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Channelrhodopsin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811463/a-light-regulated-host-guest-based-nanochannel-system-inspired-by-channelrhodopsins-protein
#1
Yue Sun, Junkai Ma, Fan Zhang, Fei Zhu, Yuxiao Mei, Lu Liu, Demei Tian, Haibing Li
The light-controlled gating of ion transport across membranes is central to nature (e.g., in protein channels). Herein, inspired by channelrhodopsins, we introduce a facile non-covalent approach towards light-responsive biomimetic channelrhodopsin nanochannels using host-guest interactions between a negative pillararene host and a positive azobenzene guest. By switching between threading and dethreading states with alternating visible and UV light irradiation, the functional channels can be flexible to regulate the inner surface charge of the channels, which in turn was exploited to achieve different forms of ion transport, for instance, cation-selective transport and anion-selective transport...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807567/a-new-promoter-allows-optogenetic-vision-restoration-with-enhanced-sensitivity-in-macaque-retina
#2
Antoine Chaffiol, Romain Caplette, Céline Jaillard, Elena Brazhnikova, Mélissa Desrosiers, Elisabeth Dubus, Laëtitia Duhamel, Emilie Macé, Olivier Marre, Patrick Benoit, Philippe Hantraye, Alexis-Pierre Bemelmans, Ernst Bamberg, Jens Duebel, José-Alain Sahel, Serge Picaud, Deniz Dalkara
The majority of inherited retinal degenerations converge on the phenotype of photoreceptor cell death. Second- and third-order neurons are spared in these diseases, making it possible to restore retinal light responses using optogenetics. Viral expression of channelrhodopsin in the third-order neurons under ubiquitous promoters was previously shown to restore visual function, albeit at light intensities above illumination safety thresholds. Here, we report (to our knowledge, for the first time) activation of macaque retinas, up to 6 months post-injection, using channelrhodopsin-Ca(2+)-permeable channelrhodopsin (CatCh) at safe light intensities...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800085/recent-progress-of-development-of-optogenetic-implantable-neural-probes
#3
REVIEW
Hubin Zhao
As a cell type-specific neuromodulation method, optogenetic technique holds remarkable potential for the realisation of advanced neuroprostheses. By genetically expressing light-sensitive proteins such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in cell membranes, targeted neurons could be controlled by light. This new neuromodulation technique could then be applied into extensive brain networks and be utilised to provide effective therapies for neurological disorders. However, the development of novel optogenetic implants is still a key challenge in the field...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798945/optogenetic-stimulation-and-recording-of-primary-cultured-neurons-with-spatiotemporal-control
#4
Jérémie Barral, Alex D Reyes
We studied a network of cortical neurons in culture and developed an innovative optical device to stimulate optogenetically a large neuronal population with both spatial and temporal precision. We first describe how to culture primary neurons expressing channelrhodopsin. We then detail the optogenetic setup based on the workings of a fast Digital Light Processing (DLP) projector. The setup is able to stimulate tens to hundreds neurons with independent trains of light pulses that evoked action potentials with high temporal resolution...
June 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795515/multiplexed-optogenetic-stimulation-of-neurons-with-spectrum-selective-upconversion-nanoparticles
#5
Xudong Lin, Ying Wang, Xian Chen, Runhuai Yang, Zixun Wang, Jingyu Feng, Haitao Wang, King W C Lai, Jufang He, Feng Wang, Peng Shi
Optical modulation of nervous system becomes increasingly popular as the wide adoption of optogenetics. For these applications, upconversion materials hold great promise as novel photonic elements. This study describes an upconversion based strategy for combinatorial neural stimulation both in vitro and in vivo by using spectrum-selective upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs). NaYF4 based UCNPs are used to absorb near-infrared (NIR) energy and to emit visible light for stimulating neurons expressing different channelrhodopsin (ChR) proteins...
August 10, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795396/synaptic-excitation-by-climbing-fibre-collaterals-in-the-cerebellar-nuclei-of-juvenile-and-adult-mice
#6
Marion Najac, Indira M Raman
The inferior olive conveys instructive signals to the cerebellum that drive sensorimotor learning. Inferior olivary neurons transmit their signals via climbing fibres, which powerfully excite Purkinje cells, evoking complex spikes and depressing parallel fibre synapses. Additionally, however, these climbing fibres send collaterals to the cerebellar nuclei (CbN). In vivo and in vitro data suggest that climbing fibre collateral excitation is weak in adult mice, raising the question of whether the primary role of this pathway may be developmental...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794102/optogenetics-and-pharmacogenetics-principles-and-applications
#7
Jingwei Jiang, Huxing Cui, Kamal Rahmouni
Remote and selective spatiotemporal control of the activity of neurons to regulate behavior and physiological functions has been a long-sought goal in system neuroscience. Identification and subsequent bioengineering of light-sensitive ion channels (e.g., channelrhodopsins, halorhodopsin and archaerhodopsins) from the bacteria has made it possible to utilize light to artificially modulate neuronal activity, namely optogenetics. Recent advance in genetics has also allowed development of novel pharmacological tools to selectively and remotely control neuronal activity using engineered G-protein coupled receptors which can be activated by otherwise inert drug-like small molecules such as the Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drug (DREADD) - a form of chemogenetics...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775289/reaction-dynamics-of-the-chimeric-channelrhodopsin-c1c2
#8
Yusaku Hontani, Marco Marazzi, Katja Stehfest, Tilo Mathes, Ivo H M van Stokkum, Marcus Elstner, Peter Hegemann, John T M Kennis
Channelrhodopsin (ChR) is a key protein of the optogenetic toolkit. C1C2, a functional chimeric protein of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ChR1 and ChR2, is the only ChR whose crystal structure has been solved, and thus uniquely suitable for structure-based analysis. We report C1C2 photoreaction dynamics with ultrafast transient absorption and multi-pulse spectroscopy combined with target analysis and structure-based hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations. Two relaxation pathways exist on the excited (S1) state through two conical intersections CI1 and CI2, that are reached via clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations: (i) the C13=C14 isomerization path with 450 fs via CI1 and (ii) a relaxation path to the initial ground state with 2...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757327/differential-electrophysiological-and-morphological-alterations-of-thalamostriatal-and-corticostriatal-projections-in-the-r6-2-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#9
Anna Parievsky, Cindy Moore, Talia Kamdjou, Carlos Cepeda, Charles K Meshul, Michael S Levine
Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal genetic disorder characterized by cell death of medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) in the striatum, traditionally attributed to excessive glutamate inputs and/or receptor sensitivity. While changes in corticostriatal projections have typically been studied in mouse models of HD, morphological and functional alterations in thalamostriatal projections have received less attention. In this study, an adeno-associated virus expressing channelrhodopsin-2 under the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα promoter was injected into the sensorimotor cortex or the thalamic centromedian-parafascicular nuclear complex in the R6/2 mouse model of HD, to permit selective activation of corticostriatal or thalamostriatal projections, respectively...
July 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757250/optogenetic-activation-of-amygdala-projections-to-nucleus-accumbens-can-arrest-conditioned-and-unconditioned-alcohol-consummatory-behavior
#10
E Zayra Millan, H Amy Kim, Patricia H Janak
Following a Pavlovian pairing procedure, alcohol-paired cues come to elicit behavioral responses that lead to alcohol consumption. Here we used an optogenetic approach to activate basolateral amygdala (BLA) axonal terminals targeting the shell of nucleus accumbens (AcbSh) and investigated a possible influence over cue-conditioned alcohol seeking and alcohol drinking, based on the demonstrated roles of these areas in behavioral responding to Pavlovian cues and in feeding behavior. Rats were trained to anticipate alcohol or sucrose following the onset of a discrete conditioned stimulus (CS)...
July 28, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751460/optogenetic-central-amygdala-stimulation-intensifies-and-narrows-motivation-for-cocaine
#11
Shelley M Warlow, Mike J F Robinson, Kent C Berridge
Addiction is often characterized by intense motivation for a drug, which may be narrowly focused at the expense of other rewards. Here we examined the role of amygdala-related circuitry in the amplification and narrowing of motivation focus for intravenous cocaine. We paired optogenetic channelrhodopsin (ChR2) stimulation in either central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) or basolateral amygdala (BLA) of female rats with one particular nosepoke-porthole option for earning cocaine infusions (0.3 mg/kg, i.v.). A second alternative porthole earned identical cocaine but without ChR2 stimulation...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708765/distinct-behavioral-responses-evoked-by-selective-optogenetic-stimulation-of-the-major-trpv1-and-mrgd-subsets-of-c-fibers
#12
Hélène Beaudry, Ihab Daou, Ariel R Ase, Alfredo Ribeiro-da-Silva, Philippe Séguéla
Primary C-fiber nociceptors are broadly divided into peptidergic and non-peptidergic afferents. TRPV1 is a thermosensitive cation channel mainly localized in peptidergic nociceptors whereas MrgD is a sensory G protein-coupled receptor expressed in most non-peptidergic nociceptive afferents. TRPV1 and MrgD fibers have been reported to be primarily involved in thermal and mechanical nociception, respectively. Yet, their functional assessment in somatosensory transmission relied on ablation strategies that do not account for compensatory mechanisms...
July 12, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685774/immobility-responses-are-induced-by-photoactivation-of-single-glomerular-species-responsive-to-fox-odour-tmt
#13
Harumi Saito, Hirofumi Nishizumi, Satoshi Suzuki, Hideyuki Matsumoto, Nao Ieki, Takaya Abe, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Masahiko Morita, Hideo Yokota, Nozomi Hirayama, Takahiro Yamazaki, Takefumi Kikusui, Kensaku Mori, Hitoshi Sakano
Fox odour 2,4,5-trimethyl thiazoline (TMT) is known to activate multiple glomeruli in the mouse olfactory bulb (OB) and elicits strong fear responses. In this study, we screened TMT-reactive odourant receptors and identified Olfr1019 with high ligand reactivity and selectivity, whose glomeruli are located in the posterodorsal OB. In the channelrhodopsin knock-in mice for Olfr1019, TMT-responsive olfactory-cortical regions were activated by photostimulation, leading to the induction of immobility, but not aversive behaviour...
July 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671548/motoneurons-regulate-the-central-pattern-generator-during-drug-induced-locomotor-like-activity-in-the-neonatal-mouse
#14
Melanie Falgairolle, Joshua G Puhl, Avinash Pujala, Wenfang Liu, Michael J O'Donovan
Motoneurons are traditionally viewed as the output of the spinal cord that do not influence locomotor rhythmogenesis. We assessed the role of motoneuron firing during ongoing locomotor-like activity in neonatal mice expressing archaerhopsin-3 (Arch), halorhodopsin (eNpHR), or channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in Choline acetyltransferase neurons (ChAT(+)) or Arch in LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Isl1(+) neurons. Illumination of the lumbar cord in mice expressing eNpHR or Arch in ChAT(+) or Isl1(+) neurons, depressed motoneuron discharge, transiently decreased the frequency, and perturbed the phasing of the locomotor-like rhythm...
July 3, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668267/measurement-of-phase-resetting-curves-using-optogenetic-barrage-stimuli
#15
Matthew H Higgs, Charles J Wilson
BACKGROUND: The phase resetting curve (PRC) is a primary measure of a rhythmically firing neuron's responses to synaptic input, quantifying the change in phase of the firing oscillation as a function of the input phase. PRCs provide information about whether neurons will synchronize due to synaptic coupling or shared input. However, PRC estimation has been limited to in vitro preparations where stable intracellular recordings can be obtained and background activity is minimal, and new methods are required for in vivo applications...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667669/optogenetic-stimulation-of-dentate-gyrus-engrams-restores-memory-in-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#16
Jennifer N Perusini, Stephanie A Cajigas, Omid Cohensedgh, Sean C Lim, Ina P Pavlova, Zoe R Donaldson, Christine A Denny
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder characterized by amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles. APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice have been developed as an AD model and are characterized by plaque formation at 4-6 months of age. Here, we sought to better understand AD-related cognitive decline by characterizing various types of memory. In order to better understand how memory declines with AD, APP/PS1 mice were bred with ArcCreER(T2) mice. In this line, neural ensembles activated during memory encoding can be indelibly tagged and directly compared with neural ensembles activated during memory retrieval (i...
July 1, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667175/the-relevance-of-agrp-neuron-derived-gaba-inputs-to-pomc-neurons-differs-for-spontaneous-and-evoked-release
#17
Andrew R Rau, Shane T Hentges
Hypothalamic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons potently stimulate food intake, whereas proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons inhibit feeding. Whether AgRP neurons exert their orexigenic actions, at least in part, by inhibiting anorexigenic POMC neurons remains unclear. Here, the connectivity between GABA-releasing AgRP neurons and POMC neurons was examined in brain slices from male and female mice. GABA-mediated spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) in POMC neurons were unaffected by disturbing GABA release from AgRP neurons either by cell type-specific deletion of the vesicular GABA transporter or by expression of botulinum toxin in AgRP neurons to prevent vesicle-associated membrane protein 2-dependent vesicle fusion...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660935/targeted-and-efficient-activation-of-channelrhodopsins-expressed-in-living-cells-via-specifically-bound-upconversion-nanoparticles
#18
Kanchan Yadav, Ai-Chuan Chou, Rajesh Kumar Ulaganathan, Hua-De Gao, Hsien-Ming Lee, Chien-Yuan Pan, Yit-Tsong Chen
Optogenetics is an innovative technology now widely adopted by researchers in different fields of biological sciences. However, most light-sensitive proteins adopted in optogenetics are excited by ultraviolet or visible light which has a weak tissue penetration capability. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), which absorb near-infrared (NIR) light to emit shorter wavelength light, can help address this issue. In this report, we demonstrated the target selectivity by specifically conjugating the UCNPs with channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2)...
July 13, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660248/optogenetic-evidence-for-a-direct-circuit-linking-nociceptive-transmission-through-the-parabrachial-complex-with-pain-modulating-neurons-of-the-rostral-ventromedial-medulla-rvm
#19
QiLiang Chen, Zachary Roeder, Ming-Hua Li, YangMiao Zhang, Susan L Ingram, Mary M Heinricher
The parabrachial complex (PB) is a functionally and anatomically complex structure involved in a range of homeostatic and sensory functions, including nociceptive transmission. There is also evidence that PB can engage descending pain-modulating systems, the best characterized of which is the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). Two distinct classes of RVM neurons, "ON-cells" and "OFF-cells," exert net pronociceptive and anti-nociceptive effects, respectively. PB was recently shown to be a relay of nociceptive information to RVM ON- and OFF-cells...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659709/meclofenamic-acid-improves-the-signal-to-noise-ratio-for-visual-responses-produced-by-ectopic-expression-of-human-rod-opsin
#20
Cyril G Eleftheriou, Jasmina Cehajic-Kapetanovic, Franck P Martial, Nina Milosavljevic, Robert A Bedford, Robert J Lucas
PURPOSE: Retinal dystrophy through outer photoreceptor cell death affects 1 in 2,500 people worldwide with severe impairment of vision in advanced stages of the disease. Optogenetic strategies to restore visual function to animal models of retinal degeneration by introducing photopigments to neurons spared degeneration in the inner retina have been explored, with variable degrees of success. It has recently been shown that the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and non-selective gap-junction blocker meclofenamic acid (MFA) can enhance the visual responses produced by an optogenetic actuator (channelrhodopsin) expressed in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the degenerate retina...
2017: Molecular Vision
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