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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223004/towards-utilization-of-the-human-genome-and-microbiome-for-personalized-nutrition
#1
REVIEW
Stavros Bashiardes, Anastasia Godneva, Eran Elinav, Eran Segal
Generalized dietary and lifestyle guidelines have been formulated and published for decades now from a variety of relevant agencies in an attempt to guide people towards healthy choices. As the pandemic rise in metabolic diseases continues to increase, it has become clear that the one-fit-for-all diet approach does not work and that there is a significant variation in inter-individual responses to diet and lifestyle interventions. Recent technological advances have given an unprecedented insight into the sources of this variation, pointing towards our genome and microbiome as potentially and previously under-explored culprits contributing to individually unique dietary responses...
December 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222513/biotrophy-necrotrophy-switch-in-pathogen-evoke-differential-response-in-resistant-and-susceptible-sesame-involving-multiple-signaling-pathways-at-different-phases
#2
Supriyo Chowdhury, Arpita Basu, Surekha Kundu
Infection stages of charcoal rot fungus Macrophomina phaseolina in sesame revealed for the first time a transition from biotrophy via BNS (biotrophy-to-necrotrophy switch) to necrotrophy as confirmed by transcriptional studies. Microscopy using normal and GFP-expressing pathogen showed typical constricted thick intercellular bitrophic hyphae which gave rise to thin intracellular necrotrophic hyphae during BNS and this stage was delayed in a resistant host. Results also show that as the pathogen switched its strategy of infection, the host tailored its defense strategy to meet the changing situation...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218722/coupling-of-microrna-directed-phased-small-interfering-rna-generation-from-long-noncoding-genes-with-alternative-splicing-and-alternative-polyadenylation-in-small-rna-mediated-gene-silencing
#3
Wuqiang Ma, Chengjie Chen, Yuanlong Liu, Ming Zeng, Blake C Meyers, Jianguo Li, Rui Xia
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and phased small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs) play vital regulatory roles in plant growth and development. Little is known about these small RNAs in litchi (Litchi chinensis), an economically important fruit crop widely cultivated in Southeast Asia. We profiled the litchi small RNA population with various deep-sequencing techniques and in-depth bioinformatic analyses. The genome-wide identification of miRNAs, their target genes, and phasiRNA-generating (PHAS) genes/loci showed that the function of miR482/2118 has expanded, relative to its canonical function...
December 8, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218485/apical-membrane-alterations-in-non-intestinal-organs-in-microvillus-inclusion-disease
#4
Cameron Schlegel, Victoria G Weis, Byron C Knowles, Lynne A Lapierre, Martin G Martin, Paul Dickman, James R Goldenring, Mitchell D Shub
OBJECTIVES: Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a severe form of neonatal diarrhea, caused mainly by mutations in MYO5B. Inactivating mutations in MYO5B causes depolarization of enterocytes in the small intestine, which gives rise to chronic, unremitting secretory diarrhea. While the pathology of the small intestine in MVID patients is well described, little is known about extraintestinal effects of MYO5B mutation. METHODS: We examined stomach, liver, pancreas, colon, and kidney in Navajo MVID patients, who share a single homozygous MYO5B-P660L (1979C>T p...
December 7, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218283/early-reconstructions-of-complex-lower-extremity-battlefield-soft-tissue-wounds
#5
Ali Ebrahimi, Nasrin Nejadsarvari, Azin Ebrahimi, Hamid Reza Rasouli
BACKGROUND: Severe lower extremity trauma as a devastating combat related injury is on the rise and this presents reconstructive surgeons with significant challenges to reach optimal cosmetic and functional outcomes. This study assessed early reconstructions of complex lower extremity battlefield soft tissue wounds. METHODS: This was a prospective case series study of battled field injured patients which was done in the Department of Plastic Surgery, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences hospitals, Tehran, Iran between 2013-2015...
September 2017: World Journal of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218225/the-gill-parasite-paramoeba-perurans-compromises-aerobic-scope-swimming-capacity-and-ion-balance-in-atlantic-salmon
#6
Malthe Hvas, Egil Karlsbakk, Stig Mæhle, Daniel William Wright, Frode Oppedal
The parasitic amoeba Paramoeba perurans is an aetiological agent of amoebic gill disease (AGD), a serious problem in seawater salmonid aquaculture globally. Other finfish species are also infected and infection events may be associated with periods of unusual high temperatures. Currently little is known about the impact of AGD on wild fish, but in a time with global warming and increasing aquaculture production this potential threat could be on the rise. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of infected fish is therefore warranted...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218051/sphingosine-1-phosphate-and-c-c-chemokine-receptor-2-dependent-activation-of-cd4-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-in-the-bone-marrow-contributes-to-signs-of-sepsis-induced-immunosuppression
#7
Anna Smirnov, Stephanie Pohlmann, Melanie Nehring, Shafaqat Ali, Ritu Mann-Nüttel, Stefanie Scheu, Anne-Charlotte Antoni, Wiebke Hansen, Manuela Büettner, Miriam J Gardiasch, Astrid M Westendorf, Florian Wirsdörfer, Eva Pastille, Marcel Dudda, Stefanie B Flohé
Sepsis is the dysregulated response of the host to systemic, mostly bacterial infection, and is associated with an enhanced susceptibility to life-threatening opportunistic infections. During polymicrobial sepsis, dendritic cells (DCs) secrete enhanced levels of interleukin (IL) 10 due to an altered differentiation in the bone marrow and contribute to the development of immunosuppression. We investigated the origin of the altered DC differentiation using murine cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a model for human polymicrobial sepsis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217784/outcome-and-survival-of-myeloma-patients-diagnosed-2008-2015-real-world-data-on-4904-patients-from-the-swedish-myeloma-registry-smr
#8
Cecilie Hveding Blimark, Ingemar Turesson, Anna Genell, Lucia Ahlberg, Bo Björkstrand, Kristina Carlson, Karin Forsberg, Gunnar Juliusson, Olle Linder, Ulf-Henrik Mellqvist, Hareth Nahi, Sigurdur Y Kristinsson
Epidemiology and outcome of myeloma is mainly reported from large university centers and collaborative groups and do not represent real world patients. The Swedish Myeloma Registry is a prospective population-based registry documenting characteristics, treatments and outcome in newly diagnosed myeloma, including asymptomatic and localized forms, with the purpose to improve the management and outcome. This report presents information on patients diagnosed between 2008 and 2015, including data on first line treatment up to 2014, with a follow-up until December 2016...
December 7, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217755/pollen-differentiation-as-well-as-pollen-tube-guidance-and-discharge-are-independent-of-the-presence-of-gametes
#9
Barbara Glöckle, Wojciech J Urban, Shiori Nagahara, Ellen D Andersen, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Paul E Grini, Arp Schnittger
After meiosis, an unequal cell division generates the male gamete lineage in flowering plants. The generative cell will undergo a second division, giving rise to the two gametes, i.e. the sperm cells. The other cell will develop into the vegetative cell that plays a crucial role in pollen tube formation and sperm delivery. Recently, the vegetative cell has been implicated to be important for programming of the chromatin state in sperm cells and/or the resulting fertilization products. Blocking the initial unequal division genetically, we first highlight that the default differentiation state after male meiosis is a vegetative fate consistent with earlier work...
December 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217754/erecta-family-genes-coordinate-stem-cell-functions-between-the-epidermal-and-internal-layers-of-the-shoot-apical-meristem
#10
Yuka Kimura, Masao Tasaka, Keiko U Torii, Naoyuki Uchida
The epidermal cell layer and the tissues that lie underneath have different intrinsic functions during plant development. The stem cells within the shoot apical meristem (SAM) that give rise to aerial structures are located in the epidermal and internal tissue layers. However, our understanding of how the functions of these stem cells are coordinated across tissue layers so stem cells can behave as a single population remains limited. WUSCHEL (WUS) functions as a master regulator of stem cell activity. Here we show that loss of function in the ERECTA (ER)-family receptor kinase genes can rescue the mutant phenotype of wus plants (loss of stem cells), as demonstrated by the reinstated expression of a stem cell marker gene in the SAM epidermis...
December 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214659/2d-speckle-tracking-echocardiography-of-the-right-ventricle-free-wall-in-scuba-divers-after-single-open-sea-dive
#11
Zora Susilovic-Grabovac, Ante Obad, Darko Duplančić, Ivana Banić, Denise Brusoni, Piergiuseppe Agostoni, Ivica Vuković, Zeljko Dujic, Darija Bakovic
The presence of circulating gas bubbles and their influence on pulmonary and right heart hemodynamics was reported after uncomplicated self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) dive(s). Improvements in cardiac imaging have recently focused great attention on the right ventricle (RV). The aim of our study was to evaluate possible effects of a single air SCUBA dive on RV function using 2D speckle tracking echocardiography in healthy divers after single open sea dive to 18 meters of seawater, followed by bottom stay of 47 minutes with a direct ascent to the surface...
December 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214519/functional-capacity-improves-in-line-with-neuromuscular-performance-after-12%C3%A2-weeks-of-non-linear-periodization-strength-training-in-the-elderly
#12
Bruno Monteiro de Moura, Raphael Luiz Sakugawa, Lucas Bet da Rosa Orssatto, Luis Antonio Pereira de Lima, Ronei Silveira Pinto, Simon Walker, Fernando Diefenthaeler
BACKGROUND: While it is accepted that resistance training can improve functional capacity in older individuals, the neuromuscular source of this improvement has yet to be identified. AIM: This study investigated the link between improved neuromuscular performance and functional capacity after a 12-week resistance training period in untrained healthy older individuals. METHODS: Fifteen older men and women (60-71 years) adhered to a 4-week control period, followed by 12 weeks of non-linear resistance training for the lower limbs...
December 6, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212486/emerging-concepts-and-spectrum-of-renal-injury-following-intravesical-bcg-for-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#13
Azharuddin Mohammed, Zubair Arastu
BACKGROUND: Intravesical Bacilli Calmette-Guerin (IVBCG) therapy for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has long been in use successfully. Albeit rarely, we still face with its safety concerns more than 25 years on since its approval by US Food and Drug Agency in 1990. Local and systemic infection following intravesical BCG is widely reported as compared to immune mediated local or systemic hypersensitivity reactions involving kidneys; acute kidney injury (AKI) and other renal manifestations are well reported but not of chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
December 6, 2017: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211715/alcohol-abuse-drug-disulfiram-targets-cancer-via-p97-segregase-adaptor-npl4
#14
Zdenek Skrott, Martin Mistrik, Klaus Kaae Andersen, Søren Friis, Dusana Majera, Jan Gursky, Tomas Ozdian, Jirina Bartkova, Zsofia Turi, Pavel Moudry, Marianne Kraus, Martina Michalova, Jana Vaclavkova, Petr Dzubak, Ivo Vrobel, Pavla Pouckova, Jindrich Sedlacek, Andrea Miklovicova, Anne Kutt, Jing Li, Jana Mattova, Christoph Driessen, Q Ping Dou, Jørgen Olsen, Marian Hajduch, Boris Cvek, Raymond J Deshaies, Jiri Bartek
Cancer incidence is rising and this global challenge is further exacerbated by tumour resistance to available medicines. A promising approach to meet the need for improved cancer treatment is drug repurposing. Here we highlight the potential for repurposing disulfiram (also known by the trade name Antabuse), an old alcohol-aversion drug that has been shown to be effective against diverse cancer types in preclinical studies. Our nationwide epidemiological study reveals that patients who continuously used disulfiram have a lower risk of death from cancer compared to those who stopped using the drug at their diagnosis...
December 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210931/phase-angle-is-moderately-associated-with-muscle-quality-and-functional-capacity-independent-of-age-and-body-composition-in-older-women
#15
Crisieli M Tomeleri, Edilaine F Cavalcante, Melissa Antunes, Hellen C G Nabuco, Mariana F de Souza, Denilson C Teixeira, Luis A Gobbo, Analiza M Silva, Edilson S Cyrino
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is a growing body of evidence indicating that phase angle (PhA) can be used as an indicator of nutritional status, disease prognosis, and mortality risk; however, it is still unknown whether PhA can be used as an explanator of functional capacity and muscle quality in older women. The main purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore whether PhA is associated with muscle quality and functional capacity in older women, regardless of total and regional body composition...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210454/the-functional-roles-of-retromer-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
Yi Cui, Zhe Yang, Rohan D Teasdale
The endosomal system is critical for the maintenance of intracellular homeostasis, and defects in this system are often linked to neurological disorders. The retromer complex is a critical coordinator of endosomal dynamics and has functional roles in multiple cellular processes through sorting cargoes from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) or to the plasma membrane. Mammalian retromer comprises a core Vps26-Vps35-Vps29 trimer and associates with a range of proteins to generate endosomal tubular-vesicular carriers...
December 6, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210286/morality-in-clinical-space-treatment-of-youngsters-with-functional-somatic-symptoms-in-a-western-clinical-context
#17
Sara Seerup Laursen, Birgitte Dehlholm-Lambertsen, Egon Stenager, Helle Johannessen
This paper explores the moral implications of treatment of young people with functional somatic symptoms. Based on an ethnographic field study at a Danish pain clinic for youngsters (age 8 to 18), the paper seeks to unearth the cultural, moral values that clinical practice steers by and upholds, and the implications this has for the assessment and management of ill body-selves. Through an exposition of the general practice of the clinic and an investigation of two specific cases of youngsters, it is found that the assessment of symptoms and selves and the goals of treatment are informed by cultural ideals of 'the good self' and 'the good life' in which agency and work ethic - both pertaining to the notion of individual responsibility - figure as prevalent virtues...
December 6, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210216/improved-efficiency-and-stability-of-perovskite-solar-cells-induced-by-c%C3%AF-o-functionalized-hydrophobic-ammonium-based-additives
#18
Zhifang Wu, Sonia R Raga, Emilio J Juarez-Perez, Xuyang Yao, Yan Jiang, Luis K Ono, Zhijun Ning, He Tian, Yabing B Qi
Because of the rapid rise of the efficiency, perovskite solar cells are currently considered as the most promising next-generation photovoltaic technology. Much effort has been made to improve the efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells. Here, it is demonstrated that the addition of a novel organic cation of 2-(6-bromo-1,3-dioxo-1H-benzo[de]isoquinolin-2(3H)-yl)ethan-1-ammonium iodide (2-NAM), which has strong Lewis acid and base interaction (between CO and Pb) with perovskite, can effectively increase crystalline grain size and reduce charge carrier recombination of the double cation FA0...
December 6, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210108/kidney-transplant-outcomes-from-older-deceased-donors-a-paired-kidney-analysis-by-the-era-edta-registry
#19
Maria Pippias, Kitty J Jager, Fergus Caskey, Anna Casula, Helen Erlandsson, Patrik Finne, James Heaf, Georg Heinze, Andries Hoitsma, Reinhard Kramar, Marko Lempinen, Angela Magaz, Karsten Midtvedt, Lisa L Mumford, Julio Pascual, Karl G Prütz, Søren S Sørensen, Jamie P Traynor, Ziad A Massy, Rommel Ravanan, Vianda S Stel
As the median age of deceased kidney donors rises, updated knowledge of transplant outcomes from older deceased donors in differing donor-recipient age groups is required. Using ERA-EDTA Registry data we determined survival outcomes of kidney allografts donated from the same older deceased donor (55-70 years), and transplanted into one recipient younger and one recipient of similar age to the donor. The recipient pairs were divided into two groups: group 1; younger (median age: 52 years) and older (60 years), and group 2; younger (41 years) and older (60 years)...
December 5, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209440/efficacy-of-fenugreek-based-bionanocomposite-on-renal-dysfunction-and-endogenous-intoxication-in-high-calorie-diet-induced-obesity-rat-model-comparative-study
#20
Victoria V Konopelniuk, Ievgenii I Goloborodko, Tetyana V Ishchuk, Tetyana B Synelnyk, Ludmila I Ostapchenko, Mykola Ya Spivak, Rostyslav V Bubnov
Background: Worldwide obesity spread is a global health problem and needs to be further studied. Co-morbidities of obesity include insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus type 2, and dyslipidemia, which are the most frequent contributing factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS), as well as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and chronic kidney disease. The aim was to study renal function and endogenous intoxication panel on high-calorie diet-induced obesity rat model and perform comparative study of the treatment efficacy of Fenugreek-based bionanocomposite vs antiobesogenic drugs (Orlistat)...
December 2017: EPMA Journal
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