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Michael Anthony Savage, Richard McQuade, Alexander Thiele
The orchestration of orienting behaviors requires the interaction of many cortical and subcortical areas, for example the superior colliculus (SC), as well as prefrontal areas responsible for top-down control. Orienting involves different behaviors, such as approach and avoidance. In the rat, these behaviors are at least partially mapped onto different SC subdomains, the lateral (SCl) and medial (SCm), respectively. To delineate the circuitry involved in the two types of orienting behavior in mice, we injected retrograde tracer into the intermediate and deep layers of the SCm and SCl, and thereby determined the main input structures to these subdomains...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Bruce C Harland, David A Collings, Neil McNaughton, Wickliffe C Abraham, John C Dalrymple-Alford
Injury to the anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) may affect both hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex thus explaining some parallels between diencephalic and medial temporal lobe amnesias. We found that standard-housed rats with ATN lesions, compared with standard-housed controls, showed reduced spine density in hippocampal CA1 neurons (basal dendrites, -11.2%; apical dendrites, -9.6%) and in retrospenial granular b cortex (Rgb) neurons (apical dendrites, -20.1%) together with spatial memory deficits on cross maze and radial-arm maze tasks...
October 2014: Hippocampus
Notger G Müller, H Strumpf, M Scholz, B Baier, L Melloni
Upon repetition, certain stimuli induce reduced neural responses (i.e., repetition suppression), whereas others evoke stronger signals (i.e., repetition enhancement). It has been hypothesized that stimulus properties (e.g., visibility) determine the direction of the repetition effect. Here, we show that the very same stimuli can induce both repetition suppression and enhancement, whereby the only determining factor is the number of repetitions. Repeating the same, initially novel low-visible pictures of scenes for up to 5 times enhanced the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response in scene-selective areas, that is, the parahippocampal place area (PPA) and the transverse occipital sulcus (TOS), presumably reflecting the strengthening of the internal representation...
February 2013: Cerebral Cortex
G H Hur, W C Son, S Shin, J K Kang, Y B Kim
The sex differences in the clinical signs and the distribution of astrocytic glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) induced by an N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist, dizocilpine (MK-801), were examined. A single intraperitoneal injection of MK-801 (5 mg/kg body weight) caused a prolonged recumbency (35-40 h), leading to a severe loss of body weight in female rats, in contrast to a light effect in males, independent of age. Early salivation or lacrimation was also severe in females and delayed bloody lacrimation was observed in females only...
April 1999: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
C McCormick, M Moscovitch, A B Protzner, C G Huber, M P McAndrews
Encoding and retrieval of relational information requires interaction between the hippocampus and various neocortical regions, but it is unknown whether the connectivity of hippocampal-neocortical networks is different at input and output stages. To examine this, we conducted a network analysis of event-related fMRI data collected during a face-recognition, remember/know paradigm. Directed analyses in the medial temporal lobe identified a small region in the left hippocampus that showed differential activation for encoding and retrieval of recollected versus familiar items...
September 2010: Neuropsychologia
Gustav Wik, Hakan Fischer, Basil Finer, Bjorn Bragee, Marianne Kristianson, Mats Fredrikson
To study fibromyalgic pain this article contrasts positron emission tomographic measures of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during externally induced acute pain and rest in eight fibromyalgia syndrome patients. An expected pattern of frontal and parietal cortical activation during acute pain as compared to rest was observed. However, reduced rCBF was additionally found in the retrosplenial cortex during acute pain as compared to rest. This may reflect that externally induced pain inhibits fibromyalgic pain and syndrome-related evaluative processes located in the retrosplenial cortex, and that fibromyalgic pain results from exaggerated attention to sub-noxious pain signaling, that is, secondary hyperalgesia...
January 2006: International Journal of Neuroscience
G Reiser, F Striggow, C Hackmann, H Schwegler, D M Yilmazer-Hanke
The protein p42(IP4), expressed mainly in brain, specifically recognizes two second messenger molecules, Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) (IP(4)), a water soluble metabolite of IP(3) and the lipid PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) (PIP(3)), the product of the growth factor-activated enzyme PI-3-kinase. Here, we studied whether there is short-term regulation of the expression level of p42(IP4) in limbic brain areas following acoustic and electric stimulation. The stimuli down-regulated the mRNA and protein levels within 2h in amygdala, hypothalamus and cingulate/retrospenial cortex...
July 2004: Neurochemistry International
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