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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458199/alpha-synuclein-oligomers-impair-memory-through-glial-cell-activation-and-via-toll-like-receptor-2
#1
Pietro La Vitola, Claudia Balducci, Milica Cerovic, Giulia Santamaria, Edoardo Brandi, Federica Grandi, Laura Caldinelli, Laura Colombo, Maria Grazia Morgese, Luigia Trabace, Loredano Pollegioni, Diego Albani, Gianluigi Forloni
Alpha-synuclein oligomers (α-synOs) are emerging as crucial factors in the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies. Although the connection between neuroinflammation and α-syn still remains elusive, increasing evidence suggests that extracellular moieties activate glial cells leading to neuronal damage. Using an acute mouse model, we explored whether α-synOs induce memory impairment in association to neuroinflammation, addressing Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2 and TLR4) involvement. We found that α-synOs abolished mouse memory establishment in association to hippocampal glial activation...
February 16, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458194/differential-effects-of-acute-versus-chronic-stress-on-ethanol-sensitivity-evidence-for-interactions-on-both-behavioral-and-neuroimmune-outcomes
#2
Tamara L Doremus-Fitzwater, Jacqueline E Paniccia, Anny Gano, Andrew Vore, Terrence Deak
Acute alcohol intoxication induces significant alterations in brain cytokines. Since stress challenges also profoundly impact central cytokine expression, these experiments examined the influence of acute and chronic stress on ethanol-induced brain cytokine responses. In Experiment 1, adult male rats were exposed to acute footshock. After a post-stress recovery interval of 0, 2, 4, or 24 h, rats were administered ethanol (4 g/kg; intragastric), with trunk blood and brains collected 3 h later. In non-stressed controls, acute ethanol increased expression of Il-6 and IκBα in the hippocampus...
February 16, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458097/topographical-memory-analyzed-in-mice-using-the-hamlet-test-a-novel-complex-maze
#3
Lucie Crouzier, Damien Gilabert, Mireille Rossel, Françoise Trousse, Tangui Maurice
The Hamlet test is an innovative device providing a complex environment for testing topographic memory in mice. Animals were trained in groups for weeks in a small village with a central agora, streets expanding from it towards five functionalized houses, where they can drink, eat, hide, run, interact with a stranger mouse. Memory was tested by depriving mice from water or food and analyzing their ability to locate the Drink/Eat house. Exploration and memory were analysed in different strains, gender, and after different training periods and delays...
February 16, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458058/lithium-modulates-the-muscarinic-facilitation-of-synaptic-plasticity-and-theta-gamma-coupling-in-the-hippocampal-prefrontal-pathway
#4
Rafael N Ruggiero, Matheus T Rossignoli, Cleiton Lopes-Aguiar, João P Leite, Lezio S Bueno-Junior, Rodrigo N Romcy-Pereira
Mood disorders are associated to functional unbalance in mesolimbic and frontal cortical circuits. As a commonly used mood stabilizer, lithium acts through multiple biochemical pathways, including those activated by muscarinic cholinergic receptors crucial for hippocampal-prefrontal communication. Therefore, here we investigated the effects of lithium on prefrontal cortex responses under cholinergic drive. Lithium-treated rats were anesthetized with urethane and implanted with a ventricular cannula for muscarinic activation, a recording electrode in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and a stimulating electrode in the intermediate hippocampal CA1...
February 16, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457245/longitudinal-relationships-among-depressive-symptoms-cortisol-and-brain-atrophy-in-the-neocortex-and-the-hippocampus
#5
A Lebedeva, A Sundström, L Lindgren, A Stomby, D Aarsland, E Westman, B Winblad, T Olsson, L Nyberg
OBJECTIVE: Depression is associated with accelerated aging and age-related diseases. However, mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. The aim of this study was to longitudinally assess the link between depressive symptoms, brain atrophy, and cortisol levels. METHOD: Participants from the Betula prospective cohort study (mean age = 59 years, SD = 13.4 years) underwent clinical, neuropsychological and brain 3T MRI assessments at baseline and a 4-year follow-up...
February 18, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456646/an-experimental-rabbit-model-of-symptomatic-cerebral-vasospasm-with-in-vivo-neuroimaging-assessment-and-ex-vivo-histological-validation
#6
Yunchang Mo, Luping Huang, Linbi Chen, Michael Veronesi, Yiyi Shi, Sijia Chen, Linli Peng, Leping Zhou, Yonglin Pu, Junlu Wang
Cerebral vasospasm (CVS) is a severe complication that occurs following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) has been used to evaluate brain injury following SAH in humans. The present study was designed to assess a rabbit model of symptomatic CVS (SCVS) and the utility of MRA in evaluating SCVS in rabbits. Japanese white rabbits (n=24) were randomly divided into 2 equal groups: A sham group and a SAH group. Neurological scores were evaluated for 7 days following SAH...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456186/neurons-generated-by-mouse-escs-with-hippocampal-or-cortical-identity-display-distinct-projection-patterns-when-co-transplanted-in-the-adult-brain
#7
Marco Terrigno, Irene Busti, Claudia Alia, Marta Pietrasanta, Ivan Arisi, Mara D'Onofrio, Matteo Caleo, Federico Cremisi
The capability of generating neural precursor cells with distinct types of regional identity in vitro has recently opened new opportunities for cell replacement in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. By manipulating Wnt and BMP signaling, we steered the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) toward isocortical or hippocampal molecular identity. These two types of cells showed different degrees of axonal outgrowth and targeted different regions when co-transplanted in healthy or lesioned isocortex or in hippocampus...
February 8, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455576/central-infusion-of-igf-1-increases-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-improves-neurobehavioral-function-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Shaun W Carlson, Kathryn E Saatman
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces neuronal dysfunction and cellular loss that can culminate in lasting impairments in cognitive and motor abilities. Therapeutic agents that promote repair and replenish neurons after TBI hold promise in improving recovery of function. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a neurotrophic factor capable of mediating neuroprotective and neuroplasticity mechanisms. Targeted overexpression of IGF-1 enhances the generation of hippocampal newborn neurons in brain-injured mice; however, the translational neurogenic potential of exogenously administered IGF-1 after TBI remains unknown...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455446/big2-arf1-rhoa-mdia1-signaling-regulates-dendritic-golgi-polarization-in-hippocampal-neurons
#9
Eun-Hye Hong, Ji-Ye Kim, Jeong-Hoon Kim, Dae-Sik Lim, Minkyu Kim, Jeong-Yoon Kim
Proper dendrite development is essential for establishing neural circuitry, and Rho GTPases play key regulatory roles in this process. From mouse brain lysates, we identified Brefeldin A-inhibited guanine exchange factor 2 (BIG2) as a novel Rho GTPase regulatory protein involved in dendrite growth and maintenance. BIG2 was highly expressed during early development, and knockdown of the ARFGEF2 gene encoding BIG2 significantly reduced total dendrite length and the number of branches. Expression of the constitutively active ADP-ribosylation factor 1 ARF1 Q71L rescued the defective dendrite morphogenesis of ARFGEF2-null neurons, indicating that BIG2 controls dendrite growth and maintenance by activating ARF1...
February 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455029/heterogeneous-patterns-of-brain-atrophy-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Konstantinos Poulakis, Joana B Pereira, Patrizia Mecocci, Bruno Vellas, Magda Tsolaki, Iwona Kłoszewska, Hilkka Soininen, Simon Lovestone, Andrew Simmons, Lars-Olof Wahlund, Eric Westman
There is increasing evidence showing that brain atrophy varies between patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), suggesting that different anatomical patterns might exist within the same disorder. We investigated AD heterogeneity based on cortical and subcortical atrophy patterns in 299 AD subjects from 2 multicenter cohorts. Clusters of patients and important discriminative features were determined using random forest pairwise similarity, multidimensional scaling, and distance-based hierarchical clustering. We discovered 2 typical (72...
January 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454843/impact-of-high-sucrose-diets-on-the-discrimination-of-spatial-and-object-memories-with-overlapping-features
#11
Cem Buyukata, Milijana Vukalo, Tanya J Xu, Madhavi A Khore, Amy C Reichelt
High sucrose diets (HSDs) have been shown to have detrimental effects on hippocampal dependent memory in rats, including the performance of spatial tasks reliant on pattern separation, a cognitive process involved in minimising interference during memory encoding. As such we sought to investigate the impact of HSDs on object and spatial recognition tasks that varied the cognitive load placed on pattern separation processes. Young male and female rats were 4 weeks old at the start of diet manipulations. Rats in the HSD condition were provided with daily access to 10% sucrose solution for 2 h per day across a 28 d period, during which they were assessed on their performance of memory tasks that varied the similarity of spatial arrangements (Spontaneous Location Recognition, SLR) and object features (Novel Object Recognition, NOR) to determine the effect of HSD on memory encoding processes...
February 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454746/phosphodiesterase-inhibition-and-modulation-of-corticostriatal-and-hippocampal-circuits-clinical-overview-and-translational-considerations
#12
REVIEW
P R A Heckman, A Blokland, E P P Bollen, J Prickaerts
The corticostriatal and hippocampal circuits contribute to the neurobiological underpinnings of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. Based on biological function, these circuits can be clustered into motor circuits, associative/cognitive circuits and limbic circuits. Together, dysfunctions in these circuits produce the wide range of symptoms observed in related neuropsychiatric disorders. Intracellular signaling in these circuits is largely mediated through the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway with an additional role for the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/ protein kinase G (PKG) pathway, both of which can be regulated by phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE inhibitors)...
February 15, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454613/isoquercetin-attenuates-oxidative-stress-and-neuronal-apoptosis-after-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-nrf2-mediated-inhibition-of-the-nox4-ros-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#13
Yunyi Dai, Haojie Zhang, Jianping Zhang, Mingguang Yan
Isoquercetin (Iso) has been found to have neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemic stroke. However, the exact molecular mechanism underlying its neuroprotective ability remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of Iso in primary culture of rat hippocampal neurons exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R) injury and in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R) injury. We found that rats treated with Iso exhibited a lower degree of infarct volume, and brain water content than the vehicle-treated rats...
February 15, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454288/apocynum-venetum-leaf-extract-reverses-depressive-like-behaviors-in-chronically-stressed-rats-by-inhibiting-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#14
Xiangting Li, Ting Wu, Zhonghai Yu, Tingting Li, Jingsi Zhang, Zhennian Zhang, Min Cai, Wen Zhang, Jun Xiang, Dingfang Cai
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common but serious psychiatric disorder, but current treatments are inadequate for approximately half of the patients with MDD. Thus, better methods of treatment are urgently needed. This study aimed to investigate the antidepressant-like effects and potential mechanism of Apocynum venetum leaf extract (AVLE) in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rat model of depression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CUMS rat model of depression was used to investigate the antidepressant-like activity and relevant mechanism of AVLE (30, 60, and 125 mg/kg, i...
February 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454025/early-alteration-of-distribution-and-activity-of-hippocampal-type-1-cannabinoid-receptor-in-alzheimer-s-disease-like-mice-overexpressing-the-human-mutant-amyloid-precursor-protein
#15
Mauro Maccarrone, Antonio Totaro, Alessandro Leuti, Giacomo Giacovazzo, Lucia Scipioni, Dalila Mango, Roberto Coccurello, Robert Nisticò, Sergio Oddi
Besides its involvement in Alzheimer's disease (AD) as precursor of the neurotoxic amyloid peptides, the pathophysiological impact of brain accumulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is not yet well understood. Recent studies reported that APP interacts with other membrane proteins, including G protein coupled receptors, affecting their biological functions. Here, we focused on the study of the potential impact of human mutant APP on expression, distribution and activity of type-1 cannabinoid (CB 1 ) receptor in the hippocampus of Tg2576 mice, an AD-like mice model...
February 14, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453958/age-dependent-effects-of-dimethyl-fumarate-on-cognitive-and-neuropathological-features-in-the-streptozotocin-induced-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Irena Majkutewicz, Ewelina Kurowska, Magdalena Podlacha, Dorota Myślińska, Beata Grembecka, Jan Ruciński, Karolina Pierzynowska, Danuta Wrona
We previously demonstrated that dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an anti-oxidative and immunosuppresive compound, prevents intracerebroventricular (ICV) streptozotocin-induced disruption of spatial memory and neurodegeneration in 4-month-old rats. The present study evaluated the influence of age on DMF's therapeutic effect. Aged rats (22-months-old, n=40) were provided rodent chow containing DMF (0.4%) and given ICV injections of streptozotocin (STZ) or vehicle (Sham) on days 2 and 4. Spatial memory was evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM) on days 14-21...
February 14, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453790/amyloid-beta-1-40-is-associated-with-alterations-in-ng2-pericyte-population-ex-vivo-and-in-vitro
#17
Nina Schultz, Kristoffer Brännström, Elin Byman, Simon Moussaud, Henrietta M Nielsen, Anders Olofsson, Malin Wennström
The population of brain pericytes, a cell type important for vessel stability and blood brain barrier function, has recently been shown altered in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The underlying reason for this alteration is not fully understood, but progressive accumulation of the AD characteristic peptide amyloid-beta (Aβ) has been suggested as a potential culprit. In the current study, we show reduced number of hippocampal NG2+ pericytes and an association between NG2+ pericyte numbers and Aβ1-40 levels in AD patients...
February 17, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453207/hippocampal-ripple-oscillations-and-inhibition-first-network-models-frequency-dynamics-and-response-to-gaba-modulators
#18
José R Donoso, Dietmar Schmitz, Nikolaus Maier, Richard Kempter
Hippocampal ripples are involved in memory consolidation, but the mechanisms underlying their generation remain unclear. Models relying on interneuron networks in the CA1 region disagree on the predominant source of excitation to interneurons: either 'direct', via the Schaffer collaterals that provide feedforward input from CA3 to CA1, or 'indirect', via the local pyramidal cells in CA1, which are embedded in a recurrent excitatory-inhibitory network. Here, we used physiologically constrained computational models of basket-cell networks to investigate how they respond to different conditions of transient, noisy excitation...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453206/elevation-of-hippocampal-neurogenesis-induces-a-temporally-graded-pattern-of-forgetting-of-contextual-fear-memories
#19
Aijing Gao, Frances Xia, Axel Guskjolen, Adam I Ramsaran, Adam Santoro, Sheena A Josselyn, Paul W Frankland
Throughout life neurons are continuously generated in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus. The subsequent integration of newly-generated neurons alters patterns of dentate gyrus input and output connectivity, potentially rendering memories already stored in those circuits harder to access. Consistent with this prediction, we previously showed that increasing hippocampal neurogenesis after training induces forgetting of hippocampus-dependent memories, including contextual fear memory. However, the brain regions supporting contextual fear memories change with time, and this time-dependent memory reorganization might regulate the sensitivity of contextual fear memories to fluctuations in hippocampal neurogenesis...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452810/interleukin-6-is-both-necessary-and-sufficient-to-produce-perioperative-neurocognitive-disorder-in-mice
#20
J Hu, X Feng, M Valdearcos, D Lutrin, Y Uchida, S K Koliwad, M Maze
BACKGROUND: Perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PND) result in long-term morbidity and mortality with no effective interventions available. Because interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is consistently up-regulated by trauma, including after surgery, we determined whether IL-6 is a putative therapeutic target for PND in a mouse model. METHODS: Following institutional approval, adult (12-14 weeks) male C57/Bl6 mice were pretreated with the IL-6 receptor (IL6R) blocking antibody tocilizumab prior to open tibia fracture with internal fixation under isoflurane anaesthesia...
March 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
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