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Channelrhodopsin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045570/optogenetic-activation-of-the-infralimbic-cortex-suppresses-the-return-of-appetitive-pavlovian-conditioned-responding-following-extinction
#1
Franz R Villaruel, Franca Lacroix, Christian Sanio, Daniel W Sparks, C Andrew Chapman, Nadia Chaudhri
The infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex (IL) is important for suppressing learned behavior after extinction, but whether this function extends to responses acquired through appetitive Pavlovian conditioning is unclear. We trained male, Long-Evans rats to associate a white-noise conditional stimulus (CS; 10 s; 14 presentations per session) with 10% liquid sucrose (0.2 mL per CS presentation), and recorded entries into the fluid port during the CS. The CS was presented without sucrose in subsequent extinction and test sessions...
October 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042259/widespread-optogenetic-expression-in-macaque-cortex-obtained-with-mr-guided-convection-enhanced-delivery-ced-of-aav-vector-to-the-thalamus
#2
Azadeh Yazdan-Shahmorad, Nan Tian, Viktor Kharazia, Lluis Samaranch, Adrian Kells, John Bringas, Jiwei He, Krystof Bankiewicz, Philip N Sabes
BACKGROUND: In non-human primate (NHP) optogenetics, infecting large cortical areas with viral vectors is often a difficult and time-consuming task. Previous work has shown that parenchymal delivery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) in the thalamus by convection-enhanced delivery (CED) can lead to large-scale transduction via axonal transport in distal areas including cortex. We used this approach to obtain widespread cortical expression of light-sensitive ion channels. NEW METHOD: AAV vectors co-expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) genes were infused into thalamus of three rhesus macaques under MR-guided CED...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028940/optogenetic-activation-of-the-sensorimotor-cortex-reveals-local-inhibitory-and-global-excitatory-inputs-to-the-basal-ganglia
#3
Mitsunori Ozaki, Hiromi Sano, Shigeki Sato, Mitsuhiro Ogura, Hajime Mushiake, Satomi Chiken, Naoyuki Nakao, Atsushi Nambu
To understand how information from different cortical areas is integrated and processed through the cortico-basal ganglia pathways, we used optogenetics to systematically stimulate the sensorimotor cortex and examined basal ganglia activity. We utilized Thy1-ChR2-YFP transgenic mice, in which channelrhodopsin 2 is robustly expressed in layer V pyramidal neurons. We applied light spots to the sensorimotor cortex in a grid pattern and examined neuronal responses in the globus pallidus (GP) and entopeduncular nucleus (EPN), which are the relay and output nuclei of the basal ganglia, respectively...
September 22, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024712/brief-activation-of-gabaergic-interneurons-initiates-the-transition-to-ictal-events-through-post-inhibitory-rebound-excitation
#4
Michael Chang, Joshua A Dian, Suzie Dufour, Lihua Wang, Homeira Moradi-Chameh, Meera Ramani, Liang Zhang, Peter L Carlen, Thilo Womelsdorf, Taufik A Valiante
Activation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors have been associated with the onset of epileptiform events. To investigate if a causal relationship exists between GABAA receptor activation and ictal event onset, we activated inhibitory GABAergic networks in the superficial layer (2/3) of the somatosensory cortex during hyperexcitable conditions using optogenetic techniques in mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 in all GABAergic interneurons. We found that a brief 30ms light pulse reliably triggered either an interictal-like event (IIE) or ictal-like ("ictal") event in the in vitro cortical 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) slice model...
October 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018325/hearing-loss-controlled-by-optogenetic-stimulation-of-nonexcitable-nonglial-cells-in-the-cochlea-of-the-inner-ear
#5
Mitsuo P Sato, Taiga Higuchi, Fumiaki Nin, Genki Ogata, Seishiro Sawamura, Takamasa Yoshida, Takeru Ota, Karin Hori, Shizuo Komune, Satoru Uetsuka, Samuel Choi, Masatsugu Masuda, Takahisa Watabe, Sho Kanzaki, Kaoru Ogawa, Hidenori Inohara, Shuichi Sakamoto, Hirohide Takebayashi, Katsumi Doi, Kenji F Tanaka, Hiroshi Hibino
Light-gated ion channels and transporters have been applied to a broad array of excitable cells including neurons, cardiac myocytes, skeletal muscle cells and pancreatic β-cells in an organism to clarify their physiological and pathological roles. Nonetheless, among nonexcitable cells, only glial cells have been studied in vivo by this approach. Here, by optogenetic stimulation of a different nonexcitable cell type in the cochlea of the inner ear, we induce and control hearing loss. To our knowledge, deafness animal models using optogenetics have not yet been established...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986578/parvalbumin-expressing-interneurons-can-act-solo-while-somatostatin-expressing-interneurons-act-in-chorus-in-most-cases-on-cortical-pyramidal-cells
#6
Mir-Shahram Safari, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Hiroyuki Hioki, Tadaharu Tsumoto
Neural circuits in the cerebral cortex consist primarily of excitatory pyramidal (Pyr) cells and inhibitory interneurons. Interneurons are divided into several subtypes, in which the two major groups are those expressing parvalbumin (PV) or somatostatin (SOM). These subtypes of interneurons are reported to play distinct roles in tuning and/or gain of visual response of pyramidal cells in the visual cortex. It remains unclear whether there is any quantitative and functional difference between the PV → Pyr and SOM → Pyr connections...
October 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978758/targeting-of-photoreceptor-genes-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-via-zinc-finger-nucleases-and-crispr-cas9
#7
Andre Greiner, Simon Kelterborn, Heide Evers, Georg Kreimer, Irina Sizova, Peter Hegemann
The fast-growing biflagellated single celled chlorophyte Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is the most widely used alga in basic research. The physiological functions of the 18 sensory photoreceptors are of particular interest with respect to C. reinhardtii development and behavior. Despite the demonstration of gene editing in C. reinhardtii in 1995, the isolation of mutants lacking easily ascertained newly acquired phenotypes remains problematic due to low DNA recombination efficiency. We optimized gene-editing protocols for several Chlamydomonas strains (including wild-type CC-125) using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), genetically encoded CRISPR/associated protein 9 (Cas9) from Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, and recombinant Cas9 and developed protocols for rapidly isolating non-selectable gene mutants...
October 4, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975620/%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-cells-are-electrically-coupled-and-regulate-%C3%AE-cell-activity-via-somatostatin
#8
L J B Briant, T M Reinbothe, I Spiliotis, C Miranda, B Rodriguez, P Rorsman
Glucagon, the body's principal hyperglycaemic hormone, is released from the α-cells of the pancreatic islet. The secretion of this hormone is dysregulated in type 2 diabetes mellitus but the mechanisms controlling secretion are not well understood. Regulation of glucagon secretion by factors secreted by neighbouring β- and δ-cells (paracrine regulation) have been proposed to be important. In this study, we explored the importance of paracrine regulation by using an optogenetic strategy. Specific light-induced activation of β-cells in mouse islets expressing the light-gated channelrhodopsin-2 resulted in stimulation of electrical activity in δ-cells but suppression of α-cell activity...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972128/distinct-laterality-in-forelimb-movement-representations-of-rat-primary-and-secondary-motor-cortical-neurons-with-intratelencephalic-and-pyramidal-tract-projections
#9
Shogo Soma, Akiko Saiki, Junichi Yoshida, Alain Ríos, Masanori Kawabata, Yutaka Sakai, Yoshikazu Isomura
Two distinct motor areas, the primary and secondary motor cortices (M1 and M2), play crucial roles in voluntary movement in rodents. The aim of this study was to characterize the laterality in motor cortical representations of right and left forelimb movements. To achieve this goal, we developed a novel behavioral task, the Right-Left Pedal task, in which a head-restrained male rat manipulates a right or left pedal with the corresponding forelimb. This task enabled us to monitor independent movements of both forelimbs with high spatiotemporal resolution...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966573/a-chronically-implantable-bidirectional-neural-interface-for-non-human-primates
#10
Misako Komatsu, Eriko Sugano, Hiroshi Tomita, Naotaka Fujii
Optogenetics has potential applications in the study of epilepsy and neuroprostheses, and for studies on neural circuit dynamics. However, to achieve translation to clinical usage, optogenetic interfaces that are capable of chronic stimulation and monitoring with minimal brain trauma are required. We aimed to develop a chronically implantable device for photostimulation of the brain of non-human primates. We used a micro-light-emitting diode (LED) array with a flexible polyimide film. The array was combined with a whole-cortex electrocorticographic (ECoG) electrode array for simultaneous photostimulation and recording...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951549/cb1-receptor-activation-on-vglut2-expressing-glutamatergic-neurons-underlies-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-%C3%AE-9-thc-induced-aversive-effects-in-mice
#11
Xiao Han, Yi He, Guo-Hua Bi, Hai-Ying Zhang, Rui Song, Qing-Rong Liu, Josephine M Egan, Eliot L Gardner, Jing Li, Zheng-Xiong Xi
Cannabis can be rewarding or aversive. Cannabis reward is believed to be mediated by activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) on GABAergic neurons that disinhibit dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying cannabis aversion in rodents. In the present study, CB1Rs are found not only on VTA GABAergic neurons, but also on VTA glutamatergic neurons that express vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VgluT2). We then used Cre-Loxp transgenic technology to selectively delete CB1Rs in VgluT2-expressing glutamatergic neurons (VgluT2-CB1 (-/-)) and Cre-dependent viral vector to express light-sensitive channelrhodopsin-2 into VTA glutamatergic neurons...
September 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948217/inward-h-pump-xenorhodopsin-mechanism-and-alternative-optogenetic-approach
#12
Vitaly Shevchenko, Thomas Mager, Kirill Kovalev, Vitaly Polovinkin, Alexey Alekseev, Josephine Juettner, Igor Chizhov, Christian Bamann, Charlotte Vavourakis, Rohit Ghai, Ivan Gushchin, Valentin Borshchevskiy, Andrey Rogachev, Igor Melnikov, Alexander Popov, Taras Balandin, Francisco Rodriguez-Valera, Dietmar J Manstein, Georg Bueldt, Ernst Bamberg, Valentin Gordeliy
Generation of an electrochemical proton gradient is the first step of cell bioenergetics. In prokaryotes, the gradient is created by outward membrane protein proton pumps. Inward plasma membrane native proton pumps are yet unknown. We describe comprehensive functional studies of the representatives of the yet noncharacterized xenorhodopsins from Nanohaloarchaea family of microbial rhodopsins. They are inward proton pumps as we demonstrate in model membrane systems, Escherichia coli cells, human embryonic kidney cells, neuroblastoma cells, and rat hippocampal neuronal cells...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948190/restoring-vision-in-mice-with-retinal-degeneration-using-multicharacteristic-opsin
#13
Weldon Wright, Sivakumar Gajjeraman, Subrata Batabyal, Sanjay Pradhan, Sulagna Bhattacharya, Vasu Mahapatra, Ashutosh Tripathy, Samarendra Mohanty
Retinal degenerative diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and dry age-related macular degeneration, have led to loss of vision in millions of individuals. Currently, no surgical or medical treatment is available, although optogenetic therapies are in clinical development. We demonstrate vision restoration using multicharacteristics opsin (MCO1) in animal models with degenerated retina. MCO1 is reliably delivered to specific retinal cells via intravitreal injection of adeno-associated virus (vMCO1), leading to significant improvement in visually guided behavior conducted using a radial arm water maze...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938466/optogenetic-analysis-of-depolarization-dependent-glucagonlike-peptide-1-release
#14
Catalin Chimerel, Cristian Riccio, Keir Murison, Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reimann
Incretin hormones play an important role in the regulation of food intake and glucose homeostasis. Glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1)-secreting cells have been demonstrated to be electrically excitable and to fire action potentials (APs) with increased frequency in response to nutrient exposure. However, nutrients can also be metabolized or activate G-protein-coupled receptors, thus potentially stimulating GLP-1 secretion independent of their effects on the plasma membrane potential. Here we used channelrhodopsins to manipulate the membrane potential of GLUTag cells, a well-established model of GLP-1-secreting enteroendocrine L cells...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922504/selective-remodeling-of-glutamatergic-transmission-to-striatal-cholinergic-interneurons-after-dopamine-depletion
#15
Jose de Jesus Aceves Buendia, Lior Tiroshi, Wei-Hua Chiu, Joshua A Goldberg
The widely held view that the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease arises from an under-activation of the direct pathway striatal spiny neurons (dSPNs) has gained support from a recently described weakening of the glutamatergic projection from the parafascicular nucleus (PfN) to dSPNs in experimental parkinsonism. However, the impact of the remodeling of the thalamostriatal projection cannot be fully appreciated without considering its impact on cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) that themselves preferentially activate indirect pathway spiny neurons (iSPNs)...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919131/optogenetic-targeting-of-cardiac-myocytes-and-non-myocytes-tools-challenges-and-utility
#16
Callum M Johnston, Eva A Rog-Zielinska, Eike M Wülfers, Torsten Houwaart, Urszula Siedlecka, Angela Naumann, Roland Nitschke, Thomas Knöpfel, Peter Kohl, Franziska Schneider-Warme
In optogenetics, light-activated proteins are used to monitor and modulate cellular behaviour with light. Combining genetic targeting of distinct cellular populations with defined patterns of optical stimulation enables one to study specific cell classes in complex biological tissues. In the current study we attempted to investigate the functional relevance of heterocellular electrotonic coupling in cardiac tissue in situ. In order to do that, we used a Cre-Lox approach to express the light-gated cation channel Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) specifically in either cardiac myocytes or non-myocytes...
September 15, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918572/spot-light-on-skeletal-muscles-optogenetic-stimulation-to-understand-and-restore-skeletal-muscle-function
#17
Tobias van Bremen, Thorsten Send, Philipp Sasse, Tobias Bruegmann
Damage of peripheral nerves results in paralysis of skeletal muscle. Currently, the only treatment option to restore proper function is electrical stimulation of the innervating nerve or of the skeletal muscles directly. However this approach has low spatial and temporal precision leading to co-activation of antagonistic muscles and lacks cell-type selectivity resulting in pain or discomfort by stimulation of sensible nerves. In contrast to electrical stimulation, optogenetic methods enable spatially confined and cell-type selective stimulation of cells expressing the light sensitive channel Channelrhodopsin-2 with precise temporal control over the membrane potential...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912671/brownian-optogenetic-noise-photostimulation-on-the-brain-amplifies-somatosensory-evoked-field-potentials
#18
Nayeli Huidobro, Abraham Mendez-Fernandez, Ignacio Mendez-Balbuena, Ranier Gutierrez, Rumyana Kristeva, Elias Manjarrez
Stochastic resonance (SR) is an inherent and counter-intuitive mechanism of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) facilitation in biological systems associated with the application of an intermediate level of noise. As a first step to investigate in detail this phenomenon in the somatosensory system, here we examined whether the direct application of noisy light on pyramidal neurons from the mouse-barrel cortex expressing a light-gated channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) can produce facilitation in somatosensory evoked field potentials...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912215/the-form-and-function-of-channelrhodopsin
#19
REVIEW
Karl Deisseroth, Peter Hegemann
Channelrhodopsins are light-gated ion channels that, via regulation of flagellar function, enable single-celled motile algae to seek ambient light conditions suitable for photosynthesis and survival. These plant behavioral responses were initially investigated more than 150 years ago. Recently, major principles of function for light-gated ion channels have been elucidated by creating channelrhodopsins with kinetics that are accelerated or slowed over orders of magnitude, by discovering and designing channelrhodopsins with altered spectral properties, by solving the high-resolution channelrhodopsin crystal structure, and by structural model-guided redesign of channelrhodopsins for altered ion selectivity...
September 15, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900295/an-autocrine-purinergic-signaling-controls-astrocyte-induced-neuronal-excitation
#20
Weida Shen, Ljiljana Nikolic, Claire Meunier, Frank Pfrieger, Etienne Audinat
Astrocyte-derived gliotransmitters glutamate and ATP modulate neuronal activity. It remains unclear, however, how astrocytes control the release and coordinate the actions of these gliotransmitters. Using transgenic expression of the light-sensitive channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2) in astrocytes, we observed that photostimulation reliably increases action potential firing of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. This excitation relies primarily on a calcium-dependent glutamate release by astrocytes that activates neuronal extra-synaptic NMDA receptors...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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