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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684931/-multiresistant-bacteria-antibiotic-prescription-and-antibiotics-of-last-resort
#1
Winfried V Kern
Ascertaining critical indications for antibiotics and rational prescribing can delay and minimize the spread of antibiotic resistance. Room for improvement lies in particular in a stricter indication, in shortening antibiotic treatment and in initiating more targeted therapies with narrow-spectrum drugs. Not all infections due to multidrug-resistant organisms require treatment with reserve drugs. Detailed susceptibility testing together with enhanced knowledge of pharmacokinetics and -dynamics are needed for adequate treatment decisions...
May 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684929/-prevalence-of-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria
#2
Axel G Hamprecht, Stephan Göttig
The increase of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MRGN) is a great threat for both the health system and patients. Challenges of MRGN for physicians are limited therapeutic options, the need of infection control measures and the danger of outbreaks. In this article, the prevalence of MRGN, risk factors, the background and definitions of multidrug-resistant organisms are presented.
May 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684922/saliva-versus-plasma-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-pregabalin-in-jordanian-patients
#3
Nasir Idkaidek, Salim Hamadi, Manal El-Assi, Ahmad Al-Shalalfeh, Ahmad Al-Ghazawi
The objective is using saliva instead of plasma for pregabalin therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) since saliva reflects the free non-protein bound drug concentration, simple and noninvasive sampling, cheaper and does not require the expertise of drawing blood. Forty four patients participated in this study, two samples of saliva and another two of blood were taken from each patient; first sample of both saliva and blood is the trough sample and was taken just before the first dose of the day and second sample is the peak sample and was taken 1 h after taking the first dose of the day...
April 23, 2018: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684914/serum-calcium-is-related-to-the-degree-of-artery-stenosis-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#4
Jiayan Wu, Junchao Xie, Yanxin Zhao, Li Gong, Xueyuan Liu, Wangmi Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Acute ischemic stroke is caused by stenosis of artery supplying to brain. We aimed to detect some metabolites in the serum that would be related to the degree of artery stenosis and to analyze potential mechanisms. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke were divided into two groups according to their degree of artery stenosis (which was determined by computed tomographic angiography): a mild group (stenosis ≤ 30%) and a severe group (stenosis > 30%)...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684904/excess-hospitalization-expenses-attributable-to-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-singapore
#5
May Ee Png, Joanne Yoong, Chuen Seng Tan, Kee Seng Chia
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the excess hospitalization expenses attributable to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a high-income Asian country from the health system perspective and the patient perspective. METHODS: Electronic medical records from a tertiary academic hospital in Singapore from 2012 to 2013 were used to create propensity score-matched cohorts with and without T2DM on the basis of their entry characteristics. A two-part model was then used to control for remaining differences between the cohorts...
April 20, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684902/effect-of-lipopeptide-structure-on-gene-delivery-system-properties-evaluation-in-2d-and-3d-in-vitro-models
#6
O O Koloskova, A M Gileva, M G Drozdova, M V Grechihina, N E Suzina, U A Budanova, Yu L Sebyakin, D A Kudlay, I P Shilovskiy, A M Sapozhnikov, E I Kovalenko, E A Markvicheva, M R Khaitov
Development of efficient biodegradable, environmentally responsive, biocompatible and non-toxic delivery system is needed for efficient gene delivery. As well known, properties of the vehicle are determined by the structure of carrier components. The aim of the current study was to estimate in vitro transfection efficacy of aliphatic di-, tri- and tetrapeptide-based cationic lipoplexes loaded with siRNA in function of a number of cationic groups using 2D (monolayer culture) and 3D (multicellular tumor spheroids) in vitro models...
April 7, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684899/coupling-hydrus-1d-with-arcgis-to-estimate-pesticide-accumulation-and-leaching-risk-on-a-regional-basis
#7
Ruediger Anlauf, Jenny Schaefer, Puangrat Kajitvichyanukul
HYDRUS-1D is a well-established reliable instrument to simulate water and pesticide transport in soils. It is, however, a point-specific model which is usually used for site-specific simulations. Aim of the investigation was the development of pesticide accumulation and leaching risk maps for regions combining HYDRUS-1D as a model for pesticide fate with regional data in a geographical information system (GIS). It was realized in form of a python tool in ArcGIS. Necessary high resolution local soil information, however, is very often not available...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684891/considering-high-alcohol-and-violence-neighborhood-context-using-daily-diaries-and-gps-a-pilot-study-among-people-living-with-hiv
#8
Katherine P Theall, Erica Felker-Kantor, Maeve Wallace, Xiao Zhang, Christopher N Morrison, Douglas J Wiebe
Our understanding of how community-level context impacts care of persons living with HIV (PLWH), including antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and retention in care, is limited. The objective of this study was to characterize the activity spaces of PLWH from an urban area in Southeastern U.S., where the epidemic is among the nation's highest, and to examine how such activity spaces are associated with daily mood and health behaviors. In this small, pilot study, 11 participants were tracked with a global positioning system (GPS)-enabled application on their smartphones for 2 weeks...
April 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684887/deposition-and-separation-of-w-and-mo-from-aqueous-solutions-with-simultaneous-hydrogen-production-in-stacked-bioelectrochemical-systems-bess-impact-of-heavy-metals-w-vi-mo-vi-molar-ratio-initial-ph-and-electrode-material
#9
Liping Huang, Ming Li, Yuzhen Pan, Xie Quan, Jinhui Yang, Gianluca Li Puma
The deposition and separation of W and Mo from aqueous solutions with simultaneous hydrogen production was investigated in stacked bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) composed of microbial electrolysis cell (1#) serially connected with parallel connected microbial fuel cell (2#). The impact of W/Mo molar ratio (in the range 0.01 mM : 1 mM and vice-versa), initial pH (1.5 to 4.0) and cathode material (stainless steel mesh (SSM), carbon rod (CR) and titanium sheet (TS)) on the BES performance was systematically investigated...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684886/the-effects-of-three-quarter-and-full-length-foot-orthoses-on-knee-mechanics-in-healthy-subjects-and-patellofemoral-pain-patients-when-walking-and-descending-stairs
#10
J Burston, J Richards, J Selfe
BACKGROUND: An increased load of the patellofemoral joint is often attributed to foot function in patients with patellofemoral pain. Foot orthoses are commonly prescribed for this condition; however the mechanisms by which they work are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinematics and kinetics of the knee between patellofemoral pain patients and a group of healthy subjects when using a standardised foot orthosis prescription during walking and step descent...
April 17, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684883/cadmium-stabilization-via-silicates-formation-efficiency-reaction-routes-and-leaching-behavior-of-products
#11
Minhua Su, Jinfeng Tang, Changzhong Liao, Lingjun Kong, Tangfu Xiao, Kaimin Shih, Gang Song, Diyun Chen, Hongguo Zhang
Stabilizing cadmium by incorporating it into crystalline products is an effective approach to detoxify cadmium-containing wastes. In this study, two Si-rich matrices in amorphous and crystalline forms (i.e., silica fume and α-quartz, respectively) were employed to incorporate Cd. The processing parameters, namely the type of Si-rich matrix, Cd/Si molar ratio (Г) and sintering temperature, were thoroughly investigated using quantitative X-ray diffraction technique. Cd incorporation was more energetically favored when silica fume was used rather than when α-quartz was used because of the lower Gibbs free energy of formation for silica fume...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684877/toxicity-and-mutagenicity-of-exhaust-from-compressed-natural-gas-could-this-be-a-clean-solution-for-megacities-with-mixed-traffic-conditions
#12
Avinash K Agarwal, Bushra Ateeq, Tarun Gupta, Akhilendra P Singh, Swaroop K Pandey, Nikhil Sharma, Rashmi A Agarwal, Neeraj K Gupta, Hemant Sharma, Ayush Jain, Pravesh C Shukla
Despite intensive research carried out on particulates, correlation between engine-out particulate emissions and adverse health effects is not well understood yet. Particulate emissions hold enormous significance for mega-cities like Delhi that have immense traffic diversity. Entire public transportation system involving taxis, three-wheelers, and buses has been switched from conventional liquid fuels to compressed natural gas (CNG) in the Mega-city of Delhi. In this study, the particulate characterization was carried out on variety of engines including three diesel engines complying with Euro-II, Euro-III and Euro-IV emission norms, one Euro-II gasoline engine and one Euro-IV CNG engine...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684875/toxicoproteomic-analysis-of-human-lung-epithelial-cells-exposed-to-steel-industry-ambient-particulate-matter-pm-reveals-possible-mechanism-of-pm-related-carcinogenesis
#13
S Senthil Kumar, P Muthuselvam, V Pugalenthi, N Subramanian, K M Ramkumar, T Suresh, T Suzuki, P Rajaguru
Toxicoproteomic analysis of steel industry ambient particulate matter (PM) that contain high concentrations of PAHs and metals was done by treating human lung cancer cell-line, A549 and the cell lysates were analysed using quantitative label-free nano LC-MS/MS. A total of 18,562 peptides representing 1576 proteins were identified and quantified, with 196 proteins had significantly altered expression in the treated cells. Enrichment analyses revealed that proteins associated to redox homeostsis, metabolism, and cellular energy generation were inhibited while, proteins related to DNA damage and repair and other stresses were over expressed...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684856/cerium-oxide-nanoparticles-in-pursuit-of-liver-protection-against-doxorubicin-induced-injury-in-rats
#14
Heba G Ibrahim, Noha Attia, Fatma El Zahraa A Hashem, Moushira A R El Heneidy
Doxorubicin (DOX) is considered as a backbone in several chemotherapeutic regimens. Nevertheless, the reported systemic toxicity usually hampers its broad application. Interestingly, Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeONPs) depicted promising regenerative antioxidant and hepatoprotective potentials against multiple oxidative stress-induced pathologies. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine either CeONPs would display hepatoprotective properties once concomitantly administered with DOX or not. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n = 10) in a two weeks study: Control (received saline, IP injection thrice a week), CeO (0...
April 20, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684849/mapping-txnip-key-connexions-in-progression-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#15
REVIEW
Anil Kumar, Ruchika Mittal
Studies demonstrates the major involvement of inflammatory and apoptotic pathway in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. The cross talk between inflammatory and apoptotic pathway suggests Txnip as a molecular connexion in progression of disease state. Txnip modulates inflammatory pathway (via ROS production and NLRP3 inflammasome activity) and apoptotic pathway (via mTOR pathway). The key contribution of Txnip in both the pathways, reflects, its crucial role in diabetic nephropathy. In the present review, we have first provided an overview of diabetic nephropathy and Txnip system, followed by the mechanistic insight of Txnip in the progression of diabetic nephropathy...
December 20, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684843/on-line-ham-grading-using-pattern-recognition-models-based-on-available-data-in-commercial-pig-slaughterhouses
#16
Gerard Masferrer, Ricard Carreras, Maria Font-I-Furnols, Marina Gispert, Pere Marti-Puig, Moises Serra
The thickness of the subcutaneous fat in hams is one of the most important factors for the dry-curing process and largely determines its final quality. This parameter is usually measured in slaughterhouses by a manual metrical measure to classify hams. The aim of the present study was to propose an automatic classification method based on data obtained from a carcass automatic classification equipment (AutoFom) and intrinsic data of the pigs (sex, breed, and weight) to simulate the manual classification system...
April 13, 2018: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684841/use-of-visible-and-near-infrared-reflectance-spectra-to-predict-lipid-peroxidation-of-light-lamb-meat-and-discriminate-dam-s-feeding-systems
#17
G Ripoll, S Lobón, M Joy
Measurement of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) is a well-established method for determine lipid oxidation in meat. This assay, however, is time-consuming and generates undesired chemical waste. Dam's milk is the principal source of vitamins and provitamins that delay lipid oxidation of light lamb meat; these compounds are stored in the lamb's muscle tissue. Hence, lamb meat could be used to determine the origin of the dam's diet. The aim of this study is to evaluate Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) as a tool for determining the lipid peroxidation of light lamb meat and differentiate the meat of light lambs according the diet of their dams during lactation (grazing alfalfa, lucerne, or fed a total mixed ration)...
April 9, 2018: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684840/predicting-pork-loin-intramuscular-fat-using-computer-vision-system
#18
J-H Liu, X Sun, J M Young, L A Bachmeier, D J Newman
The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of computer vision system to predict pork intramuscular fat percentage (IMF%). Center-cut loin samples (n = 85) were trimmed of subcutaneous fat and connective tissue. Images were acquired and pixels were segregated to estimate image IMF% and 18 image color features for each image. Subjective IMF% was determined by a trained grader. Ether extract IMF% was calculated using ether extract method. Image color features and image IMF% were used as predictors for stepwise regression and support vector machine models...
March 26, 2018: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684836/ambulatory-care-education-preparing-nurses-for-the-future-of-healthcare
#19
EDITORIAL
Caroline Varner Coburn, Deena Gilland, Melissa Owen, Angela Amar
In the current healthcare environment, ambulatory care nursing is increasingly recognized as an efficient and effective way of collaborating with clients to improve health outcomes and to focus on prevention. Nursing skills in ambulatory care are both valuable and necessary. However, few undergraduate nursing programs provide content on ambulatory care or significant clinical experience outside the context of an acute care setting. To meet this gap in education, a baccalaureate undergraduate course in ambulatory care nursing was created to address the growing need for RNs in this field...
March 24, 2018: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684823/fecal-microbiome-from-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis-is-potent-to-induce-inflammatory-responses
#20
Shaoxuan Wang, Li Yao, Yanyan Liu
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic idiopathic disease affecting the colon. Patients with UC display a number of alterations in immune-related molecules and cells, as well as dysbiosis in the intestinal microbiota. It remains unclear whether the alterations in the patients' immune systems are initiating factors of UC or a result from external insults. Also, precisely how these intestinal microorganisms affect UC development is not completely understood. To answer these questions, fecal bacteria were collected from UC patients during the active phase (UC-active), UC patients during the remission phase (UC-remission), and healthy controls...
April 20, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
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