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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244234/mechanisms-of-caspr2-antibodies-in-autoimmune-encephalitis-and-neuromyotonia
#1
Kristina R Patterson, Josep Dalmau, Eric Lancaster
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pathogenic mechanisms of autoantibodies to the cell adhesion molecule Caspr2 in acquired neuromyotonia and autoimmune encephalitis. METHODS: Caspr2 positive samples were confirmed using a cell-based assay, and their IgG subtypes were determined by ELISA and cell-based assay. A solid phase binding assay quantified the binding of Caspr2 to contactin-2 in the presence of Caspr2 autoantibodies. Living cultures of primary rat hippocampal neurons were incubated with Caspr2-positive or control sera and the distribution of Caspr2-positive immunofluorescent puncta and total surface Caspr2 were quantified...
December 15, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244218/person-specific-contribution-of-neuropathologies-to-cognitive-loss-in-old-age
#2
Patricia A Boyle, Lei Yu, Robert S Wilson, Sue E Leurgans, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett
OBJECTIVE: Mixed neuropathologies are the most common cause of dementia at the population level, but how different neuropathologies contribute to cognitive decline at the individual level remains unknown. We quantified the contribution of nine neuropathologies to cognitive loss at an individual level. METHODS: Participants (n=1,079) came from 2 longitudinal clinical-pathologic studies of aging. All completed 2+ cognitive evaluations (maximum = 22), died and underwent neuropathologic examinations to identify Alzheimer's disease (AD), other neurodegenerative diseases, and vascular pathologies...
December 15, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242276/oral-sodium-butyrate-impacts-brain-metabolism-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis-with-limited-effects-on-gut-anatomy-and-function-in-pigs
#3
David Val-Laillet, Sylvie Guérin, Nicolas Coquery, Isabelle Nogret, Michèle Formal, Véronique Romé, Laurence Le Normand, Paul Meurice, Gwénaëlle Randuineau, Paul Guilloteau, Charles-Henri Malbert, Patricia Parnet, Jean-Paul Lallès, Jean-Pierre Segain
Butyrate can improve gut functions, whereas histone deacetylase inhibitors might alleviate neurocognitive alterations. Our aim was to assess whether oral butyrate could modulate brain metabolism and plasticity and if this would relate to gut function. Sixteen pigs were subjected to sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation via beverage water or water only [control (C)]. All pigs had blood sampled after 2 and 3 wk of treatment, and were subjected to a brain positron emission tomography after 3 wk. Animals were euthanized after 4 wk to sample pancreas, intestine, and brain for gut physiology and anatomy measurements, as well as hippocampal histology, Ki67, and doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry...
December 14, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242106/the-effects-of-dopaminergic-d2-like-receptor-stimulation-upon-behavioral-and-neural-correlates-of-renewal-depend-on-individual-context-processing-propensities
#4
Silke Lissek, Benjamin Glaubitz, Anne Klass, Martin Tegenthoff
Renewal is defined as the recovery of an extinguished response when the contexts of extinction and recall differ. Prominent hippocampal activity during context-related extinction can predict renewal. Dopaminergic antagonism during extinction learning impaired extinction and reduced hippocampal activation, without affecting renewal. However, to what extent dopaminergic stimulation during extinction influences hippocampal processing and renewal is as yet unknown. In this fMRI study, we investigated the effects of the dopamine D2-like agonist bromocriptine upon renewal in an associative learning task, in hippocampus and ventromedial PFC...
December 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241552/a-single-cell-rna-sequencing-study-reveals-cellular-and-molecular-dynamics-of-the-hippocampal-neurogenic-niche
#5
Benedetta Artegiani, Anna Lyubimova, Mauro Muraro, Johan H van Es, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Hans Clevers
Adult neurogenesis in the murine dentate gyrus occurs in a specialized microenvironment that sustains the generation of neurons during life. To fully understand adult neurogenesis, it is essential to determine the neural stem cell (NSC) and progenitor developmental stages, their molecular determinants, and the niche cellular and molecular composition. We report on a single-cell RNA sequencing study of the hippocampal niche, performed by isolating all the non-neuronal cell populations. Our analysis provides a comprehensive description of the dentate gyrus cells, and it allows the identification of exclusive cell-type-specific markers...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240990/wnt-signaling-loss-accelerates-the-appearance-of-neuropathological-hallmarks-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-j20-app-transgenic-and-wild-type-mice
#6
Cheril Tapia-Rojas, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative pathology characterized by aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau protein, synaptic dysfunction, and spatial memory impairment. The Wnt signaling pathway has several key functions in the adult brain and has been associated with AD, mainly as a neuroprotective factor against Aβ toxicity and tau phosphorylation. However, dysfunction of Wnt/β-catenin signaling might also play a role in the onset and development of the disease. J20 APPswInd transgenic (Tg) mouse model of AD was treated i...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239599/a-tau-derived-hexapeptide-acphf6-promotes-beta-amyloid-a%C3%AE-fibrillogenesis
#7
Tarek Mohamed, Sarbjeet Singh Gujral, Praveen P N Rao
We studied the interactions of a tau derived hexapeptide AcPHF6 with beta-amyloid peptides Aβ40 and Aβ42 which reveals its unusual ability to promote Aβ fibrillogenesis. The results demonstrate that the N-acetylated and C-amidated AcPHF6 hexapeptide can cause significant acceleration in Aβ40 and Aβ42 fibril growth. Aggregation kinetic studies at pH 7.4 show that at 25 μM, AcPHF6 hexapeptide was able to cause ~2.3-fold increase in Aβ40 fibrillogenesis dramatically changing the aggregation kinetics. In addition, AcPHF6 peptide was able to reduce cellular toxicity mediated by Aβ40 and Aβ42 in hippocampal neuronal cell line (HT22)...
December 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239334/calycosin-improves-cognitive-function-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-by-activating-the-protein-kinase-c-pathway
#8
Lei Song, Xiaoping Li, Xiao-Xue Bai, Jian Gao, Chun-Yan Wang
The major pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease are beta amyloid deposits and cognitive impairment. Calycosin is a typical phytoestrogen derived from radix astragali that binds to estrogen receptors to produce estrogen-like effects. Radix astragali Calycosin has been shown to relieve cognitive impairment induced by diabetes mellitus, suggesting calycosin may improve the cognitive function of Alzheimer's disease patients. The protein kinase C pathway is upstream of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and exerts a neuroprotective effect by regulating Alzheimer's disease-related beta amyloid degradation...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239317/%C3%AE-n-bcl-xl-a-therapeutic-target-for-neuroprotection
#9
REVIEW
Han-A Park, Elizabeth A Jonas
The B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) is a mitochondrial anti-apoptotic protein that plays a role in neuroprotection. However, during excitotoxic stimulation, Bcl-xL undergoes caspase-dependent cleavage and produces a fragmented form, ΔN-Bcl-xL. Accumulation of ΔN-Bcl-xL is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal death. Therefore, strategies to inhibit the activity or formation of ΔN-Bcl-xL protect the brain against excitotoxic injuries. Our team found that the pharmacological inhibitor ABT-737 exerts dose dependent effects in primary neurons...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239315/the-role-of-general-anesthetics-and-the-mechanisms-of-hippocampal-and-extra-hippocampal-dysfunctions-in-the-genesis-of-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction
#10
REVIEW
Marco Cascella, Sabrina Bimonte
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a multifactorial process with a huge number of predisposing, causal, and precipitating factors. In this scenario, the neuroinflammation and the microglial activation play a pivotal role by triggering and amplifying a complex cascade involving the immuno-hormonal activation, the micro circle alterations, the hippocampal oxidative stress activation and, finally, an increased blood-brain barrier's permeability. While the role of anesthetics in the POCD's genesis in humans is debated, a huge number of preclinical studies have been conducted on the topic and many mechanisms have been proposed to explain the potential neurodegenerative effects of general anesthetics...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238960/is-inpatient-ictal-video-electroencephalographic-monitoring-mandatory-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-unilateral-hippocampal-sclerosis-a-prospective-study
#11
Marina K M Alvim, Marcia E Morita, Clarissa L Yasuda, Benito P Damasceno, Tátila M Lopes, Ana Carolina Coan, Enrico Ghizoni, Helder Tedeschi, Fernando Cendes
OBJECTIVE: To compare surgical outcome in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) who had or did not have preoperative video-electroencephalographic monitoring (VEEG). METHODS: A prospective study was undertaken with 166 consecutive pharmacoresistant unilateral MTLE-HS patients. All patients were investigated with detailed seizure semiology, serial routine outpatient EEG, magnetic resonance imaging, neuropsychological evaluation, and if necessary, other examinations...
December 13, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238892/recombinant-human-erythropoietin-protects-against-hippocampal-damage-in-developing-rats-with-seizures-by-modulating-autophagy-via-the-s6-protein-in-a-time-dependent-manner
#12
Qinrui Li, Ying Han, Junbao Du, Hongfang Jin, Jing Zhang, Manman Niu, Jiong Qin
Epilepsy is among the most common neurological disorders. Recurrent seizures result in neuronal death, cognitive deficits and intellectual disabilities in children. Currently, recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) is considered to play a neuroprotective role in nervous system disorders. However, the precise mechanisms through which rhEPO modulates epilepsy remain unknown. Based on results from numerous studies, we hypothesized that rhEPO protects against hippocampal damage in developing rats with seizures probably by modulating autophagy via the ribosomal protein S6 (S6) in a time-dependent manner...
December 13, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238740/differential-effects-of-negative-emotion-on-memory-for-items-and-associations-and-their-relationship-to-intrusive-imagery
#13
REVIEW
J A Bisby, N Burgess
A crucial aspect of episodic memory formation is the way in which our experiences are stored within a coherent spatio-temporal context. We review research that highlights how the experience of a negative event can alter memory encoding in a complex manner, strengthening negative items but weakening associations with other items and the surrounding context. Recent evidence suggests that these opposing effects can occur through amygdala up-modulation to facilitate item encoding, while the hippocampal provision of contextual binding is down-modulated...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238619/hippocampal-regulation-of-postsynaptic-density-homer1-by-associative-learning
#14
Nicholas E Clifton, Darren Cameron, Simon Trent, Lucy H Sykes, Kerrie L Thomas, Jeremy Hall
Genes involved in synaptic plasticity, particularly genes encoding postsynaptic density proteins, have been recurrently linked to psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and autism. Postsynaptic density Homer1 proteins contribute to synaptic plasticity through the competing actions of short and long isoforms. The activity-induced expression of short Homer1 isoforms, Homer1a and Ania-3, is thought to be related to processes of learning and memory. However, the precise regulation of Homer1a and Ania-3 with different components of learning has not been investigated...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238473/the-effects-of-cck-8s-on-spatial-memory-and-long-term-potentiation-at-ca1-during-induction-of-stress-in-rats
#15
Malihe Sadeghi, Parham Reisi, Maryam Radahmadi
Objectives: Cholecystokinin (CCK) has been proposed as a mediator in stress. However, it is still not fully documented what are its effects. We aimed to evaluate the effects of systemic administration of CCK exactly before induction of stress on spatial memory and synaptic plasticity at CA1 in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: the control, the control-CCK, the stress and the stress-CCK. Restraint stress was induced 6 hr per day, for 24 days...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238302/sevoflurane-induces-exaggerated-and-persistent-cognitive-decline-in-a-type-ii-diabetic-rat-model-by-aggregating-hippocampal-inflammation
#16
Dongliang Li, Lingling Liu, Liang Li, Xingang Li, Bin Huang, Changqing Zhou, Zhaohang Zhang, Chunling Wang, Ping Dong, Xiyan Zhang, Bo Yang, Li Zhang
Recent studies show that a moderate duration of sevoflurane, one of the most commonly used volatile anesthetics in clinical practice, does not induce cognitive impairment in animals under physiological conditions. However, the influence of sevoflurane on cognitive function under diabetic conditions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether sevoflurane causes cognitive decline in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and if so, to explore a possible underlying mechanism. Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and non-diabetic Wistar rats underwent 2...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237555/real-world-navigation-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-the-relation-to-visuospatial-memory-and-volume-of-hippocampal-subregions
#17
Jessica Peter, Richard Sandkamp, Lora Minkova, Lena V Schumacher, Christoph P Kaller, Ahmed Abdulkadir, Stefan Klöppel
Spatial disorientation is a frequent symptom in Alzheimer's disease and in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In the clinical routine, spatial orientation is less often tested with real-world navigation but rather with 2D visuoconstructive tasks. However, reports about the association between the two types of tasks are sparse. Additionally, spatial disorientation has been linked to volume of the right hippocampus but it remains unclear whether right hippocampal subregions have differential involvement in real-world navigation...
December 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237478/am404-paracetamol-metabolite-prevents-prostaglandin-synthesis-in-activated-microglia-by-inhibiting-cox-activity
#18
Soraya Wilke Saliba, Ariel R Marcotegui, Ellen Fortwängler, Johannes Ditrich, Juan Carlos Perazzo, Eduardo Muñoz, Antônio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira, Bernd L Fiebich
BACKGROUND: N-arachidonoylphenolamine (AM404), a paracetamol metabolite, is a potent agonist of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and low-affinity ligand of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1). There is evidence that AM404 exerts its pharmacological effects in immune cells. However, the effect of AM404 on the production of inflammatory mediators of the arachidonic acid pathway in activated microglia is still not fully elucidated. METHOD: In the present study, we investigated the effects of AM404 on the eicosanoid production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in organotypic hippocampal slices culture (OHSC) and primary microglia cultures using Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and ELISA...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237242/enhanced-cognition-and-dysregulated-hippocampal-synaptic-physiology-in-mice-with-a-heterozygous-deletion-of-psd-95
#19
Alexa E Horner, Catherine L McLaughlin, Nurudeen O Afinowi, Timothy J Bussey, Lisa M Saksida, Noboru H Komiyama, Seth G N Grant, Maksym V Kopanitsa
PSD-95 is one of the most abundant proteins of the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. It functions as the backbone of protein supercomplexes that mediate signalling between membrane glutamate receptors and intracellular pathways. Homozygous deletion of the Dlg4 gene encoding PSD-95 was previously found to cause a profound impairment in operant and Pavlovian conditioning in Dlg4-/- mice studied in touchscreen chambers that precluded evaluation of PSD-95's role in shaping more subtle forms of learning and memory...
December 13, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237154/effects-of-early-life-adversity-on-hippocampal-structures-and-associated-hpa-axis-functions
#20
Brigitte Dahmen, Vanessa B Puetz, Wolfgang Scharke, Georg G von Polier, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Kerstin Konrad
Early-life adversity (ELA) is one of the major risk factors for serious mental and physical health risks later in life. ELA has been associated with dysfunctional neurodevelopment, especially in brain structures such as the hippocampus, and with dysfunction of the stress system, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Children who have experienced ELA are also more likely to suffer from mental health disorders such as depression later in life. The exact interplay of aberrant neurodevelopment and HPA axis dysfunction as risks for psychopathology is not yet clear...
December 14, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
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