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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727946/confounding-by-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-rs117648444-p70s-affects-the-association-of-interferon-lambda-locus-variants-with-response-to-interferon-%C3%AE-ribavirin-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-genotype-3-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#1
Anand Bhushan, Sumona Ghosh, Samsiddhi Bhattacharjee, Sreedhar Chinnaswamy
Genome-wide association studies discovered interferon lambda (IFNL or IFN-λ) locus on chromosome 19 to be involved in clearance of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients following interferon-α-ribavirin (IFN-RBV) therapy. Subsequent studies established a dinucleotide polymorphism rs368234815, as the prime causal variant behind this association. The ΔG allele of this variant gives rise to a new IFNL gene, IFNL4, coding for IFN-λ4 whose activity paradoxically associates with lesser viral clearance rates...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726940/measurement-of-specific-heat-and-thermal-conductivity-of-supported-and-suspended-graphene-by-a-comprehensive-raman-optothermal-method
#2
Qin-Yi Li, Kailun Xia, Ji Zhang, Yingying Zhang, Qunyang Li, Koji Takahashi, Xing Zhang
The last decade has seen the rapid growth of research on two-dimensional (2D) materials, represented by graphene, but research on their thermophysical properties is still far from sufficient owing to the experimental challenges. Herein, we report the first measurement of the specific heat of multilayer and monolayer graphene in both supported and suspended geometries. Their thermal conductivities were also simultaneously measured using a comprehensive Raman optothermal method without needing to know the laser absorption...
July 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726902/limiting-the-valence-advancements-and-new-perspectives-on-patchy-colloids-soft-functionalized-nanoparticles-and-biomolecules
#3
Emanuela Bianchi, Barbara Capone, Ivan Coluzza, Lorenzo Rovigatti, Peter D J van Oostrum
Limited bonding valence, usually accompanied by well-defined directional interactions and selective bonding mechanisms, is nowadays considered among the key ingredients to create complex structures with tailored properties: even though isotropically interacting units already guarantee access to a vast range of functional materials, anisotropic interactions can provide extra instructions to steer the assembly of specific architectures. The anisotropy of effective interactions gives rise to a wealth of self-assembled structures both in the realm of suitably synthesized nano- and micro-sized building blocks and in nature, where the isotropy of interactions is often a zero-th order description of the complicated reality...
July 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726574/rise-of-the-pigs-utilization-of-the-porcine-model-to-study-musculoskeletal-biomechanics-and-tissue-engineering-during-skeletal-growth
#4
Stephanie G Cone, Paul B Warren, Matthew B Fisher
Large animal models play an essential role in the study of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine as well as biomechanics.  The porcine model has been increasingly used to study the musculoskeletal system, including specific joints, such as the knee and temporomandibular joints, and tissues, such as bone, cartilage, and ligaments. In particular, pigs have been utilized to evaluate the role of skeletal growth on the biomechanics and engineered replacements of these joints and tissues. In this review, we explore the publication history of the use of pig models in biomechanics, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine studies, discuss inter-species comparative studies, highlight studies on the effect of skeletal growth and other biological considerations in the porcine model, and present challenges and emerging opportunities for using this model to study functional tissue engineering and regenerative medicine...
July 20, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726538/marked-bleeding-diathesis-in-patients-with-platelet-dysfunction-due-to-a-novel-mutation-in-rasgrp2-encoding-caldag-gefi-p-gly305asp
#5
Emilse Bermejo, Maria F Alberto, David S Paul, Aaron A Cook, Paquita Nurden, Analia Sanchez Luceros, Alan T Nurden, Wolfgang Bergmeier
Congenital platelet function disorders are often the result of defects in critical signal transduction pathways required for platelet adhesion and clot formation. Mutations affecting RASGRP2, the gene encoding the Rap GTPase activator, CalDAG-GEFI, give rise to a novel, and rare, group of platelet signal transduction abnormalities. We here report platelet function studies for two brothers (P1 and P2) expressing a novel variant of RASGRP2, CalDAG-GEFI(p.Gly305Asp). P1 and P2 have a lifelong history of bleeding with severe epistaxis successfully treated with platelet transfusions or rFVIIa...
July 20, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726352/computational-design-of-a-specific-heavy-chain-%C3%AE%C2%BA-light-chain-interface-for-expressing-fully-igg-bispecific-antibodies
#6
K J Froning, A Leaver-Fay, X Wu, S Phan, L Gao, F Huang, A Pustilnik, M Bacica, K Houlihan, Q Chai, J R Fitchett, J Hendle, B Kuhlman, S J Demarest
The use of bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) to treat human diseases is on the rise. Increasingly complex and powerful therapeutic mechanisms made possible by BsAbs are being described in the literature and are spurring innovation of novel BsAb formats and methods for their production. The long-lived in vivo pharmacokinetics, optimal biophysical properties and potential effector functions of natural IgG monoclonal (and monospecific) antibodies has resulted in a push to generate fully IgG BsAb formats with the same quaternary structure as monoclonal IgGs...
July 20, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725186/foxb1-regulates-negatively-the-proliferation-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitors
#7
Yuanfeng Zhang, Elti Hoxha, Tianyu Zhao, Xunlei Zhou, Gonzalo Alvarez-Bolado
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC), neurons and astrocytes share a neural progenitor cell (NPC) in the early ventricular zone (VZ) of the embryonic neuroepithelium. Both switch to produce either of the three cell types and the generation of the right number of them undergo complex genetic regulation. The components of these regulatory cascades vary between brain regions giving rise to the unique morphological and functional heterogeneity of this organ. Forkhead b1 (Foxb1) is a transcription factor gene expressed by NPCs in specific regions of the embryonic neuroepithelium...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724734/hydrothermal-vent-fields-discovered-in-the-southern-gulf-of-california-clarify-role-of-habitat-in-augmenting-regional-diversity
#8
Shana K Goffredi, Shannon Johnson, Verena Tunnicliffe, David Caress, David Clague, Elva Escobar, Lonny Lundsten, Jennifer B Paduan, Greg Rouse, Diana L Salcedo, Luis A Soto, Ronald Spelz-Madero, Robert Zierenberg, Robert Vrijenhoek
Hydrothermal vent communities are distributed along mid-ocean spreading ridges as isolated patches. While distance is a key factor influencing connectivity among sites, habitat characteristics are also critical. The Pescadero Basin (PB) and Alarcón Rise (AR) vent fields, recently discovered in the southern Gulf of California, are bounded by previously known vent localities (e.g. Guaymas Basin and 21° N East Pacific Rise); yet, the newly discovered vents differ markedly in substrata and vent fluid attributes...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723594/cochlear-implantation-improves-hearing-and-vertigo-in-patients-after-removal-of-vestibular-schwannoma
#9
Ariane Roemer, Thomas Lenarz, Anke Lesinski-Schiedat
OBJECTIVES: With rising quality of speech perception in cochlear implant users, the indication widens. Nowadays, cochlear implantation is reasonable even in vestibular schwannoma patients. Speech perception with a cochlear implant is in these patients as promising as in patients with sensorineural hearing loss. However, the impact of cochlear implantation on vertigo and tinnitus after removal of vestibular schwannoma has not been investigated yet. METHODS: In a retrospective study, we analysed 12 patients treated with a cochlear implant after removal of vestibular schwannoma...
June 1, 2017: International Tinnitus Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723550/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-primitive-macrophages-provide-a-platform-for-modeling-tissue-resident-macrophage-differentiation-and-function
#10
Kazuyuki Takata, Tatsuya Kozaki, Christopher Zhe Wei Lee, Morgane Sonia Thion, Masayuki Otsuka, Shawn Lim, Kagistia Hana Utami, Kerem Fidan, Dong Shin Park, Benoit Malleret, Svetoslav Chakarov, Peter See, Donovan Low, Gillian Low, Marta Garcia-Miralles, Ruizhu Zeng, Jinqiu Zhang, Chi Ching Goh, Ahmet Gul, Sandra Hubert, Bernett Lee, Jinmiao Chen, Ivy Low, Nurhidaya Binte Shadan, Josephine Lum, Tay Seok Wei, Esther Mok, Shohei Kawanishi, Yoshihisa Kitamura, Anis Larbi, Michael Poidinger, Laurent Renia, Lai Guan Ng, Yochai Wolf, Steffen Jung, Tamer Önder, Evan Newell, Tara Huber, Eishi Ashihara, Sonia Garel, Mahmoud A Pouladi, Florent Ginhoux
Tissue macrophages arise during embryogenesis from yolk-sac (YS) progenitors that give rise to primitive YS macrophages. Until recently, it has been impossible to isolate or derive sufficient numbers of YS-derived macrophages for further study, but data now suggest that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be driven to undergo a process reminiscent of YS-hematopoiesis in vitro. We asked whether iPSC-derived primitive macrophages (iMacs) can terminally differentiate into specialized macrophages with the help of growth factors and organ-specific cues...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723073/experimental-determination-of-the-ionization-energies-of-mose2-ws2-and-mos2-on-sio2-using-photoemission-electron-microscopy
#11
Kunttal Keyshar, Morgann Berg, Xiang Zhang, Robert Vajtai, Gautam Gupta, Calvin K Chan, Thomas E Beechem, Pulickel M Ajayan, Aditya D Mohite, Taisuke Ohta
The values of the ionization energies of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are needed to assess their potential usefulness in semiconductor heterojunctions for high-performance optoelectronics. Here, we report on the systematic determination of ionization energies for three prototypical TMD monolayers (MoSe2, WS2, and MoS2) on SiO2 using photoemission electron microscopy with deep ultraviolet illumination. The ionization energy displays a progressive decrease from MoS2, to WS2, to MoSe2, in agreement with predictions of density functional theory calculations...
July 19, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722681/the-role-of-toll-like-receptor-4-in-tumor-microenvironment
#12
REVIEW
Jing Li, Fan Yang, Feng Wei, Xiubao Ren
Tumors are closely related to chronic inflammation, during which there are various changes in inflammatory sites, such as immune cells infiltration, pro-inflammation cytokines production, and interaction between immune cells and tissue cells. Besides, substances, released from both tissue cells attacked by exogenous etiologies, also act on local cells. These changes induce a dynamic and complex microenvironment favorable for tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is the first identified member of the toll-like receptor family that can recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMPs)...
July 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722019/sustained-accumulation-of-antigen-presenting-cells-after-infection-promotes-local-t-cell-immunity
#13
Nicholas Collins, Katharina Hochheiser, Francis R Carbone, Thomas Gebhardt
Antigen-presenting cells (APC) such as dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages are critical for T cell-mediated immunity. While it is established that memory T cells accumulate and persist in peripheral tissues after the resolution of infection, whether this is also the case for APC remains unclear. Here, we report that CCR2-dependent cells infiltrate skin during acute infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and subsequently give rise to localized populations of dendritic cells and macrophages. These APC are found at elevated numbers at sites of resolved infection or inflammation compared to unaffected regions of skin...
July 19, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721828/mir-149-as-a-potential-molecular-target-for-cancer
#14
Suet Hui Ow, Pei Jou Chua, Boon Huat Bay
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding nucleotides that regulate the expression of proteins. They play major roles in fundamental cellular processes. Aberrant expression of miRNAs has been frequently detected in cancers. miR-149 has been implicated in tumor progression by regulating cellular proliferation, migration, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal-transition and chemoresistance. There have been reports that miR-149 can function both as an oncogene or tumor suppressor, depending on the type of cancer, thereby giving rise to the possibility of utilizing miR-149 mimics and inhibitors for cancer therapy...
July 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721131/adrenopause-does-it-really-exist
#15
REVIEW
Lucyna Papierska
In ageing human adrenal glands there occur some morphological changes which result in alterations of their cortex endocrine function. Glucocorticoid-excreting cells in the zona glomerulosa live longer than androgen-producing cells in the zona reticularis, which undergo significant apoptosis. Therefore, in elderly humans cortisol levels are normal (significantly higher than at young age), while adrenal androgen concentrations decline with ageing. Function of the zona glomerulosa is affected by the adrenal status, circulatory system condition, efficiency of the kidneys and liver and medication...
June 2017: Przeglad Menopauzalny, Menopause Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720517/transient-receptor-potential-trpm3-channels-pharmacology-signaling-and-biological-functions
#16
REVIEW
Gerald Thiel, Sandra Rubil, Andrea Lesch, Lisbeth A Guethlein, Oliver G Rössler
The transient receptor potential melastatin-3 (TRPM3) channel belongs to the family of transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels that are expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types, including dorsal root ganglia, cardiomyocytes and pancreatic beta-cells. Although its natural ligands are currently unknown, TRPM3 channels can be activated by the neurosteroid pregnenolone sulfate, the synthetic ligand CIM0216, and by noxious heat. TRPM3 channels are regulated by phosphoinositides, and perhaps by calmodulin...
July 15, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719601/clic-a-tool-for-expanding-biological-pathways-based-on-co-expression-across-thousands-of-datasets
#17
Yang Li, Alexis A Jourdain, Sarah E Calvo, Jun S Liu, Vamsi K Mootha
In recent years, there has been a huge rise in the number of publicly available transcriptional profiling datasets. These massive compendia comprise billions of measurements and provide a special opportunity to predict the function of unstudied genes based on co-expression to well-studied pathways. Such analyses can be very challenging, however, since biological pathways are modular and may exhibit co-expression only in specific contexts. To overcome these challenges we introduce CLIC, CLustering by Inferred Co-expression...
July 18, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718839/dose-dependent-prebiotic-effect-of-lactulose-in-a-computer-controlled-in-vitro-model-of-the-human-large-intestine
#18
Melanie K Bothe, Annet J H Maathuis, Susann Bellmann, Jos M B M van der Vossen, Dirk Berressem, Annalena Koehler, Susann Schwejda-Guettes, Barbara Gaigg, Angelika Kuchinka-Koch, John F Stover
Lactulose, a disaccharide of galactose and fructose, used as a laxative or ammonia-lowering drug and as a functional food ingredient, enhances growth of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus at clinically relevant dosages. The prebiotic effect of subclinical dosages of Lactulose, however, remains to be elucidated. This study analyses changes in the microbiota and their metabolites after a 5 days Lactulose treatment using the TIM-2 system, a computer-controlled model of the proximal large intestine representing a complex, high density, metabolically active, anaerobic microbiota of human origin...
July 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717023/the-evolution-of-diatoms-and-their-biogeochemical-functions
#19
REVIEW
Anne-Sophie Benoiston, Federico M Ibarbalz, Lucie Bittner, Lionel Guidi, Oliver Jahn, Stephanie Dutkiewicz, Chris Bowler
In contemporary oceans diatoms are an important group of eukaryotic phytoplankton that typically dominate in upwelling regions and at high latitudes. They also make significant contributions to sporadic blooms that often occur in springtime. Recent surveys have revealed global information about their abundance and diversity, as well as their contributions to biogeochemical cycles, both as primary producers of organic material and as conduits facilitating the export of carbon and silicon to the ocean interior...
September 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716966/hierarchically-organized-medial-frontal-cortex-basal-ganglia-loops-selectively-control-task-and-response-selection
#20
Franziska M Korb, Jiefeng Jiang, Joseph A King, Tobias Egner
Adaptive behavior requires context-sensitive configuration of task-sets that specify time-varying stimulus-response mappings. Intriguingly, response time costs associated with changing task-sets and motor responses are known to be strongly interactive: switch costs at the task-level are small in the presence of a response-switch but large when accompanied by a response-repetition, and vice versa for response-switch costs. The reasons behind this well-known inter-dependence between task- and response-level control processes are currently not well understood...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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