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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551036/a-patient-with-muenke-syndrome-manifesting-migrating-neonatal-seizures
#1
Yukimune Okubo, Taro Kitamura, Mai Anzai, Wakaba Endo, Takehiko Inui, Yusuke Takezawa, Sato Suzuki-Muromoto, Takuya Miyabayashi, Noriko Togashi, Hiroshi Oba, Hirotomo Saitsu, Naomichi Matsumoto, Kazuhiro Haginoya
We report a patient with Muenke syndrome who had repetitive apneic spell followed by focal status epilepticus in the early infancy. Ictal EEG showed focal spikes bursts originated from the left hemisphere and sifted to the right hemisphere, during which he had migrating tonic seizures from right side of the body to the left side of the body. Brain MRI showed abnormal development of bilateral hippocampus, which was characterized as abnormal folding of hippocampal gyri. However, the long-term seizure prognosis was favorable...
May 24, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551012/activation-of-cb2-receptor-system-restores-cognitive-capacity-and-hippocampal-sox2-expression-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Jiang Wu, Mark Hocevar, Joseph F Foss, B Bihua Bie, Mohamed Naguib
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by neuroinflammation, extensive deposits of amyloid-β aggregates, and loss of memory and cognitive abilities. The brains of patients with AD show increased expression of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) receptors and glial markers. CB2 receptors act as a negative feedback regulator; when activated by a CB2 agonist, they can help limit the extent of the neuroinflammatory response and the subsequent development of neuronal damage in the central nervous system...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550283/high-resolution-bioelectrical-imaging-of-a%C3%AE-induced-network-dysfunction-on-cmos-meas-for-neurotoxicity-and-rescue-studies
#3
Hayder Amin, Thierry Nieus, Davide Lonardoni, Alessandro Maccione, Luca Berdondini
Neurotoxicity and the accumulation of extracellular amyloid-beta1-42 (Aβ) peptides are associated with the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and correlate with neuronal activity and network dysfunctions, ultimately leading to cellular death. However, research on neurodegenerative diseases is hampered by the paucity of reliable readouts and experimental models to study such functional decline from an early onset and to test rescue strategies within networks at cellular resolution. To overcome this important obstacle, we demonstrate a simple yet powerful in vitro AD model based on a rat hippocampal cell culture system that exploits large-scale neuronal recordings from 4096-electrodes on CMOS-chips for electrophysiological quantifications...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550258/effect-of-apoe-genotype-on-amyloid-deposition-brain-volume-and-memory-in-cognitively-normal-older-individuals
#4
Yen Ying Lim, Robert Williamson, Simon M Laws, Victor L Villemagne, Pierrick Bourgeat, Christopher Fowler, Stephanie Rainey-Smith, Olivier Salvado, Ralph N Martins, Christopher C Rowe, Colin L Masters, Paul Maruff
BACKGROUND: The association between the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 allele and high risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia before the age of 80 has been recognized for over 30 years. However, the timing and mode of action of APOE is not understood, nor has there been a detailed analysis of the effect of APOE genotype on memory, hippocampal volume, and amyloid-β (Aβ) levels in cognitively normal adults. OBJECTIVE: Examine the effect of APOE allelic genotype on the relationship between Aβ levels, hippocampal volume, and memory in cognitively normal adults...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550256/cortical-thickness-and-depressive-symptoms-in-cognitively-normal-individuals-the-mayo-clinic-study-of%C3%A2-aging
#5
Anna Pink, Scott A Przybelski, Janina Krell-Roesch, Gorazd B Stokin, Rosebud O Roberts, Michelle M Mielke, David S Knopman, Clifford R Jack, Ronald C Petersen, Yonas E Geda
Altered cortical thickness has been observed in aging and various neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, reduced hippocampal volume has been reported in late-life depression. Even mild depressive symptoms are common in the elderly. However, little is known about the structural MRI measures of depressive symptoms in normal cognitive aging. Thus we sought to examine the association between depressive symptoms with cortical thickness and hippocampal volume as measured by brain MRI among community-dwelling participants...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550248/cd44-splice-variants-as-potential-players-in%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease-pathology
#6
Elhanan Pinner, Yaron Gruper, Micha Ben Zimra, Don Kristt, Moshe Laudon, David Naor, Nava Zisapel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive deficits, deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal cell death. Neuroinflammation is commonly believed to participate in AD pathogenesis. CD44 is an inflammation-related gene encoding a widely-distributed family of alternatively spliced cell surface glycoproteins that have been implicated in inflammation, metastases, and inflammation-linked neuronal injuries. Here we investigated the expression patterns of CD44S (which does not contain any alternative exon) and CD44 splice variants in postmortem hippocampal samples from AD patients and matched non-AD controls...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550244/apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-modulation-of-training-outcomes-in-several-cognitive-domains-in-a-sample-of-cognitively-intact-older-adults
#7
Ramón López-Higes, Inmaculada C Rodríguez-Rojo, José M Prados, Pedro Montejo, David Del-Río, María Luisa Delgado-Losada, Mercedes Montenegro, David López-Sanz, Ana Barabash
BACKGROUND: Most research points to the ɛ4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene as the most recognizable genetic risk factor associated with Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. It has been also suggested that the APOEɛ4 allele has a negative influence on cognitive functioning, which begins long before cognitive impairment becomes manifest. However, still, little is known about the APOEɛ4 interaction with cognitive intervention programs. OBJECTIVE: The main goal of this study was to explore whether there was a differential APOE genotype modulation effect after cognitive training in different domains, such as language comprehension, executive functions, and memory...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550099/viral-delivery-of-c9orf72-hexanucleotide-repeat-expansions-in-mice-lead-to-repeat-length-dependent-neuropathology-and-behavioral-deficits
#8
Saul Herranz-Martin, Jayanth Chandran, Katherine Lewis, Padraig Mulcahy, Adrian Higginbottom, Callum Walker, Isabel Martinez-Pena Y Valenzuela, Ross A Jones, Ian Coldicott, Tommaso Iannitti, Mohammed Akaaboune, Sherif F El-Khamisy, Thomas H Gillingwater, Pamela J Shaw, Mimoun Azzouz
Intronic GGGGCC repeat expansions in C9orf72 are the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Two major pathologies stemming from the hexanucleotide RNA expansions (HREs) have been identified in postmortem tissue: intracellular RNA foci and repeat-associated non-ATG dependent (RAN) dipeptides, though it is unclear how these and other hallmarks of disease contribute to the pathophysiology of neuronal injury. Here we generated two novel lines of mice that overexpress either 10 pure or 102 interrupted G4C2 repeats mediated by adeno-associated virus (AAV) and characterized relevant pathology and disease-related behavioral phenotypes...
May 26, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549968/autophagy-regulated-ampar-subunit-upregulation-in-in-vitro-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-reoxygenation-induced-hippocampal-injury
#9
Li Bao, Rong-Hu Li, Mei Li, Mei-Fang Jin, Gang Li, Xing Han, Yuan-Yuan Yang, Bin Sun, Li-Xiao Xu, Xing Feng
Autophagy has been implicated to mediate experimental cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion-induced neuronal death; the underlying molecular mechanisms, though, are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of autophagy in regulating the expression of AMPAR subunits (GluR1, GluR2, and GluR3) in oxygen glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R)-mediated injury of hippocampal neurons. Our results showed that, OGD/R-induced hippocampal neuron injury was accompanied by accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes in cytoplasm alongside a dramatic increase in expression of autophagy-related genes, LC3 and Beclin 1 and increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels...
May 23, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549967/hippocampal-nicotinic-receptors-have-a-modulatory-role-for-ethanol-and-mdma-interaction-in-memory-retrieval
#10
Maryam Rostami, Ameneh Rezayof, Sakineh Alijanpour, Khadijeh Alsadat Sharifi
The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of dorsal hippocampal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) activation on the functional interaction between ethanol and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) in memory retrieval. The dorsal hippocampal CA1 regions of adult male NMRI mice were bilaterally cannulated and memory retrieval was measured in a step-down type passive avoidance apparatus. Post-training or pre-test systemic administration of ethanol (1 g/kg, i.p.) induced amnesia...
May 23, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549853/molecular-fingerprinting-of-principal-neurons-in-the-rodent-hippocampus-a-neuroinformatics-approach
#11
D J Hamilton, C M White, C L Rees, D W Wheeler, G A Ascoli
Neurons are often classified by their morphological and molecular properties. The online knowledge base Hippocampome.org primarily defines neuron types from the rodent hippocampal formation based on their main neurotransmitter (glutamate or GABA) and the spatial distributions of their axons and dendrites. For each neuron type, this open-access resource reports any and all published information regarding the presence or absence of known molecular markers, including calcium-binding proteins, neuropeptides, receptors, channels, transcription factors, and other molecules of biomedical relevance...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548708/glucocerebrosidase-mutations-and-neuropsychiatric-phenotypes-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-lewy-body-dementias-review-and-meta-analyses
#12
REVIEW
Byron Creese, Emily Bell, Iskandar Johar, Paul Francis, Clive Ballard, Dag Aarsland
Heterozygous mutations in glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) are a major genetic risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Recently, there has been a considerable focus on the relationship between GBA mutations and emergence of cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms in these diseases. Here, we review the literature in this area, with a particular focus, including meta-analysis, on the key neuropsychiatric symptoms of cognitive impairment, psychosis, and depression in Parkinson's disease...
May 26, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548460/internally-generated-hippocampal-sequences-as-a-vantage-point-to-probe-future-oriented-cognition
#13
REVIEW
Giovanni Pezzulo, Caleb Kemere, Matthijs A A van der Meer
Information processing in the rodent hippocampus is fundamentally shaped by internally generated sequences (IGSs), expressed during two different network states: theta sequences, which repeat and reset at the ∼8 Hz theta rhythm associated with active behavior, and punctate sharp wave-ripple (SWR) sequences associated with wakeful rest or slow-wave sleep. A potpourri of diverse functional roles has been proposed for these IGSs, resulting in a fragmented conceptual landscape. Here, we advance a unitary view of IGSs, proposing that they reflect an inferential process that samples a policy from the animal's generative model, supported by hippocampus-specific priors...
May 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548285/neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia-in-rat-increases-doublecortin-concentration-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid
#14
Catherine Brégère, Urs Fisch, Martin H Sailer, Wolfgang S Lieb, Laurie Chicha, Fabienne Goepfert, Thomas Kremer, Raphael Guzman
Doublecortin (DCX) is a microtubule-associated protein widely used as an indicator of neurogenesis in immunohistochemical analyses of the postmortem adult brain. A recent study reported that DCX can be quantified in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from healthy rats between postnatal day 0 (P0) and P30. However, it is currently unclear whether the concentration of DCX in the CSF (CSF-DCX) may represent a measure of endogenous neurogenesis. To address this question, the present study examined the impact of a neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury, known to induce neurogenesis, on CSF-DCX...
May 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548263/remembering-my-friends-medial-prefrontal-and-hippocampal-contributions-to-the-self-reference-effect-on-face-memories-in-a-social-context
#15
Rie Yamawaki, Kimihiro Nakamura, Toshihiko Aso, Yayoi Shigemune, Hidenao Fukuyama, Takashi Tsukiura
Memories associated with the self are remembered more accurately than those associated with others. The memory enhancement related to the self is known as the self-reference effect (SRE). However, little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying the SRE in a social context modulated by social relationships. In the present fMRI study, we investigated encoding-related activation of face memories encoded with the self-referential process in a social context that was manipulated by imagining a person-to-person relationship...
May 26, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547878/mesiotemporal-atrophy-and-hippocampal-diffusivity-distinguish-amnestic-from-non-amnestic-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#16
A A Hosseini, D Meng, R J Simpson, D P Auer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The role of clinical factors, cerebral infarcts and hippocampal damage in vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) subtypes remains unclear. METHODS: Non-demented patients with carotid stenosis and recent transient ischemic attack/stroke had cognitive assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Amnestic VCI was defined as memory impairment; non-amnestic VCI was any other subdomain impairment. Associations of MRI metrics [log-transformed total ischemic lesion load (log TILL), mesiotemporal atrophy (MTA) score, hippocampal mean diffusivity (hipMD)] with cognitive performance were assessed...
May 26, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547794/antidepressant-like-effects-of-tetrahydroxystilbene-glucoside-in-mice-involvement-of-bdnf-signaling-cascade-in-the-hippocampus
#17
Hao Wang, Ying Zhao, Ying-Jie Wang, Lu Song, Jin-Liang Wang, Chao Huang, Wei Zhang, Bo Jiang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Current antidepressants in clinic need weeks of administration and always have significant limitations. Tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside (TSG) is one of the major bioactive ingredients of Polygonum multiflorum with neuroprotective effects. This study aimed to evaluate the antidepressant effects of TSG in mice. METHODS: The antidepressant-like effects of TSG in mice were examined in the forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), and chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model of depression...
May 25, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547530/reduced-cam-kinase-ii-and-cam-kinase-iv-activities-underlie-cognitive-deficits-in-nckx2-heterozygous-mice
#18
Shigeki Moriguchi, Satomi Kita, Yasushi Yabuki, Ryo Inagaki, Hisanao Izumi, Yuzuru Sasaki, Hideaki Tagashira, Kyoji Horie, Junji Takeda, Takahiro Iwamoto, Kohji Fukunaga
Among five members of the K(+)-dependent Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCKX) family (NCKX1-5), only NCKX2 is highly expressed in mouse brain. NCKX2 in plasma membranes mediates cytosolic calcium excretion through electrogenic exchange of 4 Na(+) for 1 Ca(2+) and 1 K(+). Here, we observed significantly decreased levels of NCKX2 protein and mRNA in the CA1 region of APP23 mice, a model of Alzheimer's disease. We also found that, like APP23 mice, heterozygous NCKX2-mutant mice exhibit mildly impaired hippocampal LTP and memory acquisition, the latter based on novel object recognition and passive avoidance tasks...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546827/chemical-constituents-from-a-gynostemma-laxum-and-their-antioxidant-and-neuroprotective-activities
#19
Ji Yeon Seo, Sang Kyum Kim, Phi Hung Nguyen, Ju Yong Lee, Pham Ha Thanh Tung, Sang Hyun Sung, Won Keun Oh
BACKGROUND: A few bioactivities of constituents from Gynostemma laxum, which has been collected in Vietnam, have been reported until now. There is no report about the effects of constituents from G. laxum although the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)-mediated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) antioxidant defense system is involved in neuroprotection in the brain. Therefore, we investigated whether quercetin (2), benzoic acid (10) and their analogues (1, 3-9 and 11) from G. laxum have the antioxidant and neuroprotective activities and also their underlying mechanism...
2017: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546308/dentate-gyrus-contributes-to-retrieval-as-well-as-encoding-evidence-from-context-fear-conditioning-recall-and-extinction
#20
Brian E Bernier, Anthony F Lacagnina, Adam Ayoub, Francis Shue, Boris V Zemelman, Franklin B Krasne, Michael R Drew
Dentate gyrus (DG) is widely thought to provide a teaching signal that enables hippocampal encoding of memories, but its role during retrieval is poorly understood. Some data and models suggest that DG plays no role in retrieval; others encourage the opposite conclusion. To resolve this controversy, we evaluated the effects of optogenetic inhibition of dorsal DG during context fear conditioning, recall, generalization, and extinction in male mice. We found that (1) inhibition during training impaired context fear acquisition; (2) inhibition during recall did not impair fear expression in the training context, unless mice had to distinguish between similar feared and neutral contexts; (3) inhibition increased generalization of fear to an unfamiliar context that was similar to a feared one and impaired fear expression in the conditioned context when it was similar to a neutral one; (4) inhibition impaired fear extinction...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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