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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040705/the-mrpp1-mrpp2-complex-is-a-trna-maturation-platform-in-human-mitochondria
#1
Linda Reinhard, Sagar Sridhara, B Martin Hällberg
Mitochondrial polycistronic transcripts are extensively processed to give rise to functional mRNAs, rRNAs and tRNAs; starting with the release of tRNA elements through 5'-processing by RNase P (MRPP1/2/3-complex) and 3'-processing by RNase Z (ELAC2). Here, we show using in vitro experiments that MRPP1/2 is not only a component of the mitochondrial RNase P but that it retains the tRNA product from the 5'-processing step and significantly enhances the efficiency of ELAC2-catalyzed 3'-processing for 17 of the 22 tRNAs encoded in the human mitochondrial genome...
October 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040646/statins-affect-skeletal-muscle-performance-evidence-for-disturbances-in-energy-metabolism
#2
Neeltje A E Allard, Tom J J Schirris, Rebecca J Verheggen, Frans G M Russel, Richard J Rodenburg, Jan A M Smeitink, Paul D Thompson, Maria T E Hopman, Silvie Timmers
Context: Statin myopathy is linked to disturbances in mitochondrial function and exercise intolerance. Objectives: To determine whether differences exist in exercise performance, muscle function and mitochondrial oxidative capacity and content between symptomatic and asymptomatic statin users, and non-statin using controls. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Department of Physiology of the Radboud University Medical Center...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040625/rise-a-database-of-rna-interactome-from-sequencing-experiments
#3
Jing Gong, Di Shao, Kui Xu, Zhipeng Lu, Zhi John Lu, Yucheng T Yang, Qiangfeng Cliff Zhang
We present RISE (http://rise.zhanglab.net), a database of RNA Interactome from Sequencing Experiments. RNA-RNA interactions (RRIs) are essential for RNA regulation and function. RISE provides a comprehensive collection of RRIs that mainly come from recent transcriptome-wide sequencing-based experiments like PARIS, SPLASH, LIGR-seq, and MARIO, as well as targeted studies like RIA-seq, RAP-RNA and CLASH. It also includes interactions aggregated from other primary databases and publications. The RISE database currently contains 328,811 RNA-RNA interactions mainly in human, mouse and yeast...
October 4, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036566/the-role-of-alternative-splicing-and-differential-gene-expression-in-cichlid-adaptive-radiation
#4
Pooja Singh, Christine Börger, Heather More, Christian Sturmbauer
Species diverge eco-morphologically through the continuous action of natural selection on functionally important structures, producing alternative adaptive morphologies. In cichlid fishes, the oral and pharyngeal jaws are such key structures. Adaptive variation in jaw morphology contributes to trophic specialisation, which is hypothesised to fuel their rapid speciation in the East African Great Lakes. Much is known about the genes involved in cichlid jaw and craniofacial development. However, it is still unclear what salient sources of variation gave rise to trophic-niche specialisation, facilitating adaptive radiation...
September 27, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035024/half-metallicity-in-co-doped-wse2-nanoribbons
#5
Runzhang Xu, Bilu Liu, Xiaolong Zou, Hui-Ming Cheng
Recent development of two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides in electronics and optoelelectronics has triggered the exploration in spintronics, with high demand in search for half-metallicity in these systems. Here, through density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we predict robust half-metallic behaviors in Co edge-doped WSe2 nanoribbons. With electrons partially occupying the anti-bonding state consisting of Co 3dyz and Se 4pz orbitals, the system becomes spin-polarized due to the defect-state induced Stoner effect, and the strong exchange splitting eventually gives rise to the half-metallicity...
October 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034397/electrically-tunable-tunneling-rectification-magnetoresistance-in-magnetic-tunneling-junctions-with-asymmetric-barriers
#6
Jing Wang, Qikun Huang, Peng Shi, Kun Zhang, Yufeng Tian, Shishen Yan, Yanxue Chen, Guolei Liu, Shishou Kang, Liangmo Mei
The development of multifunctional spintronic devices requires simultaneous control of multiple degrees of freedom of electrons, such as charge, spin and orbit, and especially a new physical functionality can be realized by combining two or more different physical mechanisms in one specific device. Here, we report the realization of novel tunneling rectification magnetoresistance (TRMR), where the charge-related rectification and spin-dependent tunneling magnetoresistance are integrated in Co/CoO-ZnO/Co magnetic tunneling junctions with asymmetric tunneling barriers...
October 16, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034311/left-atrial-deformation-useful-index-for-early-detection-of-cardiac-damage-in-chronic-mitral-regurgitation
#7
REVIEW
M Cameli, E Incampo, S Mondillo
In chronic mitral regurgitation (MR) left atrium is one of the first cardiac structures that is involved in remodeling and ultrastructural changes for a progressive volume overload. Severe left atrial (LA) dilation on echocardiography and new onset of atrial fibrillation in asymptomatic patients with preserved Left Ventricular (LV) function, appeared as a Class IIb recommendation for consideration for surgical mitral valve repair in the actual guidelines. However, before atrial dilatation and dysfunction, several ultrastructural changes appear in the atrial muscle tissue that are difficult to identify with the standard echocardiography...
December 2017: IJC Heart & Vasculature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033968/dancing-with-hormones-a-current-perspective-of-nitrate-signaling-and-regulation-in-arabidopsis
#8
REVIEW
Peizhu Guan
In nature and agriculture, nitrate availability is a main environmental cue for plant growth, development and stress responses. Nitrate signaling and regulation are hence at the center of communications between plant intrinsic programs and the environment. It is also well known that endogenous phytohormones play numerous critical roles in integrating extrinsic cues and intrinsic responses, regulating and refining almost all aspects of plant growth, development and stress responses. Therefore, interaction between nitrate and phytohormones, such as auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, gibberellins, and ethylene, is prevalent...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033313/developing-a-model-for-cystic-fibrosis-sociomicrobiology-based-on-antibiotic-and-environmental-stress
#9
Susana Patrícia Lopes, Nuno Filipe Azevedo, Maria Olívia Pereira
Cystic fibrosis (CF) infections are invariably biofilm-mediated and polymicrobial, being safe to assume that a myriad of factors affects the sociomicrobiology within the CF infection site and modulate the CF community dynamics, by shaping their social activities, overall functions, virulence, ultimately affecting disease outcome. This work aimed to assess changes in the dynamics (particularly on the microbial composition) of dual-/three-species biofilms involving CF-classical (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and unusual species (Inquilinus limosus and Dolosigranulum pigrum), according to variable oxygen conditions and antibiotic exposure...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032675/carbon-hydrogen-and-nitrogen-isotope-fractionation-trends-in-n-nitrosodimethylamine-reflect-the-formation-pathway-during-chloramination-of-tertiary-amines
#10
Stephanie Spahr, Urs von Gunten, Thomas B Hofstetter
Assessing the precursors and reactions leading to the carcinogenic N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) during drinking water disinfection is a major challenge. Here, we investigate whether changes of 13C/12C, 2H/1H, and 15N/14N ratios of NDMA give rise to isotope fractionation trends that can be used to infer NDMA formation pathways. We carried out compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of NDMA during chloramination of four tertiary amines that produce NDMA at high yields, namely ranitidine, 5-(dimethylaminomethyl)furfuryl alcohol, N,N-dimethylthiophene-2-methylamine and N,N-dimethylbenzylamine...
October 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032199/affinity-and-path-of-binding-xylopyranose-unto-e-coli-xylose-permease
#11
Thierry O Wambo, Liao Y Chen, Clyde Phelix, George Perry
Glucose transporters (GLUTs), expressed in all types of human cells, are responsible for the uptake of sugars as the primary energy source for the normal functions of good cells and for the abnormal growth of cancer cells. The E. coli xylose permease (XylE), a homologue of human GLUTs, has been investigated more thoroughly than other major facilitator proteins in the current literature. In this paper, we present a molecular dynamics (MD) study of an all-atom model system to elucidate the atomistic details and the free-energy landscape along the path of binding a xylopyranose (XYP) from the extracellular space to the inside of the transporter protein XylE...
October 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032132/prognostic-importance-of-temporal-changes-in-resting-heart-rate-in-heart-failure-and-preserved-ejection-fraction-from-the-topcat-study
#12
Ali Vazir, Brian Claggett, Bertram Pitt, Inder Anand, Nancy Sweitzer, James Fang, Jerome Fleg, Jean Rouleau, Sanjiv Shah, Marc A Pfeffer, Scott D Solomon
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between baseline heart rate (HR), change in HR from a preceding visit, and time-updated HR with subsequent outcomes in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in the TOPCAT (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist) trial. BACKGROUND: Higher resting HR and increase in HR over time in patients with heart failure are associated with adverse outcomes...
October 4, 2017: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031332/right-ventricular-function-during-pharmacological-and-exercise-stress-testing-in-horses
#13
A Decloedt, D De Clercq, S Ven, L Vera, G van Loon
The disproportionate rise of pulmonary artery pressure compared to systemic blood pressure during exercise can lead to detrimental right ventricular remodelling in endurance athletes. Horses may act as an extreme model of these athletic cardiovascular adaptations, as they show a three fold increase in pulmonary pressures during exercise. Right ventricular function was examined in ten healthy horses using post-exercise and pharmacological stress echocardiography in a randomised cross-over design. Exercise testing was performed on a treadmill while pharmacological testing was performed using an atropine-dobutamine infusion...
September 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031250/communication-relaxation-limited-electronic-currents-in-extended-reservoir-simulations
#14
Daniel Gruss, Alex Smolyanitsky, Michael Zwolak
Open-system approaches are gaining traction in the simulation of charge transport in nanoscale and molecular electronic devices. In particular, "extended reservoir" simulations, where explicit reservoir degrees of freedom are present, allow for the computation of both real-time and steady-state properties but require relaxation of the extended reservoirs. The strength of this relaxation, γ, influences the conductance, giving rise to a "turnover" behavior analogous to Kramers turnover in chemical reaction rates...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029787/early-testosterone-replacement-attenuates-intracellular-calcium-dyshomeostasis-in-the-heart-of-testosterone-deprived-male-rats
#15
Punate Weerateerangkul, Krekwit Shinlapawittayatorn, Siripong Palee, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
BACKGROUND: Testosterone deficiency in elderly men increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. In bilateral orchiectomized (ORX) animals, impaired cardiac Ca(2+) regulation was observed, and this impairment could be improved by testosterone replacement, indicating the important role of testosterone in cardiac Ca(2+) regulation. However, the temporal changes of Ca(2+) dyshomeostasis in testosterone-deprived conditions are unclear. Moreover, the effects of early vs. late testosterone replacement are unknown...
November 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029545/the-role-of-toll-like-receptor-4-in-tumor-microenvironment
#16
REVIEW
Jing Li, Fan Yang, Feng Wei, Xiubao Ren
Tumors are closely related to chronic inflammation, during which there are various changes in inflammatory sites, such as immune cells infiltration, pro-inflammation cytokines production, and interaction between immune cells and tissue cells. Besides, substances, released from both tissue cells attacked by exogenous etiologies, also act on local cells. These changes induce a dynamic and complex microenvironment favorable for tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is the first identified member of the toll-like receptor family that can recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMPs)...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028280/temporal-changes-in-soil-c-n-p-stoichiometry-over-the-past-60-years-across-subtropical-china
#17
Zaipeng Yu, Minhuang Wang, Zhiqun Huang, Teng-Chiu Lin, Matthew A Vadeboncoeur, Eric B Searle, Han Y H Chen
Controlled experiments have shown that global changes decouple the biogeochemical cycles of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P), resulting in shifting stoichiometry that lies at the core of ecosystem functioning. However, the response of soil stoichiometry to global changes in natural ecosystems with different soil depths, vegetation types, and climate gradients remain poorly understood. Based on 2,736 observations along soil profiles of 0-150 cm depth from 1955 to 2016, we evaluated the temporal changes in soil C-N-P stoichiometry across subtropical China, where soils are P-impoverished, with diverse vegetation, soil, and parent material types and a wide range of climate gradients...
October 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026447/epigenome-alterations-in-aortic-valve-stenosis-and-its-related-left-ventricular-hypertrophy
#18
REVIEW
Igor Gošev, Martina Zeljko, Željko Đurić, Ivana Nikolić, Milorad Gošev, Sanja Ivčević, Dino Bešić, Zoran Legčević, Frane Paić
Aortic valve stenosis is the most common cardiac valve disease, and with current trends in the population demographics, its prevalence is likely to rise, thus posing a major health and economic burden facing the worldwide societies. Over the past decade, it has become more than clear that our traditional genetic views do not sufficiently explain the well-known link between AS, proatherogenic risk factors, flow-induced mechanical forces, and disease-prone environmental influences. Recent breakthroughs in the field of epigenetics offer us a new perspective on gene regulation, which has broadened our perspective on etiology of aortic stenosis and other aortic valve diseases...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026064/the-effect-of-recipient-body-mass-index-and-its-extremes-on-survival-and-graft-vascular-and-biliary-complications-after-liver-transplantation-a-single-center-retrospective-study
#19
Emmanouil Giorgakis, Michele Tedeschi, Eliano Bonaccorsi-Riani, Shirin Elizabeth Khorsandi, Krishna Menon, Hector Vilca-Melendez, Wayel Jassem, Parthi Srinivasan, Andreas Prachalias, Nigel Heaton
BACKGROUND This is the largest UK-based study on the effect of recipient body mass index (BMI) and its extremes (BMI <18.5 and BMI ≥35 kg/m²) on liver transplant (LT) outcomes. Its purpose was to analyze the BMI effect on post-LT mortality, graft loss, primary non-function (PNF), and graft vascular and biliary complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS Data were retrieved from a single-center LT database of 2,115 consecutive patients receiving first LT during period February 2004 to September 2015. Survivals were compared across the BMI groups; the effects of recipient BMI on survival, PNF, and graft vascular and biliary complications were analyzed via regression...
October 13, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025706/no-augments-endothelial-reactivity-by-reducing-myoendothelial-calcium-signal-spreading-a-novel-role-for-cx37-connexin-37-and-shp-2
#20
Kristin Pogoda, Hanna Mannell, Stephanie Blodow, Holger Schneider, Kai Michael Schubert, Jiehua Qiu, Andreas Schmidt, Axel Imhof, Heike Beck, Laurentia Irina Tanase, Alexander Pfeifer, Ulrich Pohl, Petra Kameritsch
OBJECTIVE: Because of its strategic position between endothelial and smooth muscle cells in microvessels, Cx37 (Connexin 37) plays an important role in myoendothelial gap junctional intercellular communication. We have shown before that NO inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication through gap junctions containing Cx37. However, the underlying mechanism is not yet identified. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Using channel-forming Cx37 mutants exhibiting partial deletions or amino acid exchanges in their C-terminal loops, we now show that the phosphorylation state of a tyrosine residue at position 332 (Y332) in the C terminus of Cx37 controls the gap junction-dependent spread of calcium signals...
October 12, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
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