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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053969/pebp1-wardens-ferroptosis-by-enabling-lipoxygenase-generation-of-lipid-death-signals
#1
Sally E Wenzel, Yulia Y Tyurina, Jinming Zhao, Claudette M St Croix, Haider H Dar, Gaowei Mao, Vladimir A Tyurin, Tamil S Anthonymuthu, Alexandr A Kapralov, Andrew A Amoscato, Karolina Mikulska-Ruminska, Indira H Shrivastava, Elizabeth M Kenny, Qin Yang, Joel C Rosenbaum, Louis J Sparvero, David R Emlet, Xiaoyan Wen, Yoshinori Minami, Feng Qu, Simon C Watkins, Theodore R Holman, Andrew P VanDemark, John A Kellum, Ivet Bahar, Hülya Bayır, Valerian E Kagan
Ferroptosis is a form of programmed cell death that is pathogenic to several acute and chronic diseases and executed via oxygenation of polyunsaturated phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) by 15-lipoxygenases (15-LO) that normally use free polyunsaturated fatty acids as substrates. Mechanisms of the altered 15-LO substrate specificity are enigmatic. We sought a common ferroptosis regulator for 15LO. We discovered that PEBP1, a scaffold protein inhibitor of protein kinase cascades, complexes with two 15LO isoforms, 15LO1 and 15LO2, and changes their substrate competence to generate hydroperoxy-PE...
October 19, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053824/chemogenetic-locus-coeruleus-activation-restores-reversal-learning-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Jacki M Rorabaugh, Termpanit Chalermpalanupap, Christian A Botz-Zapp, Vanessa M Fu, Natalie A Lembeck, Robert M Cohen, David Weinshenker
Clinical evidence suggests that aberrant tau accumulation in the locus coeruleus and noradrenergic dysfunction may be a critical early step in Alzheimer's disease progression. Yet, an accurate preclinical model of these phenotypes that includes early pretangle tau accrual in the locus coeruleus, loss of locus coeruleus innervation and deficits locus coeruleus/norepinephrine modulated behaviours, does not exist, hampering the identification of underlying mechanisms and the development of locus coeruleus-based therapies...
September 25, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053799/erythropoietin-induces-homeostatic-plasticity-at-hippocampal-synapses
#3
Raquel B Dias, Tiago M Rodrigues, Diogo M Rombo, Filipa F Ribeiro, Joana Rodrigues, Jennifer McGarvey, Catarina Orcinha, Jeremy M Henley, Ana M Sebastião
The cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) is the master regulator of erythropoiesis. Intriguingly, many studies have shown that the cognitive performance of patients receiving EPO for its hematopoietic effects is enhanced, which prompted the growing interest in the use of EPO-based strategies to treat neuropsychiatric disorders. EPO plays key roles in brain development and maturation, but also modulates synaptic transmission. However, the mechanisms underlying the latter have remained elusive. Here, we show that acute (40-60 min) exposure to EPO presynaptically downregulates spontaneous and afferent-evoked excitatory transmission, without affecting basal firing of action potentials...
July 5, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053778/influence-of-cerebrovascular-disease-on-brain-networks-in-prodromal-and-clinical-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Joanna Su Xian Chong, Siwei Liu, Yng Miin Loke, Saima Hilal, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Xin Xu, Boon Yeow Tan, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Christopher Li-Hsian Chen, Juan Zhou
Network-sensitive neuroimaging methods have been used to characterize large-scale brain network degeneration in Alzheimer's disease and its prodrome. However, few studies have investigated the combined effect of Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular disease on brain network degeneration. Our study sought to examine the intrinsic functional connectivity and structural covariance network changes in 235 prodromal and clinical Alzheimer's disease patients with and without cerebrovascular disease. We focused particularly on two higher-order cognitive networks-the default mode network and the executive control network...
September 19, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053699/evaluation-of-synapse-density-in-hippocampal-rodent-brain-slices
#5
Faye McLeod, Aude Marzo, Marina Podpolny, Soledad Galli, Patricia Salinas
In the brain, synapses are specialized junctions between neurons, determining the strength and spread of neuronal signaling. The number of synapses is tightly regulated during development and neuronal maturation. Importantly, deficits in synapse number can lead to cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, the evaluation of synapse number is an integral part of neurobiology. However, as synapses are small and highly compact in the intact brain, the assessment of absolute number is challenging. This protocol describes a method to easily identify and evaluate synapses in hippocampal rodent slices using immunofluorescence microscopy...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053682/implantation-of-chronic-silicon-probes-and-recording-of-hippocampal-place-cells-in-an-enriched-treadmill-apparatus
#6
Anvar Sariev, Jinho Chung, Dajung Jung, Farnaz Sharif, Ju-Young Lee, Soyoun Kim, Sebastien Royer
An important requisite for understanding brain function is the identification of behavior and cell activity correlates. Silicon probes are advanced electrodes for large-scale electrophysiological recording of neuronal activity, but the procedures for their chronic implantation are still underdeveloped. The activity of hippocampal place cells is known to correlate with an animal's position in the environment, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. To investigate place cells, here we describe a set of techniques which range from the fabrication of devices for chronic silicon probe implants to the monitoring of place field activity in a cue-enriched treadmill apparatus...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053191/perceived-stress-is-associated-with-smaller-hippocampal-volume-in-adolescence
#7
Luciane R Piccolo, Kimberly G Noble
Perceived stress has been associated with decreased hippocampal, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex volume, as well as decreased memory and executive functioning performance in adulthood. Parents' perceived stress has been linked to decreased hippocampal volume in young children. However, no studies have investigated the links between self-perceived stress and brain structure or function in adolescents. Additionally, findings from previous research with younger or older samples are inconsistent, likely in part due to inconsistencies in participants' age range...
October 20, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053037/possible-autoantibody-negative-limbic-encephalitis-after-anterior-temporal-lobectomy-for-hippocampal-sclerosis
#8
Sara Casciato, Alfredo D'Aniello, Addolorata Mascia, Pier Paolo Quarato, Marco De Risi, Liliana G Grammaldo, Vincenzo Esposito, Marco Zoccarato, Giancarlo Di Gennaro
Amnestic syndromes are acknowledged to be associated to bilateral hippocampal damage. We briefly report the case of a young man who underwent anterior left temporal lobectomy for a medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy due to hippocampal sclerosis with an excellent seizure and neuropsychological outcome. Approximately 10 years later, he presented with a subacute severe global amnesia and MRI findings of a damage involving the contralateral mesial temporal lobe structures. A diagnosis of a possible autoimmune encephalitis was made...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052839/effects-of-microrna-206-and-its-target-gene-igf-1-on-sevoflurane-induced-activation-of-hippocampal-astrocytes-in-aged-rats-through-the-pi3k-akt-creb-signaling-pathway
#9
Tie-Jun Liu, Bin Wang, Qun-Xi Li, Xiao-Liu Dong, Xiao-Liang Han, Shu-Bo Zhang
The study aims to explore the effects of microRNA-206 (miR-206) targeting IGF-1 on the activation of hippocampal astrocytes in aged rats induced by sevoflurane through the PI3K/AKT/CREB signaling pathway. Wistar rats and astrocytes were divided into the normal/blank, sham/negative control (NC), sevoflurane (sevo), miR-206 mimics + sevo, miR-206 inhibitors + sevo, miR-206 NC + sevo, IGF-1 shRNA + sevo and miR-206 inhibitors + IGF-1 shRNA + sevo groups. The Morris water maze test was exhibited to assess the cognitive functions...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052615/effects-of-alcohol-abuse-on-proliferating-cells-stem-progenitor-cells-and-immature-neurons-in-the-adult-human-hippocampus
#10
Tara Wardi Le Maître, Gopalakrishnan Dhanabalan, Nenad Bogdanovic, Kanar Alkass, Henrik Druid
In animal studies, impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with behavioral pathologies including addiction to alcohol. We hypothesize that alcohol abuse may have a detrimental effect on the neurogenic pool of the dentate gyrus in the human hippocampus. In this study we investigate whether alcohol abuse affects the number of proliferating cells, stem/progenitor cells and immature neurons in samples from postmortem human hippocampus. The specimens were isolated from deceased donors with an on-going alcohol abuse, and from controls with no alcohol overconsumption...
October 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052243/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signalling-pathway-mediated-aberrant-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-kainic-acid-induced-epilepsy
#11
Zhengyi Qu, Fang Su, Xueting Qi, Jianbo Sun, Hongcai Wang, Zhenkui Qiao, Hong Zhao, Yulan Zhu
Temporal lobe epilepsy is a chronic disorder of nerve system, mainly characterized by hippocampal sclerosis with massive neuronal loss and severe gliosis. Aberrant neurogenesis has been shown in the epileptogenesis process of temporal lobe epilepsy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant neurogenesis remain unclear. The roles of Wnt signalling cascade have been well established in neurogenesis during multiple aspects. Here, we used kainic acid-induced rat epilepsy model to investigate whether Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway is involved in the aberrant neurogenesis in temporal lobe epilepsy...
October 19, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051843/alterations-in-micro-rna-messenger-rna-mirna-mrna-coupled-signaling-networks-in-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease-ad-hippocampal-ca1
#12
V Jaber, Y Zhao, W J Lukiw
RNA sequencing, DNA microfluidic array, LED-Northern, Western immunoassay and bioinformatics analysis have uncovered a small family of up-regulated human brain enriched microRNAs (miRNAs) and down-regulated messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in short post-mortem interval (PMI) sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. At the mRNA level, a large majority of the expression of human brain genes found to be down-regulated in sporadic AD appears to be a consequence of an up-regulation of a specific group of NF-kB-inducible microRNAs (miRNAs)...
April 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinsonism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051381/learning-enhanced-coupling-between-ripple-oscillations-in-association-cortices-and-hippocampus
#13
Dion Khodagholy, Jennifer N Gelinas, György Buzsáki
Consolidation of declarative memories requires hippocampal-neocortical communication. Although experimental evidence supports the role of sharp-wave ripples in transferring hippocampal information to the neocortex, the exact cortical destinations and the physiological mechanisms of such transfer are not known. We used a conducting polymer-based conformable microelectrode array (NeuroGrid) to record local field potentials and neural spiking across the dorsal cortical surface of the rat brain, combined with silicon probe recordings in the hippocampus, to identify candidate physiological patterns...
October 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051090/comparative-one-and-two-photon-uncaging-of-mni-glutamate-and-mni-kainate-on-hippocampal-ca1-neurons
#14
Stefan Passlick, Graham C R Ellis-Davies
BACKGROUND: The light-induced release of neurotransmitters from caging chromophores provides a powerful means to study the underlying receptors in a physiologically relevant context. Surprisingly, most caged neurotransmitters, including the widely used 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl (MNI)-glutamate, show strong antagonism against GABA-A receptors. Kainate has been shown to exhibit a higher efficacy at glutamate receptors compared to glutamate itself. Thus, uncaging of kainate might allow the application of the caged compound at lower, less antagonistic concentrations...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051084/high-fat-diet-reduces-the-hippocampal-content-level-of-lactate-which-is-correlated-with-the-expression-of-glial-glutamate-transporters
#15
Sheng-Feng Tsai, Yun-Wen Chen, Yu-Min Kuo
Metabolic disorders hamper the brain metabolism and functions. The astrocytic glucose-derived lactate is known to fill the increased energy needs of neurons during synaptic transmission. However, whether systemic metabolism dysregulation affects the astrocytic lactate metabolism in the brain remain unexamined. To address this question, we adopt a 12-week high-fat diet to induce metabolic disorders in adult mice, and the effects of high-fat diet on the lactate metabolism in the hippocampus were examined. Results showed that a 12-week high-fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice...
October 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050910/default-mode-network-connectivity-of-fear-and-anxiety-related-cue-and-context-conditioning
#16
Francesca Zidda, Jamila Andoh, Sebastian Pohlack, Tobias Winkelmann, Ramona Dinu-Biringer, Juliana Cavalli, Michaela Ruttorf, Frauke Nees, Herta Flor
Classical fear conditioning is an important mechanism to adequately respond and adapt to environmental threats and has been related to the development of fear and anxiety. Both cue and context conditioning have been studied but little is known about their relation to relevant resting state networks. The default mode network (DMN) has been reported to be involved in affective learning and described as facilitating a state of readiness in responding to environmental changes. We examined resting state brain connectivity patterns of the default mode network (DMN) in 119 healthy volunteers...
October 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050512/iron-deficiency-beyond-erythropoiesis-should-we-be-concerned
#17
Khaled M Musallam, Ali T Taher
OBJECTIVE: To consider the key implications of iron deficiency for biochemical and physiological functions beyond erythropoiesis. METHODS: PubMed was searched for relevant journal articles published up to August 2017. RESULTS: Anemia is the most well-recognized consequence of persisting iron deficiency, but various other unfavorable consequences can develop either before or concurrently with anemia. Mitochondrial function can be profoundly disturbed since iron is a cofactor for heme-containing enzymes and non-heme iron-containing enzymes in the mitochondrial electron transport chain...
October 20, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050401/stereotypical-activation-of-hippocampal-ensembles-during-seizures
#18
Pierre-Pascal Lenck-Santini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050394/cortical-neurons-and-networks-are-dormant-but-fully-responsive-during-isoelectric-brain-state
#19
Tristan Altwegg-Boussac, Adrien E Schramm, Jimena Ballestero, Fanny Grosselin, Mario Chavez, Sarah Lecas, Michel Baulac, Lionel Naccache, Sophie Demeret, Vincent Navarro, Séverine Mahon, Stéphane Charpier
A continuous isoelectric electroencephalogram reflects an interruption of endogenously-generated activity in cortical networks and systematically results in a complete dissolution of conscious processes. This electro-cerebral inactivity occurs during various brain disorders, including hypothermia, drug intoxication, long-lasting anoxia and brain trauma. It can also be induced in a therapeutic context, following the administration of high doses of barbiturate-derived compounds, to interrupt a hyper-refractory status epilepticus...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050390/involvement-of-fast-spiking-cells-in-ictal-sequences-during-spontaneous-seizures-in-rats-with-chronic-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#20
Adam R Neumann, Robrecht Raedt, Hendrik W Steenland, Mathieu Sprengers, Katarzyna Bzymek, Zaneta Navratilova, Lilia Mesina, Jeanne Xie, Valerie Lapointe, Fabian Kloosterman, Kristl Vonck, Paul A J M Boon, Ivan Soltesz, Bruce L McNaughton, Artur Luczak
See Lenck-Santini (doi:10.1093/awx205) for a scientific commentary on this article. Epileptic seizures represent altered neuronal network dynamics, but the temporal evolution and cellular substrates of the neuronal activity patterns associated with spontaneous seizures are not fully understood. We used simultaneous recordings from multiple neurons in the hippocampus and neocortex of rats with chronic temporal lobe epilepsy to demonstrate that subsets of cells discharge in a highly stereotypical sequential pattern during ictal events, and that these stereotypical patterns were reproducible across consecutive seizures...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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