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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456545/the-dangers-of-being-a-small-oligotrophic-and-light-demanding-freshwater-plant-across-a-spatial-and-historical-eutrophication-gradient-in-southern-scandinavia
#1
Kaj Sand-Jensen, Hans Henrik Bruun, Tora Finderup Nielsen, Ditte M Christiansen, Per Hartvig, Jens C Schou, Lars Baastrup-Spohr
European freshwater habitats have experienced a severe loss of plant diversity, regionally and locally, over the last century or more. One important and well-established driver of change is eutrophication, which has increased with rising population density and agricultural intensification. However, reduced disturbance of lake margins may have played an additional key role. The geographical variation in water chemistry, which has set the scene for - and interacted with - anthropogenic impact, is much less well understood...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455651/targeting-few-to-help-hundreds-jak-mapk-and-rock-pathways-as-druggable-targets-in-atypical-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#2
REVIEW
Stefania Rocca, Giovanna Carrà, Pietro Poggio, Alessandro Morotti, Mara Brancaccio
Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (aCML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by neutrophilic leukocytosis and dysgranulopoiesis. From a genetic point of view, aCML shows a heterogeneous mutational landscape with mutations affecting signal transduction proteins but also broad genetic modifiers and chromatin remodelers, making difficult to understand the molecular mechanisms causing the onset of the disease. The JAK-STAT, MAPK and ROCK pathways are known to be responsible for myeloproliferation in physiological conditions and to be aberrantly activated in myeloproliferative diseases...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455358/the-use-of-biomarkers-to-predict-aero-allergen-and-food-immunotherapy-responses
#3
REVIEW
Sayantani B Sindher, Andrew Long, Swati Acharya, Vanitha Sampath, Kari C Nadeau
The incidence of allergic conditions has continued to rise over the past several decades, with a growing body of research dedicated toward the treatment of such conditions. By driving a complex range of changes in the underlying immune response, immunotherapy is the only therapy that modulates the immune system with long-term effects and is presently utilized for the treatment of several atopic conditions. Recent efforts have focused on identifying biomarkers associated with these changes that may be of use in predicting patients with the highest likelihood of positive clinical outcomes during allergen immunotherapy (AIT), providing guidance regarding AIT discontinuation, and predicting symptomatic relapse and the need for booster AIT after therapy...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454392/soft-robotic-devices-for-hand-rehabilitation-and-assistance-a-narrative-review
#4
REVIEW
Chia-Ye Chu, Rita M Patterson
INTRODUCTION: The debilitating effects on hand function from a number of a neurologic disorders has given rise to the development of rehabilitative robotic devices aimed at restoring hand function in these patients. To combat the shortcomings of previous traditional robotics, soft robotics are rapidly emerging as an alternative due to their inherent safety, less complex designs, and increased potential for portability and efficacy. While several groups have begun designing devices, there are few devices that have progressed enough to provide clinical evidence of their design's therapeutic abilities...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454104/functional-brain-connectivity-is-predictable-from-anatomic-network-s-laplacian-eigen-structure
#5
Farras Abdelnour, Michael Dayan, Orrin Devinsky, Thomas Thesen, Ashish Raj
How structural connectivity (SC) gives rise to functional connectivity (FC) is not fully understood. Here we mathematically derive a simple relationship between SC measured from diffusion tensor imaging, and FC from resting state fMRI. We establish that SC and FC are related via (structural) Laplacian spectra, whereby FC and SC share eigenvectors and their eigenvalues are exponentially related. This gives, for the first time, a simple and analytical relationship between the graph spectra of structural and functional networks...
February 14, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453308/sex-specific-mechanisms-of-resistance-vessel-endothelial-dysfunction-induced-by-cardiometabolic-risk-factors
#6
Ana P Davel, Qing Lu, M Elizabeth Moss, Sitara Rao, Imran J Anwar, Jennifer J DuPont, Iris Z Jaffe
BACKGROUND: The incidence of obesity is rising, particularly among women. Microvascular dysfunction is more common with female sex, obesity, and hyperlipidemia and predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes, but the molecular mechanisms are unclear. Because obesity is associated with mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation, we tested the hypothesis that MR in endothelial cells contribute to sex differences in resistance vessel dysfunction in response to cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male and female endothelial cell-specific MR knockout mice and MR-intact littermates were randomized to high-fat-diet-induced obesity or obesity with hyperlipidemia induced by adeno-associated virus-based vector targeting transfer of the mutant stable form (DY mutation) of the human PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) gene and compared with control diet...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453255/endophyte-mediated-modulation-of-defense-responsive-genes-and-systemic-resistance-in-withania-somnifera-l-dunal-under-alternaria-alternata-stress
#7
Aradhana Mishra, Satyendra Pratap Singh, Sahil Mahfooz, Surendra Pratap Singh, Arpita Bhattacharya, Nishtha Mishra, C S Nautiyal
Endophytes have been explored to perform an important role in plant health. However, their effects on the host physiological function and disease management remains elusive. The present study was aimed to assess the potential of endophytes singly as well as in combination on various physiological parameters and systemic defense mechanism against Alternaria alternata in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. Seed priming with endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Pseudomonas fluorescens individually and in combination demonstrated enhanced vigor index and germination rate...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453207/hippocampal-ripple-oscillations-and-inhibition-first-network-models-frequency-dynamics-and-response-to-gaba-modulators
#8
José R Donoso, Dietmar Schmitz, Nikolaus Maier, Richard Kempter
Hippocampal ripples are involved in memory consolidation, but the mechanisms underlying their generation remain unclear. Models relying on interneuron networks in the CA1 region disagree on the predominant source of excitation to interneurons: either 'direct', via the Schaffer collaterals that provide feedforward input from CA3 to CA1, or 'indirect', via the local pyramidal cells in CA1, which are embedded in a recurrent excitatory-inhibitory network. Here, we used physiologically constrained computational models of basket-cell networks to investigate how they respond to different conditions of transient, noisy excitation...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452944/iron-engineered-mesoporous-silica-nanocatalyst-with-biodegradable-and-catalytic-framework-for-tumor-specific-therapy
#9
Liying Wang, Minfeng Huo, Yu Chen, Jianlin Shi
Inorganic mesoporous silica-based nanovehicles are highly promising for drug delivery but still suffer from the disadvantages of lacking functionality and poor biodegradability on account of the inert silica framework. Moreover, conventional cancer therapeutics typically employ toxic anticancer drugs or invasive external irradiations, which will inevitably give rise to severe adverse effects and diminished therapeutic outcome. In this work, we report on the iron engineered framework of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) to fabricate a nanocatalyst with biodegradable and catalytic framework via a "dissolution-regeneration" strategy (designated as rFeO x -HMSN)...
February 9, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452612/survival-strategies-for-mouse-cerebellar-purkinje-neurons-lacking-pmca2
#10
REVIEW
Christopher J Roome, Ruth M Empson
Expression of the fast calcium extrusion protein, PMCA2, in the cerebellum is amongst the highest found throughout the central nervous system, and unsurprisingly PMCA2 knockout mice exhibit cerebellar ataxia or loss of controlled movement. The sole output neurons of the cerebellar cortex, Purkinje neurons, are functionally compromised in these knockout mice, yet remarkably these neurons survive. In this mini-review we review and speculate on the importance of multiple PMCA2 dependent actions at cellular and synaptic sites within the cerebellar Purkinje neuron network...
January 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452205/impaired-cerebral-microcirculation-induced-by-ammonium-chloride-in-rats-is-due-to-cortical-adenosine-release
#11
Peter Nissen Bjerring, Esben Jannik Bjerrum, Fin Stolze Larsen
BACKGROUND: Liver failure results in hyperammonaemia, impaired regulation of cerebral microcirculation, encephalopathy and death. However, the key mediator that alters cerebral microcirculation remains unidentified. In this study we show that topical ammonium significantly increases periarteriolar adenosine tone on the brain surface of healthy rats and is associated with a disturbed microcirculation. METHODS: Cranial windows were prepared in anaesthetized Wistar rats...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452097/stimulation-of-trpv1-channels-activates-the-ap-1-transcription-factor
#12
Tobias M Backes, Oliver G Rössler, Xin Hui, Carsten Grötzinger, Peter Lipp, Gerald Thiel
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels were originally described as the receptors of capsaicin, the main constituent of hot chili pepper. The biological functions of TRPV1 channels include pain sensation and inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia. Here, we show that stimulation of HEK293 cells expressing TRPV1 channels (H2C1 cells) with capsaicin or the TRPV1 ligand resiniferatoxin activated transcription mediated by the transcription factor AP-1. No cell death was occurring under these experimental conditions...
February 13, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451662/what-clinical-functional-and-psychological-factors-before-treatment-are-predictors-of-poor-quality-of-life-in-cancer-patients-at-the-end-of-chemotherapy
#13
Ariella Sebastião Mangia, Nara Lisiane de Oliveira Coqueiro, Fernanda Cabral Azevedo, Hiago Tomaz da Silva Araujo, Elizandra de Oliveira Amorim, Cibelli Navarro Rodrigues Alves, Calvino Camargo, Allex Jardim da Fonseca
OBJECTIVE: To correlate physical activity level (PAL), functional capacity and psychological state with quality of life (QoL) in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy (CT). METHOD: Observational cohort study. Patients (n=121) with any primary cancer site with indications of chemotherapy with palliative or curative intent were evaluated at three moments: 1) patient admission (week 0), before chemotherapy; 2) week 8; 3) end of CT. Data were collected regarding QoL, PAL, clinical data, functional capacity (short walking distance test, sitting-rising test, isometric manual gripping force), and anxiety and depression tests...
November 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451485/-the-roles-of-mast-cells-in-radiation-induced-damage-are-still-an-enigma
#14
Fabien Milliat, Agnès François
Mast cells are immune cells that mature within the host tissue. The acquired phenotype is dictated by the tissue microenvironment, giving rise to diverse tissue-dependent phenotypes and functions. The lack of cellular models reflecting phenotypes found in vivo and important differences between human and rodent mast cells are obstacles to the understanding of their exact role in several pathophysiological processes. Studies published over the past few years showed that mast cells' role lies far beyond their involvement in allergy and anaphylaxis...
February 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451484/-biogenesis-of-small-non-coding-rnas-in-animals
#15
Lucile Fressigné, Martin J Simard
In recent years, the discovery of small non-coding RNAs has opened an all new field in molecular biology. Indeed, these non-coding sequences give rise to powerful regulators of gene expression. Nowadays, different types of small non-coding RNAs have been described. Of these, the best-characterized types are microRNAs, piRNAs (Piwi-interacting RNAs) and siRNAs (small interfering RNAs). Because of their fine-tuning important function in the regulation of gene and genome expression, an aberrant expression level of those small non-coding RNAs are associated to several pathologies...
February 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450823/nmr-resonance-assignments-of-rnase-p-protein-from-thermotoga-maritima
#16
Danyun Zeng, Benjamin P Brown, Markus W Voehler, Sheng Cai, Nicholas J Reiter
Ribonuclase P (RNase P) is an essential metallo-endonuclease that catalyzes 5' precursor-tRNA (ptRNA) processing and exists as an RNA-based enzyme in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. In bacteria, a large catalytic RNA and a small protein component assemble to recognize and accurately cleave ptRNA and tRNA-like molecular scaffolds. Substrate recognition of ptRNA by bacterial RNase P requires RNA-RNA shape complementarity, intermolecular base pairing, and a dynamic protein-ptRNA binding interface. To gain insight into the binding specificity and dynamics of the bacterial protein-ptRNA interface, we report the backbone and side chain 1 H, 13 C, and 15 N resonance assignments of the hyperthermophilic Thermatoga maritima RNase P protein in solution at 318 K...
February 15, 2018: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450767/epididymo-orchitis-caused-by-enteric-organisms-in-men-35-years-old-beyond-fluoroquinolones
#17
REVIEW
Laura Ryan, Padraig Daly, Ivor Cullen, Maeve Doyle
Epididymo-orchitis is a common urological condition in men of all ages, causing a unilateral or bilateral swelling of the epididymis and/or testis. It is frequently caused by sexually transmitted infections, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrheae, as well as common enteric organisms implicated in urinary tract infections. Men over 35 years old may develop epididymo-orchitis associated with enteric organisms, often associated with functional bladder outlet problems such as benign prostatic hyperplasia or urethral stricture disease...
February 15, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450726/c9orf72-associated-neurodegeneration-in-als-ftd-breaking-new-ground-in-ribosomal-rna-and-nucleolar-dysfunction
#18
REVIEW
Dustin Herrmann, Rosanna Parlato
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) are neurodegenerative diseases with distinct clinical appearance. However, both share as major genetic risk factor a C9orf72 locus intronic hexanucleotide expansion. The pathogenic pathways associated with the expansion-dependent neuronal toxicity are still poorly understood. Recent efforts to identify common threads of neuronal dysfunction have pointed towards deficits of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) biogenesis and loss of nucleolar integrity, a condition known as nucleolar stress that is an emerging shared feature among neurodegenerative diseases...
February 15, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450392/glaucoma-after-penetrating-keratoplasty
#19
REVIEW
Mihail Zemba, Alina-Cristina Stamate
Penetrating keratoplasty is a surgical intervention that despite the progress of surgical techniques and of postoperative treatment continues to have numerous complications. Many of them, such as graft rejection, significant astigmatism, cystoid macular edema, or cataract lead to important limitations of the visual function. Glaucoma is possibly the most dangerous complication following PK, leading to loss of the visual potential of the eye due to irreversible damage to the optic nerve. Identifying the risk factors permits an attentive follow-up and rapid treatment of the postoperative IOP rises...
July 2017: Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449966/raman-spectroscopic-imaging-for-quantification-of-depth-dependent-and-local-heterogeneities-in-native-and-engineered-cartilage
#20
M B Albro, M S Bergholt, J P St-Pierre, A Vinals Guitart, H M Zlotnick, E G Evita, M M Stevens
Articular cartilage possesses a remarkable, mechanically-robust extracellular matrix (ECM) that is organized and distributed throughout the tissue to resist physiologic strains and provide low friction during articulation. The ability to characterize the make-up and distribution of the cartilage ECM is critical to both understand the process by which articular cartilage undergoes disease-related degeneration and to develop novel tissue repair strategies to restore tissue functionality. However, the ability to quantitatively measure the spatial distribution of cartilage ECM constituents throughout the tissue has remained a major challenge...
2018: NPJ Regenerative Medicine
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