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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677516/structural-basis-for-teneurin-function-in-circuit-wiring-a-toxin-motif-at-the-synapse
#1
Jingxian Li, Moran Shalev-Benami, Richard Sando, Xian Jiang, Amanuel Kibrom, Jie Wang, Katherine Leon, Christopher Katanski, Olha Nazarko, Yue C Lu, Thomas C Südhof, Georgios Skiniotis, Demet Araç
Teneurins (TENs) are cell-surface adhesion proteins with critical roles in tissue development and axon guidance. Here, we report the 3.1-Å cryoelectron microscopy structure of the human TEN2 extracellular region (ECR), revealing a striking similarity to bacterial Tc-toxins. The ECR includes a large β barrel that partially encapsulates a C-terminal domain, which emerges to the solvent through an opening in the mid-barrel region. An immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain seals the bottom of the barrel while a β propeller is attached in a perpendicular orientation...
April 19, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677466/measuring-electric-fields-in-biological-matter-using-the-vibrational-stark-effect-of-nitrile-probes
#2
Joshua D Slocum, Lauren J Webb
Measurement of the electrostatic interactions that give rise to biological functions has been a longstanding challenge in biophysics. Advances in spectroscopic techniques over the past two decades have allowed for the direct measurement of electric fields in a wide variety of biological molecules and systems via the vibrational Stark effect (VSE). The frequency of the nitrile stretching oscillation has received much attention as an electric field reporter because of its sensitivity to electric fields and its occurrence in a relatively transparent region of the infrared spectrum...
April 20, 2018: Annual Review of Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676965/the-influence-of-wind-speed-on-airflow-and-fine-particle-transport-within-different-building-layouts-of-an-industrial-city
#3
Dan Mei, Meng Wen, Yuzheng Zhu, Xuemei Xu, Futang Xing
In atmospheric environment, the layout difference of urban buildings has a powerful influence on accelerating or inhibiting the dispersion of particle matters (PM). In industrial cities, buildings of variable heights can obstruct the diffusion of PM from industrial stacks. In this study, PM dispersed within building groups was simulated by Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations coupled Lagrangian approach. Four typical street building arrangements were used: (a) a low-rise building block with Height/base H/b = 1 (b = 20 m); (b) step-up building layout (H/b = 1, 2, 3, 4); (c) step-down building layout (H/b = 4, 3, 2, 1); (d) high-rise building block (H/b = 5)...
April 20, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675230/unsymmetrical-difunctionalization-of-cyclooctadiene-under-continuous-flow-conditions-expanding-the-scope-of-ring-opening-metathesis-polymerization
#4
Xianwang Shen, Honghong Gong, Yang Zhou, Yucheng Zhao, Jun Lin, Mao Chen
Functionalized cyclooctenes (FCOEs) are important monomers in ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). Herein, a new library of disubstituted FCOEs bearing adjacent heteroatoms were synthesized and applied in ROMP. To address the issues associated with the handling of the reactive thienyl chloride intermediate, a two-step continuous flow method has been developed to prepare 5-thio-6-chlorocyclooctene compounds from abundant cyclooctadiene starting materials. These newly synthesized FCOE monomers were subsequently polymerized through ROMP, giving rise to a range of functionalized polymers with high molecular weights...
February 21, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675165/sub-nanosecond-tryptophan-radical-deprotonation-mediated-by-a-protein-bound-water-cluster-in-class-ii-dna-photolyases
#5
Pavel Müller, Elisabeth Ignatz, Stephan Kiontke, Klaus Brettel, Lars-Oliver Essen
Class II DNA photolyases are flavoenzymes occurring in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes including higher plants and animals. Despite considerable structural deviations from the well-studied class I DNA photolyases, they share the main biological function, namely light-driven repair of the most common UV-induced lesions in DNA, the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). For DNA repair activity, photolyases require the fully reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor, FADH- , which can be obtained from oxidized or semi-reduced FAD by a process called photoactivation...
February 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674282/bioenergetics-mechanisms-regulating-muscle-stem-cell-self-renewal-commitment-and-function
#6
REVIEW
Phablo Abreu
Muscle stem cells or satellite cells are crucial for muscle maintenance and repair. These cells are mitotically quiescent and uniformly express the transcription factor Pax7, intermittently entering the cell cycle to give rise to daughter myogenic precursors cells and fuse with neighboring myofibers or self-renew, replenishing the stem cell pool in adult skeletal muscle. Pivotal roles of muscle stem cells in muscle repair have been uncovered, but it still remains unclear how muscle stem cell self-renewal is molecularly regulated and how muscle stem cells maintain muscle tissue homeostasis...
April 16, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673480/thalamic-reticular-dysfunction-as-a-circuit-endophenotype-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Alexandra Krol, Ralf D Wimmer, Michael M Halassa, Guoping Feng
Diagnoses of behavioral disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia are based on symptomatic descriptions that have been difficult to connect to mechanism. Although psychiatric genetics provide insight into the genetic underpinning of such disorders, with a majority of cases explained by polygenic factors, it remains difficult to design rational treatments. In this review, we highlight the value of understanding neural circuit function both as an intermediate level of explanatory description that links gene to behavior and as a pathway for developing rational diagnostics and therapeutics for behavioral disorders...
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673427/assessment-of-olfactory-perception-in-individuals-with-motion-sickness
#8
Laurence Jacquot, Jean-Louis Millot, Aurore Colette Paillard
BACKGROUND: Individuals who experience motion sickness (MS) frequently mention the presence of smells in the environment as a factor favoring the occurrence of MS symptoms. The aim of the present work was to compare olfactory function in MS sensitive (MS+) and insensitive (MS-) subjects. METHODS: Olfactory testing included determination of odor detection thresholds, subjective evaluation of the quality (intensity, hedonicity, and familiarity) of three different odorants (limonene, isovaleric acid, and petrol) as well as measures of skin conductance responses to these three odorants...
May 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673137/herb-induced-liver-injuries-in-developing-nations-an-update
#9
REVIEW
Cecilia Nwadiuto Amadi, Orish Ebere Orisakwe
The last few decades have seen a rise in the use of herbal supplements, natural products, and traditional medicines. However, there are growing concerns related to the safety and toxicities of these medicines. These herbal medicines are associated with complications such as liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic cases with abnormal liver functions tests to sudden and severe liver failure necessitating liver transplantation. This work aimed to review the etiology, risk factors, diagnosis, clinical manifestations and selected clinical case reports of herbal hepatotoxicity in developing nations...
April 17, 2018: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672062/structure-and-interaction-of-nanoparticle-protein-complexes
#10
Sugam Kumar, Indresh Yadav, Vinod Kumar Aswal, Joachim Kohlbrecher
The integration of nanoparticles with proteins is of high scientific interest due to the amazing potential displayed by their complexes, combining the nanoscale properties of nanoparticles with the specific architectures and functions of the protein molecules. The nanoparticle-protein complexes, in particular, are useful in the emerging field of nanobiotechnology (nanomedicine, drug delivery and biosensors) as the nanoparticles having sizes comparable to that of living cells, can access and operate within the cell...
April 19, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671909/should-phosphate-management-be-limited-to-the-kdigo-kdoqi-guidelines
#11
Sangeet Dhillon-Jhattu, Stuart M Sprague
Hyperphosphatemia is a common complication of CKD. Prior to development of overt hyperphosphatemia, there are several adaptive mechanisms that occur to maintain normal phosphorus equilibrium in patients with CKD. These include an early and progressive rise in fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF 23), followed by an increase in parathyroid hormone (PTH) with a decrease in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25 Vit D). Over the last 20 years, a large number of studies have shown that hyperphosphatemia is a strong predictor of adverse clinical outcomes including increased incidence of vascular calcification, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality in both individuals with CKD as well as those with normal kidney function...
April 19, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671805/improving-the-activity-of-trp-rich-antimicrobial-peptides-by-arg-lys-substitutions-and-changing-the-length-of-cationic-residues
#12
Mauricio Arias, Kathlyn B Piga, M Eric Hyndman, Hans J Vogel
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) constitute a promising alternative for the development of new antibiotics that could potentially counteract the growing number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. However, the AMP structure⁻function relationships remain unclear and detailed studies are still necessary. The positively charged amino acid residues (Arg and Lys) play a crucial role in the activity of most AMPs due to the promotion of electrostatic interactions between the peptides and bacterial membranes. In this work we have analyzed the antimicrobial and structural properties of several Trp-rich AMPs containing exclusively either Arg or Lys as the positively charged residues...
April 19, 2018: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671766/protein-intake-and-distribution-in-relation-to-physical-functioning-and-quality-of-life-in-community-dwelling-elderly-people-acknowledging-the-role-of-physical-activity
#13
Dominique S M Ten Haaf, Ellen J I van Dongen, Malou A H Nuijten, Thijs M H Eijsvogels, Lisette C P G M de Groot, Maria T E Hopman
Increasing total protein intake and a spread protein intake distribution are potential strategies to attenuate sarcopenia related loss of physical function and quality of life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether protein intake and protein intake distribution are associated with muscle strength, physical function and quality of life in community-dwelling elderly people with a wide range of physical activity. Dietary and physical activity data were obtained from two studies (N = 140, age 81 ± 6, 64% male), with the following outcome measures: physical functioning (Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), comprising balance, gait speed and chair rise tests), handgrip strength and quality of life (EQ-5D-5L)...
April 19, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670149/impaired-photosynthesis-and-increased-leaf-construction-costs-may-induce-floral-stress-during-episodes-of-global-warming-over-macroevolutionary-timescales
#14
Matthew Haworth, Claire M Belcher, Dilek Killi, Rebecca A Dewhirst, Alessandro Materassi, Antonio Raschi, Mauro Centritto
Global warming events have coincided with turnover of plant species at intervals in Earth history. As mean global temperatures rise, the number, frequency and duration of heat-waves will increase. Ginkgo biloba was grown under controlled climatic conditions at two different day/night temperature regimes (25/20 °C and 35/30 °C) to investigate the impact of heat stress. Photosynthetic CO2 -uptake and electron transport were reduced at the higher temperature, while rates of respiration were greater; suggesting that the carbon balance of the leaves was adversely affected...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669620/fluorescent-nanodiamonds-in-biomedical-applications
#15
Katarzyna Anna Mitura, Elżbieta Włodarczyk
Nanoparticles have an extended surface and a large surface area, which is the ratio of the size of the surfacearea to the volume. A functionalized surface can give rise to more modifications and therefore allows this nanomaterial to have new properties. Fluorescent molecules contain fluorophore, which is capable of being excited via the absorption of light energy at a specific wavelength and subsequently emitting radiation energy of a longer wavelength. A chemically modified surface of nanodiamond (ND; by carboxylation) demonstrated biocompatibility with DNA, cytochrome C, and antigens...
April 18, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669221/role-of-ion-channels-in-the-functional-response-of-conjunctival-goblet-cells-to-dry-eye
#16
Donald G Puro
Optimal vision requires an ocular surface with a stable tear film whose many critical tasks include providing >70% of the eye's refractive power. However for millions, tear film instability produces uncomfortable sight-impairing dry eye. Despite the multitude of etiologies for dry eye, a universal hallmark is hyperosmolarity of the tear film. Presently, knowledge of how the ocular surface responds to hyperosmolarity remains incomplete with little understood about the role of ion channels. This bioelectric analysis focused on conjunctival goblet cells whose release of tear-stabilizing mucin is a key adaptive response to dry eye...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668990/vitamin-d-receptor-activation-raises-soluble-thrombomodulin-levels-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients-a-double-blind-randomized-trial
#17
Graziella D'arrigo, Patrizia Pizzini, Sebastiano Cutrupi, Rocco Tripepi, Giovanni Tripepi, Francesca Mallamaci, Carmine Zoccali
Background: Thrombomodulin (TM) is a proteoglycan highly represented in the endothelial glycocalix that regulates the haemostasis and the endothelial response to inflammation. High soluble TM levels underlie a lower risk for coronary heart disease in population studies. Activation of vitamin D receptor (VDR) upregulates TM, but the effect of this intervention on soluble TM has never been tested in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Methods: We performed a post hoc analysis of a 12 weeks double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial testing the effect of VDR activation by paricalcitol (PCT) on endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) in the forearm (ClinicalTrials...
April 13, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668297/plcb3-loss-of-function-reduces-p-aeruginosa-dependent-il-8-release-in-cystic-fibrosis
#18
Alessandro Rimessi, Valentino Bezzerri, Francesca Salvatori, Anna Tamanini, Federica Nigro, Maria Cristina Dechecchi, Alessandra Santangelo, Paola Prandini, Silvia Munari, Lisa Provezza, Nicolas Garreau de Loubresse, Jean Muller, Carla M P Ribeiro, Giuseppe Lippi, Roberto Gambari, Paolo Pinton, Giulio Cabrini
An excessive inflammation orchestrated by release of neutrophilic chemokine IL-8 from bronchial epithelial cells, amplified by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) infection, is a hallmark of lung disease of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. To identify novel anti-inflammatory molecular targets, we previously performed a genetic study of 135 genes of the immune response, which identified the c.2534C>T (p.S845L) variant of phospholipase C beta 3 (PLCB3) as being significantly associated with mild progression of pulmonary disease...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668253/stable-water-oxidation-in-acid-using-manganese-modified-tio-2-protective-coatings
#19
Georges Siddiqi, Zhenya Luo, Yujun Xie, Zhenhua Pan, Qianhong Zhu, Jason A Rohr, Judy J Cha, Shu Hu
Accomplishing acid-stable water oxidation is a critical matter for achieving both long-lasting water splitting devices and other fuel-forming electro- and photo-catalytic processes. Since water oxidation releases protons into the local electrolytic environment, it becomes increasingly acidic during device operation, which leads to corrosion of the photo-active component and hence loss in device performance and lifetime. In this work, we show that thin films of manganese modified titania, (Ti,Mn)Ox , topped with an iridium catalyst, can be used in a coating stabilization scheme for acid-stable water oxidation...
April 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667836/molecular-dynamics-simulations-are-redefining-our-view-of-peptides-interacting-with-biological-membranes
#20
Jakob P Ulmschneider, Martin B Ulmschneider
Ever since the first molecular mechanics computer simulations of biological molecules became possible, there has been the dream to study all complex biological phenomena in silico, simply bypassing the enormous experimental challenges and their associated costs. For this, two inherent requirements need to be met: First, the time scales achievable in simulations must reach up to the millisecond range and even longer. Second, the computational model must accurately reproduce what is measured experimentally. Despite some recent successes, the general consensus in the field to date has been that neither of these conditions have yet been met and that the dream will be realized, if at all, only in the distant future...
April 18, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
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