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Channelrhodopsin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468190/optogenetic-activation-of-non-nociceptive-a%C3%AE-fibers-induces-neuropathic-pain-like-sensory-and-emotional-behaviors-after-nerve-injury-in-rats
#1
Ryoichi Tashima, Keisuke Koga, Misuzu Sekine, Kensho Kanehisa, Yuta Kohro, Keiko Tominaga, Katsuyuki Matsushita, Hidetoshi Tozaki-Saitoh, Yugo Fukazawa, Kazuhide Inoue, Hiromu Yawo, Hidemasa Furue, Makoto Tsuda
Neuropathic pain is caused by peripheral nerve injury (PNI). One hallmark symptom is allodynia (pain caused by normally innocuous stimuli), but its mechanistic underpinning remains elusive. Notably, whether selective stimulation of non-nociceptive primary afferent Aβ fibers indeed evokes neuropathic pain-like sensory and emotional behaviors after PNI is unknown, because of the lack of tools to manipulate Aβ fiber function in awake, freely moving animals. In this study, we used a transgenic rat line that enables stimulation of non-nociceptive Aβ fibers by a light-activated channel (channelrhodopsin-2; ChR2)...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462275/excitation-of-cortical-nnos-nk1r-neurons-by-hypocretin-1-is-independent-of-sleep-homeostasis
#2
Rhîannan H Williams, Sarah W Black, Alexia M Thomas, Juliette Piquet, Bruno Cauli, Thomas S Kilduff
We have proposed that cortical nNOS/NK1R interneurons have a role in sleep homeostasis. The hypocretins (orexins) are wake-promoting neuropeptides and hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) neurons project to the cortex. Hcrt peptides affect deep layer cortical neurons, and Hcrt receptor 1 (Hcrtr1; Ox1r) mRNA is expressed in cortical nNOS/NK1R cells. Therefore, we investigated whether Hcrt neuron stimulation affects cingulate cortex nNOS/NK1R neurons. Bath application of HCRT1/orexin-A evoked an inward current and membrane depolarization in most nNOS/NK1R cells which persisted in tetrodotoxin; optogenetic stimulation of Hcrt terminals expressing channelrhodopsin-2 confirmed these results, and pharmacological studies determined that HCRTR1 mediated these responses...
February 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425263/determinants-of-optogenetic-cortical-spreading-depolarizations
#3
David Y Chung, Homa Sadeghian, Tao Qin, Sevda Lule, Hang Lee, Fahri Karakaya, Stacy Goins, Fumiaki Oka, Mohammad A Yaseen, Thijs Houben, Else A Tolner, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Michael J Whalen, Sava Sakadžic, Cenk Ayata
Cortical spreading depolarization (SD) is the electrophysiological event underlying migraine aura, and a critical contributor to secondary damage after brain injury. Experimental models of SD have been used for decades in migraine and brain injury research; however, they are highly invasive and often cause primary tissue injury, diminishing their translational value. Here we present a non-invasive method to trigger SDs using light-induced depolarization in transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 in neurons (Thy1-ChR2-YFP)...
February 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395082/kinetic-profiles-of-photocurrents-in-cells-expressing-two-types-of-channelrhodopsin-genes
#4
Yoshito Watanabe, Eriko Sugano, Kitako Tabata, Taku Ozaki, Takehiko Saito, Makoto Tamai, Hiroshi Tomita
Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), a light-activated cation-selective ion channel, has been widely used as a tool in optogenetic research. ChR2 is specifically sensitive to wavelengths less than 550 nm. One of the methods to expand the sensitivity of a channelrhodopsin to a wider range of wavelengths is to express another channelrhodopsin in the cells by the transduction of an additional gene. Here, we report the characteristic features of cells expressing two types of channelrhodopsins, each having different wavelength sensitivities...
January 29, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389997/rhodopsin-optogenetic-toolbox-v2-0-for-light-sensitive-excitation-and-inhibition-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#5
Amelie Bergs, Christian Schultheis, Elisabeth Fischer, Satoshi P Tsunoda, Karen Erbguth, Steven J Husson, Elena Govorunova, John L Spudich, Georg Nagel, Alexander Gottschalk, Jana F Liewald
In optogenetics, rhodopsins were established as light-driven tools to manipulate neuronal activity. However, during long-term photostimulation using channelrhodopsin (ChR), desensitization can reduce effects. Furthermore, requirement for continuous presence of the chromophore all-trans retinal (ATR) in model systems lacking sufficient endogenous concentrations limits its applicability. We tested known, and engineered and characterized new variants of de- and hyperpolarizing rhodopsins in Caenorhabditis elegans...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388996/effect-of-point-mutations-on-the-ultrafast-photo-isomerization-of-anabaena-sensory-rhodopsin
#6
D Agathangelou, Y Orozco-Gonzalez, M Del Carmen Marín, P P Roy, J Brazard, H Kandori, K-H Jung, J Léonard, T Buckup, N Ferré, M Olivucci, S Haacke
Anabaena sensory rhodopsin (ASR) is a particular microbial retinal protein for which light-adaptation leads to the ability to bind both the all-trans, 15-anti (AT) and the 13-cis, 15-syn (13C) isomers of the protonated Schiff base of retinal (PSBR). In the context of obtaining insight into the mechanisms by which retinal proteins catalyse the PSBR photo-isomerization reaction, ASR is a model system allowing to study, within the same protein, the protein-PSBR interactions for two different PSBR conformers at the same time...
February 1, 2018: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374538/histamine-h3-receptors-decrease-dopamine-release-in-the-ventral-striatum-by-reducing-the-activity-of-striatal-cholinergic-interneurons
#7
Rafael Koerich Varaschin, Guillaume Osterstock, Charles Ducrot, Sakari Leino, Marie-Josée Bourque, Marco A M Prado, Vania Ferreira Prado, Outi Salminen, Saara Rannanpää Née Nuutinen, Louis-Eric Trudeau
Histamine H3 receptors are widely distributed Gi-coupled receptors whose activation reduces neuronal activity and inhibits release of numerous neurotransmitters. Although these receptors are abundantly expressed in the striatum, their modulatory role on activity-dependent dopamine release is not well understood. Here, we observed that histamine H3 receptor activation indirectly diminishes dopamine overflow in the ventral striatum by reducing cholinergic interneuron activity. Acute brain slices from C57BL/6 or channelrhodopsin-2-transfected DAT-cre mice were obtained, and dopamine transients evoked either electrically or optogenetically were measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry...
January 24, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356162/comparison-of-three-gamma-oscillations-in-the-mouse-entorhinal-hippocampal-system
#8
James L Butler, Y Audrey Hay, Ole Paulsen
The entorhinal-hippocampal system is an important circuit in the brain, essential for certain cognitive tasks such as memory and navigation. Different gamma oscillations occur in this circuit, with the medial entorhinal cortex (mEC), CA3, and CA1 all generating gamma oscillations with different properties. These three gamma oscillations converge within CA1, where much work has gone into trying to isolate them from each other. Here we compared the gamma generators in the mEC, CA3, and CA1 using optogenetically-induced theta-gamma oscillations...
January 22, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351398/visceral-hypersensitivity-induced-by-optogenetic-activation-of-the-amygdala-in-conscious-rats
#9
Anthony C Johnson, Rocco Latorre, Casey O Ligon, Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld
In vivo optogenetics identifies brain circuits controlling behaviors in conscious animals by using light to alter neuronal function and offers a novel tool to study the brain-gut axis. Using adenoviral-mediated expression, we aimed to investigate whether photoactivation with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) or photoinhibition with halorhodopsin (HR3.0) of fibers originating from the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) at the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) had any effect on colonic sensitivity. We also investigated whether that there was any deleterious effect of the adenovirus on the neuronal population or the neuronal phenotype within the CeA-BNST circuitry activated during the optogenetic stimulation...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334115/label-free-multidimensional-information-acquisition-from-optogenetically-engineered-cells-using-a-graphene-transistor
#10
Gongxin Li, Jia Yang, Wenguang Yang, Feifei Wang, Yuechao Wang, Wenxue Wang, Lianqing Liu
The optogenetic technique, which allows the manipulation of cellular activity patterns in space and time by light, has transformed the field of neuroscience. However, acquiring multidimensional optogenetic information remains challenging despite the fact that several cellular information detection methods have been proposed. Herein, we present a new method to acquire label-free multidimensional information from optogenetically engineered cells using a graphene transistor. Using a graphene film to form a strong densely packed layer with cells, the cellular action potentials were characterized as light-activated transistor conductance signals, which quantified the multidimensional optogenetic information...
January 15, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311142/regulation-of-lateral-hypothalamic-orexin-activity-by-local-gabaergic-neurons
#11
Loris L Ferrari, Daniel Park, Lin Zhu, Matthew R Palmer, Rebecca Y Broadhurst, Elda Arrigoni
Orexin (also known as hypocretin) neurons are considered a key component of the ascending arousal system. They are active during wakefulness, at which time they drive and maintain arousal, and are silent during sleep. Their activity is controlled by long-range inputs from many sources, as well as by more short-range inputs, including from presumptive GABAergic neurons in the lateral hypothalamus/perifornical region (LH/PF). To characterize local GABAergic input to orexin neurons we employed channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2)-assisted-circuit-mapping in brain slices...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298648/optogenetics-of-the-spinal-cord-use-of-channelrhodopsin-proteins-for-interrogation-of-spinal-cord-circuits
#12
Habibur Rahman, Youngpyo Nam, Jae-Hong Kim, Won-Ha Lee, Kyoungho Suk
Spinal cord circuits play a key role in receiving and transmitting somatosensory information from the body and the brain. They also contribute to the timing and coordination of complex patterns of movement. Under disease conditions, such as spinal cord injury and neuropathic pain, spinal cord circuits receive pain signals from peripheral nerves, and are involved in pain development via neurotransmitters and inflammatory mediators released from neurons and glial cells. Despite the importance of spinal cord circuits in sensory and motor functions, many questions remain regarding the relationship between activation of specific cells and behavioral responses...
December 29, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274075/optogenetic-dissection-of-roles-of-specific-cortical-interneuron-subtypes-in-gabaergic-network-synchronization
#13
Andrew Bohannon, John J Hablitz
In the presence of the A-type K+ channel blocker 4-aminopyrdine, spontaneous synchronous network activity develops in the neocortex of mice of either sex. This aberrant synchrony persists in the presence of excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists (EAA blockers), and is thought to arise from synchronous firing of cortical interneurons (INs). Whereas much attention has been given to the mechanisms underlying this GABAergic synchrony, the contribution of specific IN subtypes to the generation of these long-lasting discharges (LLDs) is incompletely understood...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221794/glp-1-action-in-the-mouse-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis
#14
Diana L Williams, Nicole A Lilly, Ian J Edwards, Pallas Yao, James E Richards, Stefan Trapp
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) injected into the brain reduces food intake. Similarly, activation of preproglucagon (PPG) cells in the hindbrain which synthesize GLP-1, reduces food intake. However, it is far from clear whether this happens because of satiety, nausea, reduced reward, or even stress. Here we explore the role of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), an area involved in feeding control as well as stress responses, in GLP-1 responses. Using cre-expressing mice we visualized projections of NTS PPG neurons and GLP-1R-expressing BNST cells with AAV-driven Channelrhodopsin-YFP expression...
December 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211031/frequency-dependent-multi-well-cardiotoxicity-screening-enabled-by-optogenetic-stimulation
#15
Susanne Rehnelt, Daniela Malan, Krisztina Juhasz, Benjamin Wolters, Leo Doerr, Matthias Beckler, Ralf Kettenhofen, Heribert Bohlen, Tobias Bruegmann, Philipp Sasse
Side effects on cardiac ion channels causing lethal arrhythmias are one major reason for drug withdrawals from the market. Field potential (FP) recording from cardiomyocytes, is a well-suited tool to assess such cardiotoxic effects of drug candidates in preclinical drug development, but it is currently limited to the spontaneous beating of the cardiomyocytes and manual analysis. Herein, we present a novel optogenetic cardiotoxicity screening system suited for the parallel automated frequency-dependent analysis of drug effects on FP recorded from human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201627/dual-color-emitting-carbon-nanodots-for-multicolor-bioimaging-and-optogenetic-control-of-ion-channels
#16
Hyemin Kim, Yoonsang Park, Songeun Beack, Seulgi Han, Dooyup Jung, Hyung Joon Cha, Woosung Kwon, Sei Kwang Hahn
The development of intrinsically multicolor-emitting carbon nanodots (CNDs) has been one of the great challenges for their various fields of applications. Here, the controlled electronic structure engineering of CNDs is performed to emit two distinct colors via the facile surface modification with 4-octyloxyaniline. The so-called dual-color-emitting CNDs (DC-CNDs) can be stably encapsulated within poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (PSMA). The prepared water-soluble DC-CNDs@PSMA can be successfully applied to in vitro and in vivo dual-color bioimaging and optogenetics...
November 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193078/termination-of-reentrant-atrial-tachycardia-via-optogenetic-stimulation-with-optimized-spatial-targeting-insights-from-computational-models
#17
Patrick M Boyle, Michael J Murphy, Thomas V Karathanos, Sohail Zahid, Robert C Blake, Natalia A Trayanova
Optogenetics has emerged as a potential alternative to electrotherapy for treating arrhythmia, but feasibility studies have been limited to ventricular defibrillation via epicardial light application. Here, we assess the efficacy of optogenetic atrial tachycardia (AT) termination in human hearts using a strategy that targets for illumination specific regions identified in an automated manner. In three patient-specific models reconstructed from late gadolinium-enhanced MRI scans, we simulated channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) expression via gene delivery...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191773/expression-of-channelrhodopsin-2-localized-within-the-deep-ca1-hippocampal-sublayer-in-the-thy1-line-18-mouse
#18
Dorothy L Dobbins, David C Klorig, Thuy Smith, Dwayne W Godwin
Optogenetic proteins are powerful tools for advancing our understanding of neural circuitry. However, the precision of optogenetics is dependent in part on the extent to which expression is limited to cells of interest. The Thy1-ChR2 transgenic mouse is commonly used in optogenetic experiments. Although general expression patterns in these animals have been characterized, a detailed evaluation of cell-type specificity is lacking. This information is critical for interpretation of experimental results using these animals...
November 27, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190499/crosstalk-between-developing-vasculature-and-optogenetically-engineered-skeletal-muscle-improves-muscle-contraction-and-angiogenesis
#19
Tatsuya Osaki, Vivek Sivathanu, Roger D Kamm
Capillary networks surrounding skeletal muscle play an important role in not only supplying oxygen and nutrients but also in regulating the myogenesis and repair of skeletal muscle tissues. Herein, we model the early stages of 3D vascularized muscle fiber formation in vitro using a sequential molding technique to investigate interactions between angiogenesis of endothelial cells and myogenesis of skeletal muscle cells. Channelrhodopsin-2 C2C12 muscle fiber bundles and 3D vascular structures (600 μm diameter) were formed at 500 μm intervals in a collagen gel...
November 25, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184208/temporally-precise-single-cell-resolution-optogenetics
#20
Or A Shemesh, Dimitrii Tanese, Valeria Zampini, Changyang Linghu, Kiryl Piatkevich, Emiliano Ronzitti, Eirini Papagiakoumou, Edward S Boyden, Valentina Emiliani
Optogenetic control of individual neurons with high temporal precision within intact mammalian brain circuitry would enable powerful explorations of how neural circuits operate. Two-photon computer-generated holography enables precise sculpting of light and could in principle enable simultaneous illumination of many neurons in a network, with the requisite temporal precision to simulate accurate neural codes. We designed a high-efficacy soma-targeted opsin, finding that fusing the N-terminal 150 residues of kainate receptor subunit 2 (KA2) to the recently discovered high-photocurrent channelrhodopsin CoChR restricted expression of this opsin primarily to the cell body of mammalian cortical neurons...
December 2017: Nature Neuroscience
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