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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088629/induction-of-hypothyroidism-during-early-postnatal-stages-triggers-a-decrease-in-cognitive-performance-by-decreasing-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity
#1
Paulina Salazar, Pedro Cisternas, Juan Francisco Codocedo, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
Thyroid hormones are vital in the control of multiple body functions, including the correct performance of the brain. Multiple diseases are associated with thyroid gland functioning, including hypothyroidism. To date, little is known regarding the effects of the establishment of this condition at a young age on brain function. Here, we evaluated the effect of hypothyroidism in an early postnatal stage in cognitive abilities with focus on the hippocampus. In our model, hypothyroidism was induced in young rats at 21days of age using 0...
January 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088401/pharmacological-rescue-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-a-mouse-model-of-x-linked-intellectual-disability
#2
Manuela Allegra, Cristina Spalletti, Beatrice Vignoli, Stefano Azzimondi, Irene Busti, Pierre Billuart, Marco Canossa, Matteo Caleo
Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1) is a Rho GTPase activating protein whose mutations cause X-linked intellectual disability (XLID). How loss of function of Ophn1 affects neuronal development is only partly understood. Here we have exploited adult hippocampal neurogenesis to dissect the steps of neuronal differentiation that are affected by Ophn1 deletion. We found that mice lacking Ophn1 display a reduction in the number of newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus. A significant fraction of the Ophn1-deficient newly generated neurons failed to extend an axon towards CA3, and showed an altered density of dendritic protrusions...
January 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088383/evaluating-the-role-of-astrocytes-on-%C3%AE-estradiol-effect-on-seizures-of-pilocarpine-epileptic-model
#3
Masoumeh Sarfi, Mahmoud Elahdadi Salmani, Iran Goudarzi, Taghi Lashkar Boluki, Kataneh Abrari
Epilepsy with periodic and unpredictable seizures is associated with hippocampal glutamate toxicity and tissue reorganization. Astrocytes play an important role in mediating the neuroprotective effects of estradiol and reducing seizure severity. Accordingly, the protective effects of low and high doses of estradiol on behavioral, astrocytic involvement and neuronal survival aspects of Pilocarpine-induced epilepsy were investigated. Lithium- Pilocarpine (30mg/kg) model was used to provoke epilepsy. Βeta-estradiol (2,40μg/ µl) was injected subcutaneously from 48 before to 48h after seizure induction...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087836/neuropathological-consequences-of-gestational-exposure-to-concentrated-ambient-fine-and-ultrafine-particles-in-the-mouse
#4
Carolyn Klocke, Joshua L Allen, Marissa Sobolewski, Margot Mayer-Pröschel, Jason L Blum, Dana Lauterstein, Judith T Zelikoff, Deborah A Cory-Slechta
Increasing evidence indicates that the central nervous system (CNS) is a target of air pollution. We previously reported that postnatal exposure of mice to concentrated ambient ultrafine particles (UFP; ≤100nm) via the University of Rochester HUCAPS system during a critical developmental window of CNS development, equivalent to human 3(rd) trimester, produced male-predominant neuropathological and behavioral characteristics common to multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in humans...
January 13, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087828/tdp-43-pathology-and-memory-impairment-in-elders-without-pathologic-diagnoses-of-ad-or-ftld
#5
Sukriti Nag, Lei Yu, Robert S Wilson, Er-Yun Chen, David A Bennett, Julie A Schneider
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) pathology with memory, other cognitive domains, and dementia in community-dwelling elders without pathologic diagnoses of Alzheimer disease (AD) or frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). METHODS: Of 1,058 autopsied participants, 343 (32.4%) did not have pathologic diagnoses of AD or FTLD. Diagnosis of dementia was based on clinical evaluation and cognitive performance tests, which were used to create summary measures of global cognition and of 5 cognitive domains...
January 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087822/amygdala-and-hippocampus-are-symptomatogenic-zones-for-central-apneic-seizures
#6
Nuria Lacuey, Bilal Zonjy, Luisa Londono, Samden D Lhatoo
OBJECTIVE: To identify limbic sites of respiratory control in the human brain, and by extension, the symptomatogenic zone for central apnea. METHODS: We used direct stimulation of anatomically, precisely placed stereotactic EEG electrodes to analyze breathing responses. We prospectively studied 3 patients who were explored with stereotactically implanted depth electrodes. The amygdala and hippocampus, as well as extralimbic sites (orbitofrontal, temporal tip, and temporal neocortex), were investigated...
January 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087816/acetazolamide-potentiates-the-afferent-drive-to-prefrontal-cortex-in%C3%A2-vivo
#7
Lezio S Bueno-Junior, Rafael N Ruggiero, Matheus T Rossignoli, Elaine A Del Bel, Joao P Leite, Osvaldo D Uchitel
The knowledge on real-time neurophysiological effects of acetazolamide is still far behind the wide clinical use of this drug. Acetazolamide - a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor - has been shown to affect the neuromuscular transmission, implying a pH-mediated influence on the central synaptic transmission. To start filling such a gap, we chose a central substrate: hippocampal-prefrontal cortical projections; and a synaptic phenomenon: paired-pulse facilitation (a form of synaptic plasticity) to probe this drug's effects on interareal brain communication in chronically implanted rats...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087193/immunohistochemical-study-of-metallothionein-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#8
Daniel Juárez-Rebollar, Mario Alonso-Vanegas, Concepción Nava-Ruíz, Masao Buentello-García, Petra Yescas-Gómez, Araceli Díaz-Ruíz, Camilo Rios, Marisela Méndez-Armenta
Epilepsy is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common serious neurological example of acquired and frequent epilepsy. Oxidative stress is recognized as playing a contributing role in several neurological disorders, and most recently have been implicated in acquired epilepsies. The MTs occur in several brain regions and may serve as neuroprotective proteins against reactive oxygen species causing oxidative damage and stress. The main aim of this work was to describe the immunohistochemical localization of MT in the specimens derived from the patients affected by TLE...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086931/the-release-and-trans-synaptic-transmission-of-tau-via-exosomes
#9
Yipeng Wang, Varun Balaji, Senthilvelrajan Kaniyappan, Lars Krüger, Stephan Irsen, Katharina Tepper, RamReddy Chandupatla, Walter Maetzler, Anja Schneider, Eckhard Mandelkow, Eva-Maria Mandelkow
BACKGROUND: Tau pathology in AD spreads in a hierarchical pattern, whereby it first appears in the entorhinal cortex, then spreads to the hippocampus and later to the surrounding areas. Based on this sequential appearance, AD can be classified into six stages ("Braak stages"). The mechanisms and agents underlying the progression of Tau pathology are a matter of debate. Emerging evidence indicates that the propagation of Tau pathology may be due to the transmission of Tau protein, but the underlying pathways and Tau species are not well understood...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086911/enhanced-neuroinflammation-mediated-by-dna-methylation-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-triggers-cognitive-dysfunction-after-sevoflurane-anesthesia-in-adult-rats-subjected-to-maternal-separation-during-the-neonatal-period
#10
Yangzi Zhu, Yu Wang, Rui Yao, Ting Hao, Junli Cao, He Huang, Liwei Wang, Yuqing Wu
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence indicates that children who experience abuse and neglect are prone to chronic diseases and premature mortality later in life. One mechanistic hypothesis for this phenomenon is that early life adversity alters the expression or functioning of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) throughout the course of life and thereby increases sensitivity to inflammatory stimulation. An exaggerated pro-inflammatory response is generally considered to be a key cause of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD)...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081563/interactions-with-astroglia-influence-the-shape-of-the-developing-dendritic-arbor-and-restrict-dendrite-growth-independent-of-promoting-synaptic-contacts
#11
Ginger S Withers, Jennifer R Farley, Jeffrey R Sterritt, Andrés B Crane, Christopher S Wallace
Astroglia play key roles in the development of neurons, ranging from regulating neuron survival to promoting synapse formation, yet basic questions remain about whether astrocytes might be involved in forming the dendritic arbor. Here, we used cultured hippocampal neurons as a simple in vitro model that allowed dendritic growth and geometry to be analyzed quantitatively under conditions where the extent of interactions between neurons and astrocytes varied. When astroglia were proximal to neurons, dendrites and dendritic filopodia oriented toward them, but the general presence of astroglia significantly reduced overall dendrite growth...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081197/morphine-withdrawal-modifies-prion-protein-expression-in-rat-hippocampus
#12
Vincenzo Mattei, Stefano Martellucci, Francesca Santilli, Valeria Manganelli, Tina Garofalo, Niccolò Candelise, Alessandra Caruso, Maurizio Sorice, Sergio Scaccianoce, Roberta Misasi
The hippocampus is a vulnerable brain structure susceptible to damage during aging and chronic stress. Repeated exposure to opioids may alter the brain so that it functions normally when the drugs are present, thus, a prolonged withdrawal might lead to homeostatic changes headed for the restoration of the physiological state. Abuse of morphine may lead to Reacting Oxygen Species-induced neurodegeneration and apoptosis. It has been proposed that during morphine withdrawal, stress responses might be responsible, at least in part, for long-term changes of hippocampal plasticity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081125/the-neural-representation-of-prospective-choice-during-spatial-planning-and-decisions
#13
Raphael Kaplan, John King, Raphael Koster, William D Penny, Neil Burgess, Karl J Friston
We are remarkably adept at inferring the consequences of our actions, yet the neuronal mechanisms that allow us to plan a sequence of novel choices remain unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how the human brain plans the shortest path to a goal in novel mazes with one (shallow maze) or two (deep maze) choice points. We observed two distinct anterior prefrontal responses to demanding choices at the second choice point: one in rostrodorsal medial prefrontal cortex (rd-mPFC)/superior frontal gyrus (SFG) that was also sensitive to (deactivated by) demanding initial choices and another in lateral frontopolar cortex (lFPC), which was only engaged by demanding choices at the second choice point...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079889/deletion-of-the-bh3-only-protein-noxa-alters-electrographic-seizures-but-does-not-protect-against-hippocampal-damage-after-status-epilepticus-in-mice
#14
Naoki Ichikawa, Mariana Alves, Shona Pfeiffer, Elena Langa, Yasmina E Hernández-Santana, Hidenori Suzuki, Jochen Hm Prehn, Tobias Engel, David C Henshall
Several members of the Bcl-2 gene family are dysregulated in human temporal lobe epilepsy and animal studies show that genetic deletion of some of these proteins influence electrographic seizure responses to chemoconvulsants and associated brain damage. The BH3-only proteins form a subgroup comprising direct activators of Bax-Bak that are potently proapoptotic and a number of weaker proapoptotic BH3-only proteins that act as sensitizers by neutralization of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members. Noxa was originally characterized as a weaker proapoptotic, 'sensitizer' BH3-only protein, although recent evidence suggests it too may be potently proapoptotic...
January 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079061/progressive-decline-in-hippocampal-ca1-volume-in-individuals-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis-who-do-not-remit-findings-from-the-longitudinal-youth-at-risk-study
#15
New Fei Ho, Daphne J Holt, Mike Cheung, Juan Eugenio Iglesias, Alex Goh, Mingyuan Wang, Joseph Kw Lim, Joshua de Souza, Joann S Poh, Yuen Mei See, Alison R Adcock, Stephen J Wood, Michael Wl Chee, Jimmy Lee, Juan Zhou
Most individuals identified as ultra high-risk for psychosis (UHR) do not develop frank psychosis. They continue to exhibit subthreshold symptoms, or go on to fully remit. Prior work has shown that the volume of CA1, a subfield of the hippocampus, is selectively reduced in the early stages of schizophrenia. Here, we aimed to determine whether patterns of volume change of CA1 are different in UHR individuals who do or do not achieve symptomatic remission. Structural MRI scans were acquired at baseline and at 1-2 follow-up time points (at 12-month intervals) from 147 UHR and healthy control subjects...
January 12, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078553/expression-of-apoptosis-regulatory-genes-in-the-hippocampus-of-rat-neonates-born-to-mothers-with-diabetes
#16
Hossein Haghir, Javad Hami, Nassim Lotfi, Mostafa Peyvandi, Simagol Ghasemi, Mehran Hosseini
Diabetes during pregnancy impairs the development of the central nervous system (CNS) and causes cognitive and behavioral abnormalities in offspring. However, the exact mechanism by which the maternal diabetes affects the development of the brain remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal diabetes in pregnancy on the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax genes and the numerical density of degenerating dark neurons (DNs) in the hippocampus of offspring at the first postnatal two weeks...
January 11, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078543/topiramate-confers-neuroprotection-against-methylphenidate-induced-neurodegeneration-in-dentate-gyrus-and-ca1-regions-of-hippocampus-via-creb-bdnf-pathway-in-rats
#17
Majid Motaghinejad, Manijeh Motevalian, Mohammad Abdollahi, Mansour Heidari, Zahra Madjd
Methylphenidate (MPH) abuse can cause serious neurological damages. The neuroprotective effects of topiramate (TPM) have been reported already, but its mechanism of action still remains unclear. The current study evaluates in vivo role of CREB/BDNF in TPM protection of the rat hippocampal cells from methylphenidate-induced apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. A total of 60 adult male rats were divided into six groups. Groups 1 and 2 received normal saline (0.7 ml/rat) and MPH (10 mg/kg) respectively for 14 days...
January 11, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077750/the-association-between-neurocysticercosis-and-hippocampal-atrophy-is-related-to-age
#18
Oscar H Del Brutto, Naoum P Issa, Perla Salgado, Victor J Del Brutto, Mauricio Zambrano, Julio Lama, Héctor H García
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) has been associated with hippocampal atrophy, but the prevalence and pathogenic mechanisms implicated in this relationship are unknown. Using a population-based, case-control study design, residents in a rural village (Atahualpa) aged ≥ 40 years with calcified NCC were identified as cases and paired to NCC-free individuals (control subjects) matched by age, sex, and level of education. Cases and control subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging for hippocampal rating according to the Scheltens' scale for medial temporal atrophy and were interviewed to identify those with a clinical seizure disorder...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077511/altered-connectivity-and-synapse-maturation-of-the-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-pathway-in-a-mouse-model-of-the-fragile-x-syndrome
#19
F Scharkowski, Michael Frotscher, David Lutz, Martin Korte, Kristin Michaelsen-Preusse
The Fragile X syndrome (FXS) as the most common monogenetic cause of cognitive impairment and autism indicates how tightly the dysregulation of synapse development is linked to cognitive deficits. Symptoms of FXS include excessive adherence to patterns that point to compromised hippocampal network formation. Surprisingly, one of the most complex hippocampal synapses connecting the dentate gyrus (DG) to CA3 pyramidal neurons has not been analyzed in FXS yet. Intriguingly, we found altered synaptic function between DG and CA3 in a mouse model of FXS (fmr1 knockout [KO]) demonstrated by increased mossy fiber-dependent miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) frequency at CA3 pyramidal neurons together with increased connectivity between granule cells and CA3 neurons...
January 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077334/the-neuroprotective-compound-p7c3-a20-promotes-neurogenesis-and-improves-cognitive-function-after-ischemic-stroke
#20
Zachary B Loris, Andrew A Pieper, W Dalton Dietrich
Ischemic stroke is a devastating condition with few therapeutic interventions available. The neuroprotective compound P7C3-A20 inhibits mature neuronal cell death while also increasing the net magnitude of postnatal neurogenesis in models of neurodegeneration and acute injury. P7C3 compounds enhance flux of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in mammalian cells, a proposed therapeutic approach to treating cerebral ischemia. The effectiveness of P7C3-A20 treatment on chronic histopathological and behavioral outcomes and neurogenesis after ischemic stroke has not previously been established...
January 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
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