT198 give rise to tumor cells through angiogenesis. GT198+ pericytes and perivascular cells are commonly present in the stromal compartment of various human solid tumors and rodent xenograft tumor models...
May 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624461/emetine-inhibits-replication-of-rna-and-dna-viruses-without-generating-drug-resistant-virus-variants
#18
Nitin Khandelwal, Yogesh Chander, Thachamvally Riyesh, Krishan Dutt Rawat, Pratibha Saini, Chikkahonnaiah Nishanth, Shalini Sharma, Naresh Jindal, Bhupendra N Tripathi, Sanjay Barua, Naveen Kumar
At a noncytotoxic concentration, emetine was found to inhibit replication of DNA viruses [buffalopoxvirus (BPXV) and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1)] as well as RNA viruses [peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV)]. Using the time-of-addition and virus step-specific assays, we showed that emetine treatment resulted in reduced synthesis of viral RNA (PPRV and NDV) and DNA (BPXV and BHV-1) as well as inhibiting viral entry (NDV and BHV-1). In addition, emetine treatment also resulted in decreased synthesis of viral proteins...
June 14, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624447/enhanced-first-trimester-screening-for-trisomy-21-with-contingent-cell-free-fetal-dna-a-comparative-performance-and-cost-analysis
#19
Tianhua Huang, Wendy S Meschino, Mari Teitelbaum, Shelley Dougan, Nan Okun
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal screening for trisomy 21 is a standard of care. Emerging cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) technologies can improve screening performance, but they are expensive. This study was conducted to propose a contingent screening model that would incorporate cffDNA technology, would remain affordable, and could be applied equitably in a publically funded system. METHODS: Using performance and cost parameters from published literature, four prenatal screening strategies were compared...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624139/applying-rigor-and-reproducibility-standards-to-assay-donor-derived-cell-free-dna-as-a-non-invasive-method-for-detection-of-acute-rejection-and-graft-injury-after-heart-transplantation
#20
Sean Agbor-Enoh, Ilker Tunc, Iwijn De Vlaminck, Ulgen Fideli, Andrew Davis, Karen Cuttin, Kenneth Bhatti, Argit Marishta, Michael A Solomon, Annette Jackson, Grace Graninger, Bonnie Harper, Helen Luikart, Jennifer Wylie, Xujing Wang, Gerald Berry, Charles Marboe, Kiran Khush, Jun Zhu, Hannah Valantine
BACKGROUND: Use of new genomic techniques in clinical settings requires that such methods are rigorous and reproducible. Previous studies have shown that quantitation of donor-derived cell-free DNA (%ddcfDNA) by unbiased shotgun sequencing is a sensitive, non-invasive marker of acute rejection after heart transplantation. The primary goal of this study was to assess the reproducibility of %ddcfDNA measurements across technical replicates, manual vs automated platforms, and rejection phenotypes in distinct patient cohorts...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
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