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Mitochondrial toxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475069/in-vitro-model-to-study-cocaine-and-its-contaminants
#1
Aline Steinmetz, Luiza Steffens, Ana Moira Morás, Flávia Prezzi, Elizandra Braganhol, Jenifer Saffi, Rafael Scorsatto Ortiz, Helena M T Barros, Dinara Jaqueline Moura
Cocaine is one of the most popular illicit drug worldwide. Due its great addictive potential, which leads to euphoria and hyperactivity, it is considered a public health concern. At the central nervous system, the drug acts inhibiting catecholamine re-uptake. It is now known that in addition to the toxicity of the drug itself, the contaminants present in the street drug have raised concern about the harmful effects on health. Toxicological in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated the toxic effects of cocaine correlated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn lead to oxidative damage to the cells...
February 20, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475055/toxic-stress-history-and-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-function-in-a-social-stress-task-genetic-and-epigenetic-factors
#2
Hannah E Lapp, Sarah Ahmed, Celia L Moore, Richard G Hunter
Histories of early life stress (ELS) or social discrimination can reach levels of severity characterized as toxic to mental and physical health. Such toxic social stress during development has been linked to altered acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to social stress in adulthood. However, there are important individual differences in the size and direction of these effects. We explored developmental, genetic, epigenetic, and contextual sources of individual differences in the relationship between ELS, discrimination, and adult responses to acute social stress in a standard laboratory test...
February 21, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474504/the-first-in-vivo-multiparametric-comparison-of-different-radiation-exposure-biomarkers-in-human-blood
#3
Ales Tichy, Sylwia Kabacik, Grainne O'Brien, Jaroslav Pejchal, Zuzana Sinkorova, Adela Kmochova, Igor Sirak, Andrea Malkova, Caterina Gomila Beltran, Juan Ramon Gonzalez, Jakub Grepl, Matthaeus Majewski, Elizabeth Ainsbury, Lenka Zarybnicka, Jana Vachelova, Alzbeta Zavrelova, Marie Davidkova, Marketa Markova Stastna, Michael Abend, Eileen Pernot, Elisabeth Cardis, Christophe Badie
The increasing risk of acute large-scale radiological/nuclear exposures of population underlines the necessity of developing new, rapid and high throughput biodosimetric tools for estimation of received dose and initial triage. We aimed to compare the induction and persistence of different radiation exposure biomarkers in human peripheral blood in vivo. Blood samples of patients with indicated radiotherapy (RT) undergoing partial body irradiation (PBI) were obtained soon before the first treatment and then after 24 h, 48 h, and 5 weeks; i...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471151/the-herbicide-atrazine-affects-sperm-quality-and-the-expression-of-antioxidant-and-spermatogenesis-genes-in-zebrafish-testes
#4
Felix Esteban Airahuacho Bautista, Antonio Sergio Varela Junior, Carine Dahl Corcini, Izani Bonel Acosta, Sergiane Souza Caldas, Ednei Gilberto Primel, Juliano Zanette
The herbicide atrazine (ATZ) is used worldwide in the control of annual grasses and broad-leaved weeds. The present study evaluated sperm quality parameters in zebrafish Danio rerio after 11-day exposure to nominal ATZ concentrations of 2, 10, and 100 μg L-1 . All ATZ concentrations caused a decrease in motility, mitochondrial functionality, and membrane integrity, as measured using conventional microscopy or fluorescence microscopy with specific probes. The DNA integrity of sperm was not affected. The levels of expression of genes related to spermatogenesis, antioxidant defenses, and DNA repair were also investigated using RT-qPCR...
February 19, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469604/dissolved-organic-matter-and-aluminum-oxide-nanoparticles-synergistically-cause-cellular-responses-in-freshwater-microalgae
#5
Nan Ye, Zhuang Wang, Se Wang, Hao Fang, Degao Wang
This study investigated the impact of dissolved organic matters (DOM) on the ecological toxicity of aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2 O3 NPs) at a relatively low exposure concentration (1 mg L-1 ). The unicellular green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was exposed to Al2 O3 NP suspensions in the presence of DOM (fulvic acid) at various concentrations (1, 10, and 40 mg L-1 ). The results show that the presence of DOM elevated the growth inhibition toxicity of Al2 O3 NPs towards S. obliquus in a dose-dependent manner...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468482/epirubicin-induces-apoptosis-in-osteoblasts-through-death-receptor-and-mitochondrial-pathways
#6
Tzu-Ching Huang, Pu-Rong Chiu, Wen-Tsan Chang, Bau-Shan Hsieh, Yu-Ci Huang, Hsiao-Ling Cheng, Li-Wen Huang, Yu-Chen Hu, Kee-Lung Chang
Epirubicin is an anthracycline and is widely used in tumor treatment, but has toxic and undesirable side effects on wide range of cells and hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Osteoblasts play important roles in bone development and in supporting HSC differentiation and maturation. It remains unknown whether epirubicin-induced bone loss and hematological toxicity are associated with its effect on osteoblasts. In primary osteoblast cell cultures, epirubicin inhibited cell growth and decreased mineralization. Moreover, epirubicin arrested osteoblasts in the G2/M phase, and this arrest was followed by apoptosis in which both the extrinsic (death receptor-mediated) and intrinsic (mitochondrial-mediated) apoptotic pathways were evoked...
February 21, 2018: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466249/exploiting-mitochondrial-targeting-signal-s-tpp-and-bis-tpp-for-eradicating-cancer-stem-cells-cscs
#7
Bela Ozsvari, Federica Sotgia, Michael P Lisanti
Tri-phenyl-phosphonium (TPP) is a non-toxic chemical moiety that functionally behaves as a mitochondrial targeting signal (MTS) in living cells. Here, we explored the hypothesis that TPP-related compounds could be utilized to inhibit mitochondria in cancer stem cells (CSCs). We randomly selected 9 TPP-related compounds for screening, using an ATP depletion assay. Based on this approach, five compounds were identified as "positive hits"; two had no detectable effect on ATP production. Remarkably, this represents a >50% hit rate...
February 19, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463797/induction-of-er-and-mitochondrial-stress-by-the-alkylphosphocholine-erufosine-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cells
#8
Shariq S Ansari, Ashwini K Sharma, Himanshu Soni, Doaa M Ali, Björn Tews, Rainer König, Hansjörg Eibl, Martin R Berger
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an essential role in cell function and survival. Accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the lumen of the ER activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), resulting in ER stress and subsequent apoptosis. The alkylphosphocholine erufosine is a known Akt-mTOR inhibitor in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In the present study, we evaluate erufosine's role to induce ER and mitochondrial stress leading to autophagy, apoptosis, and ROS induction. The cellular toxicity of erufosine was determined in two OSCC cell lines and gene expression and enrichment analyses were performed...
February 20, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463411/betanin-reduces-organophosphate-induced-cytotoxicity-in-primary-hepatocyte-via-an-anti-oxidative-and-mitochondrial-dependent-pathway
#9
Elham Ahmadian, Ahmad Yari Khosroushahi, Mohammad Ali Eghbal, Aziz Eftekhari
Organophosphates (OP) are potent pesticide commonly utilized in agricultural and domestic use. However, plentitude of data represent their side effects in different body tissues. We attempted to study whether betanin (a natural pigment) is able to mitigate some OPs-induced hepatotoxicity in primary rat hepatocytes. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione (GSH) depletion and mitochondrial depolarization were tested as toxicity markers...
January 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463404/cytotoxicity-of-chemical-constituents-from-torricellia-tiliifolia-dc-on-spodoptera-litura-sl-1-cells
#10
Huan-Huan Zhao, Jiang-Tao He, Zhen-Xiu Liu, Ji-Guang Huang
In this study, we evaluated cytotoxicity of chemicals isolated from Torricellia tiliifolia DC. on Spodoptera litura (SL-1) cell line. Among the isolated compounds, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamaldehyde, 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamaldehyde, and syringaresinol inhibited SL-1 cell survival in both dose- and time-dependent manners. Meanwhile, the in vivo insecticidal activity test revealed that 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamaldehyde and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamaldehyde showed obvious insecticidal activities. These two compounds exhibited toxicity to SL-1 cells by inducing cellular morphological changes including shape change, cell shrinkage, vacuolation, cell membrane blebbing and chromatin condensation and apoptosis...
January 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462705/nitric-oxide-and-mitochondrial-function-in-neurological-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Mehdi Ghasemi, Yunis Mayasi, Anas Hannoun, Seyed Majid Eslami, Raphael Carandang
Mitochondria are key cellular organelles that play crucial roles in the energy production and regulation of cellular metabolism. Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial activity can be modulated by nitric oxide (NO). As a key neurotransmitter in biologic systems, NO mediates the majority of its function through activation of the cyclic guanylyl cyclase (cGC) signaling pathway and S-nitrosylation of a variety of proteins involved in cellular functioning including those involved in mitochondrial biology...
February 17, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459695/light-action-spectrum-on-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-damage-in-a2e-loaded-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells
#12
Mélanie Marie, Karine Bigot, Claire Angebault, Coralie Barrau, Pauline Gondouin, Delphine Pagan, Stéphane Fouquet, Thierry Villette, José-Alain Sahel, Guy Lenaers, Serge Picaud
AIMS: Blue light is an identified risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We investigated oxidative stress markers and mitochondrial changes in A2E-loaded retinal pigment epithelium cells under the blue-green part of the solar spectrum that reaches the retina to better understand the mechanisms underlying light-elicited toxicity. RESULTS: Primary retinal pigment epithelium cells were loaded with a retinal photosensitizer, AE2, to mimic aging. Using a custom-made illumination device that delivers 10 nm-wide light bands, we demonstrated that A2E-loaded RPE cells generated high levels of both hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and superoxide anion (O2 •- ) when exposed to blue-violet light...
February 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458788/protective-effects-of-curcumin-against-doxorubicin-induced-toxicity-and-resistance-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Mohammad Mohajeri, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Doxorubicin (DOX)-induced toxicity and resistance are major obstacles in chemotherapeutic approaches. Despite effective in the treatment of numerous malignancies, some clinicians have voiced concern that DOX has the potential to cause debilitating consequences in organ tissues, especially the heart. The mechanisms of toxicity and resistance are respectively related to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and up-regulation of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. Curcumin (CUR) with several biological and pharmacological properties is expected to restore DOX-mediated impairments to tissues...
February 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455419/further-aspects-of-toxoplasma-gondii-elimination-in-the-presence-of-metals
#14
Laís Pessanha de Carvalho, Edésio José Tenório de Melo
Toxoplasma gondii, the etiological agent of toxoplasmosis, infects nucleated cells and then resides and multiplies within a parasitophorous vacuole. For this purpose, the parasite secretes many virulence factors for the purpose of invading and subverting the host microbicidal defenses in order to facilitate its survival in the intracellular milieu. Essential metals are structural components of proteins and enzymes or cofactors of enzymatic reactions responsible for these parasitic survival mechanisms. However, an excess of non-essential or essential metals can lead to parasite death...
February 18, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454865/inhibitory-effects-of-selenium-on-cadmium-induced-cytotoxicity-in-pc12-cells-via-regulating-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#15
Kaniz Fatima Binte Hossain, Md Mostafizur Rahman, Md Tajuddin Sikder, Takeshi Saito, Toshiyuki Hosokawa, Masaaki Kurasaki
Purpose of this study is to investigate mechanism/s of cyto-protection by selenium (Na2 SeO3 ; Se4+ ) against cadmium (CdCl2 ; Cd2+ )-induced cytotoxicity using PC12 cells. In addition, Se (5, 10, 20 and 40 μM) and Cd (2.5, 5 and 10 μM)-induced cytotoxicity is determined. Cytotoxicity assays and western blot analyses confirmed that Se (≥10 μM) promotes autophagic cell death via inhibition of mTOR activation and p62 accumulation due to increase of cellular oxidative stress. On the other hand, co-presence of non-toxic Se (5 μM) and toxic Cd (5 μM) showed to increase cell viability, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) levels, and to decrease DNA fragmentation and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity compared to Cd-treated (5 μM) cells alone...
February 15, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453568/a-method-for-in-vivo-induction-and-ultrastructural-detection-of-mitophagy-in-sertoli-cells
#16
Nabil Eid, Yuko Ito, Akio Horibe, Hitomi Hamaoka, Yoichi Kondo
An emerging body of evidences based on in vitro studies indicate that mitophagy (selective autophagic clearance of damaged mitochondria) is a prosurvival mechanism, specifically under exposure to various stressors. Sertoli cells (SCs) play essential roles in maintenance of spermatogenesis via paracrine interactions with germ cells and other somatic cells in the testis; however, studies investigating mitophagy in SCs are still very few. In this chapter, we give a brief review of mechanisms and detection methods of mitophagy in SCs based on our recent publications on animal models of ethanol toxicity and current literature...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453540/cellular-and-molecular-toxicity-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticles
#17
Blanca Laffon, Natalia Fernández-Bertólez, Carla Costa, Fátima Brandão, João Paulo Teixeira, Eduardo Pásaro, Vanessa Valdiglesias
Iron oxide nanoparticles (ION) have attracted much attention because of their particular physico-chemical properties, including superparamagnetism. These features make them suitable for many purposes and several interesting biomedical applications, such as to increase contrast in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as drug delivery systems and as hyperthermia agents. However, they have also shown to be easily accumulated in diverse tissues and induce toxicity at different levels. This chapter reviews the different cellular and molecular effects induced by ION reported from in vitro studies with human and non-human cell lines...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453086/pegylated-polyaminoacid-capped-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-for-mitochondria-targeted-delivery-of-celastrol-in-solid-tumors
#18
Ju Yeon Choi, Biki Gupta, Thiruganesh Ramasamy, Jee-Heon Jeong, Sung Giu Jin, Han-Gon Choi, Chul Soon Yong, Jong Oh Kim
The major goal of cancer chemotherapy is to maximize the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs, while minimizing their associated side effects. Celastrol (CST), which is extracted from the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Tripterygium wilfordii, has been reported to exhibit significant anticancer effects in various in vitro and in vivo cancer models. Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems could be employed to preserve and enhance the pharmacological effects of CST in cancer cells. Among these, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are one of the most promising drug delivery systems...
February 11, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452190/toxicity-assessment-of-mycotoxins-extracted-from-contaminated-commercial-dog-pelleted-feed-on-canine-blood-mononuclear-cells
#19
Sanil D Singh, Naeem Sheik-Abdul, Alisa Phulukdaree, Charlette Tiloke, Savani Nagiah, Sooraj Baijnath, Anil A Chuturgoon
Raw ingredients of pet food are often contaminated with mycotoxins. This is a serious health problem to pets and causes emotional and economical stress to the pet owners. The aim of this study was to determine the immunotoxicity of the most common mycotoxins (aflatoxin, fumonisin, ochratoxin A and zearalenone) by examining 20 samples of extruded dry dog food found on the South African market [10 samples from standard grocery store lines (SB), 10 from premium veterinarian lines (PB)]. Pelleted dog food was subjected to extraction protocols optimized for the above mentioned mycotoxins...
February 13, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451361/development-of-a-focused-library-of-triazole-linked-privileged-structure-based-conjugates-leading-to-the-discovery-of-novel-phenotypic-hits-against-protozoan-parasitic-infections
#20
Elisa Uliassi, Lorna Piazzi, Federica Belluti, Andrea Mazzanti, Marcel Kaiser, Reto Brun, Carolina B Moraes, Lucio H Freitas-Junior, Sheraz Gul, Maria Kuzikov, Bernhard Ellinger, Chiara Borsari, Maria Paola Costi, Maria Laura Bolognesi
Protozoan infections caused by Plasmodium, Leishmania, and Trypanosoma spp. contribute significantly to the burden of infectious diseases worldwide, causing severe morbidity and mortality. The inadequacy of available treatments calls for cost- and time-effective drug discovery endeavors. To this end, we envisaged the triazole linkage of privileged structures as an effective drug design strategy to generate a focused library of high-quality compounds. The versatility of this approach was combined with the feasibility of a phenotypic assay, integrated with early ADME-tox profiling...
February 16, 2018: ChemMedChem
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