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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339833/vdac1-is-a-molecular-target-in-glioblastoma-with-its-depletion-leading-to-reprogrammed-metabolism-and-reversed-oncogenic-properties
#1
Tasleem Arif, Yakov Kerlin, Itay Nakdimon, Daniel Benharroch, Avijit Paul, Daniela Dadon-Klein, Varda Shoshan-Barmatz
Background.: Glioblastoma (GBM), an aggressive brain tumor with frequent relapses and a high mortality, still awaits an effective treatment. Like many cancers, GBM cells acquire oncogenic properties, including metabolic reprogramming, vital for growth. As such, tumor metabolism is an emerging avenue for cancer therapy. One relevant target is the voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), a mitochondrial protein controlling cell energy and metabolic homeostasis. Methods...
February 28, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339017/sirt1-is-required-for-mitochondrial-biogenesis-reprogramming-in-hypoxic-human-pulmonary-arteriolar-smooth-muscle-cells
#2
Pengyun Li, Yan Liu, Nana Burns, Ke-Seng Zhao, Rui Song
Although recent studies have reported that mitochondria are putative oxygen sensors underlying hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, little is known concerning the sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis regulatory program in pulmonary arteriolar smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) during hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). We investigated the epigenetic regulatory mechanism of mitochondrial biogenesis and function in human PASMCs during H/R. Human PASMCs were exposed to hypoxia of 24-48 h and reoxygenation of 24-48 h...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338772/chemical-strategies-for-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-differentiation-reprogramming-and-regeneration
#3
Xiaojie Ma, Saiyong Zhu
Generation of unlimited functional pancreatic β cells is critical for the study of pancreatic biology and treatment of diabetes mellitus. Recent advances have suggested several promising directions, including directed differentiation of pancreatic β cells from pluripotent stem cells, reprogramming of pancreatic β cells from other types of somatic cells, and stimulated proliferation and enhanced functions of existing pancreatic β cells. Small molecules are useful in generating unlimited numbers of functional pancreatic cells in vitro and could be further developed as drugs to stimulate endogenous pancreatic regeneration...
February 22, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338755/red-blotch-disease-alters-grape-berry-development-and-metabolism-by-interfering-with-the-transcriptional-and-hormonal-regulation-of-ripening
#4
Barbara Blanco-Ulate, Helene Hopfer, Rosa Figueroa-Balderas, Zirou Ye, Rosa M Rivero, Alfonso Albacete, Francisco Pérez-Alfocea, Renata Koyama, Michael M Anderson, Rhonda J Smith, Susan E Ebeler, Dario Cantu
Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV) is a major threat to the wine industry in the USA. GRBaV infections (aka red blotch disease) compromise crop yield and berry chemical composition, affecting the flavor and aroma properties of must and wine. In this study, we combined genome-wide transcriptional profiling with targeted metabolite analyses and biochemical assays to characterize the impact of the disease on red-skinned berry ripening and metabolism. Using naturally infected berries collected from two vineyards, we were able to identify consistent berry responses to GRBaV across different environmental and cultural conditions...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336546/barrett-s-metaplasia-develops-from-cellular-reprograming-of-esophageal-squamous-epithelium-due-to-gastroesophageal-reflux
#5
Carlos D Minacapelli, Manisha Bajpai, Xin Geng, Christina L Cheng, Abhishek A Chouthai, Rhonda F Souza, Stuart Jon Spechler, Kiron M Das
OBJECTIVE: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) clinically predisposes to columnar Barrett's metaplasia (BM) in the distal esophagus. We demonstrate evidence supporting cellular origin of BM from reprograming or trans-commitment of resident normal esophageal squamous (NES) epithelial cells in response to acid and bile exposure using an in vitro cell culture model. DESIGN: The hTERT-immortalized NES cell line, NES-B10T, was exposed 5 min/day to Acid and Bile (A+B) mixture for 30 weeks...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336360/gain-a-graph-based-method-to-automatically-analyze-neurite-outgrowth-in-cell-cultures
#6
B L Long, H Li, A Mahadevan, T Tang, K Balotin, N Grandel, J Soto, S Y Wong, A Abrego, S Li, A A Qutub
BACKGROUND: Neurite outgrowth is a metric widely used to assess the success of in vitro neural stem cell differentiation or neuron reprogramming protocols and of high-content screening assays for neural regenerative drug discovery. However, neurite measurements are tedious to perform manually, and there is a paucity of freely available, fully automated software to determine neurite measurements and neuron counting. To provide such a tool to the neurobiology, stem cell, cell engineering, and neuroregenerative communities, we developed an algorithm for performing high-throughput neurite analysis in immunofluorescence images...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335716/human-mfap1-is-a-cryptic-ortholog-of-the-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-spp381-splicing-factor
#7
Alexander K C Ulrich, Markus C Wahl
BACKGROUND: Pre-mRNA splicing involves the stepwise assembly of a pre-catalytic spliceosome, followed by its catalytic activation, splicing catalysis and disassembly. Formation of the pre-catalytic spliceosomal B complex involves the incorporation of the U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP and of a group of non-snRNP B-specific proteins. While in Saccharomyces cerevisiae the Prp38 and Snu23 proteins are recruited as components of the tri-snRNP, metazoan orthologs of Prp38 and Snu23 associate independently of the tri-snRNP as members of the B-specific proteins...
March 24, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335666/control-of-dental-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-through-modified-surfaces-for-dental-application
#8
Hyunmin Choi, Kyu-Hyung Park, Ah-Reum Lee, Chin Hee Mun, Yong Dae Shin, Yong-Beom Park, Young-Bum Park
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the behaviour of iPSc derived from dental stem cells in terms of initial adhesion, differentiation potential on differently surface-treated titanium disc. MATERIALS AND METHODS: iPSc derived from human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs) were established using 4-reprogramming factors transduction with Sendai virus. The hGF-iPSc established in this study exhibited the morphology and growth properties similar to human embryonic stem (ES) cells and expressed pluripotency makers...
March 23, 2017: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335534/a-networked-sensor-system-for-the-analysis-of-plot-scale-hydrology
#9
German Villalba, Fernando Plaza, Xiaoyang Zhong, Tyler W Davis, Miguel Navarro, Yimei Li, Thomas A Slater, Yao Liang, Xu Liang
This study presents the latest updates to the Audubon Society of Western Pennsylvania (ASWP) testbed, a $50,000 USD, 104-node outdoor multi-hop wireless sensor network (WSN). The network collects environmental data from over 240 sensors, including the EC-5, MPS-1 and MPS-2 soil moisture and soil water potential sensors and self-made sap flow sensors, across a heterogeneous deployment comprised of MICAz, IRIS and TelosB wireless motes. A low-cost sensor board and software driver was developed for communicating with the analog and digital sensors...
March 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334277/in-bone-metastasis-mir-34a-5p-absence-inversely-correlates-with-met-expression-while-met-oncogene-is-unaffected-by-mir-34a-5p-in-non-metastatic-and-metastatic-breast-carcinomas
#10
Paola Maroni, Rossella Puglisi, Gianfranco Mattia, Alessandra Carè, Emanuela Matteucci, Paola Bendinelli, Maria Alfonsina Desiderio
The highlight of the molecular basis and therapeutic targets of the bone-metastatic process requires the identification of biomarkers of metastasis colonization. Here, we studied miR-34a-5p expression, and Met-receptor expression and localization in bone metastases from ductal breast carcinomas, and in ductal carcinomas without history of metastasis (20 cases). miR-34a-5p was elevated in non-metastatic breast carcinoma, intermediate in the adjacent tissue and practically absent in bone metastases, opposite to pair-matched carcinoma...
March 16, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334040/macrophage-origin-limits-functional-plasticity-in-helminth-bacterial-co-infection
#11
Dominik Rückerl, Sharon M Campbell, Sheelagh Duncan, Tara E Sutherland, Stephen J Jenkins, James P Hewitson, Tom A Barr, Lucy H Jackson-Jones, Rick M Maizels, Judith E Allen
Rapid reprogramming of the macrophage activation phenotype is considered important in the defense against consecutive infection with diverse infectious agents. However, in the setting of persistent, chronic infection the functional importance of macrophage-intrinsic adaptation to changing environments vs. recruitment of new macrophages remains unclear. Here we show that resident peritoneal macrophages expanded by infection with the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri altered their activation phenotype in response to infection with Salmonella enterica ser...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333692/application-of-olfactory-tissue-and-its-neural-progenitors-to-schizophrenia-and-psychiatric-research
#12
Joëlle Lavoie, Akira Sawa, Koko Ishizuka
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review article is to introduce olfactory epithelium-derived cell/tissue models as a promising surrogate system to study the molecular mechanisms implicated in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we particularly focus on the utility of their neural progenitors. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent investigations of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia using olfactory epithelium-derived tissue/cell models have provided insights about schizophrenia-associated alterations in neurodevelopment, stress response, and gene/protein expression regulatory pathways...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332752/bovine-trophectoderm-cells-induced-from-bovine-fibroblasts-with-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-reprogramming-factors
#13
Neil C Talbot, Wendy O Sparks, Caitlin Phillips, Alan D Ealy, Anne M Powell, Thomas J Caperna, Wesley M Garrett, David M Donovan, Le Ann Blomberg
Thirteen independent induced bovine trophectroderm (iBT) cell lines were established by reprogramming bovine fetal liver-derived fibroblasts after viral-vector transduction with either 6 or 8 factors, including POU5F1 (OCT4), KLF4, SOX2, MYC, NANOG, LIN28, SV40 large T antigen, and hTERT.. Light- and electron-microscopy analysis showed that the iBT cells had epithelial cell morphology typical of bovine trophectoderm cells. Reverse-transcription-PCR assays indicated that all of the cell lines expressed interferon-tau (IFNT) at passages 1 or 2...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332606/lumican-effectively-regulates-the-estrogen-receptors-associated-functional-properties-of-breast-cancer-cells-expression-of-matrix-effectors-and-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#14
Konstantina Karamanou, Marco Franchi, Zoi Piperigkou, Corinne Perreau, Francois-Xavier Maquart, Demitrios H Vynios, Stéphane Brézillon
Lumican is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan that has been shown to contribute in several physiological processes, but also to exert anticancer activity. On the other hand, it has been recently shown that knockdown of the estrogen receptor α (ERα) in low invasive MCF-7 (ERα+) breast cancer cells and the suppression of ERβ in highly aggressive MDA-MB-231 (ERβ+) cells significantly alter the functional properties of breast cancer cells and the gene expression profile of matrix macromolecules related to cancer progression and cell morphology...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332603/the-arabidopsis-mir396-mediates-pathogen-associated-molecular-pattern-triggered-immune-responses-against-fungal-pathogens
#15
Mauricio Soto-Suárez, Patricia Baldrich, Detlef Weigel, Ignacio Rubio-Somoza, Blanca San Segundo
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a pivotal role in regulating gene expression during plant development. Although a substantial fraction of plant miRNAs has proven responsive to pathogen infection, their role in disease resistance remains largely unknown, especially during fungal infections. In this study, we screened Arabidopsis thaliana lines in which miRNA activity has been reduced using artificial miRNA target mimics (MIM lines) for their response to fungal pathogens. Reduced activity of miR396 (MIM396 plants) was found to confer broad resistance to necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungal pathogens...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332598/metabolic-flux-redirection-and-transcriptomic-reprogramming-in-the-albino-tea-cultivar-yu-jin-xiang-with-an-emphasis-on-catechin-production
#16
Guo-Feng Liu, Zhuo-Xiao Han, Lin Feng, Li-Ping Gao, Ming-Jun Gao, Margaret Y Gruber, Zhao-Liang Zhang, Tao Xia, Xiao-Chun Wan, Shu Wei
In this study, shade-induced conversion from a young pale/yellow leaf phenotype to a green leaf phenotype was studied using metabolic and transcriptomic profiling and the albino cultivar 'Yu-Jin-Xiang' ('YJX') of Camellia sinensis for a better understanding of mechanisms underlying the phenotype shift and the altered catechin and theanine production. Shaded leaf greening resulted from an increase in leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid abundance and chloroplast development. A total of 1,196 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the 'YJX' pale and shaded green leaves, and these DEGs affected 'chloroplast organization' and 'response to high light' besides many other biological processes and pathways...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332584/akt-targeting-as-a-strategy-to-boost-chemotherapy-efficacy-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-through-metabolism-suppression
#17
Marion Le Grand, Raphael Berges, Eddy Pasquier, Marie-Pierre Montero, Laurence Borge, Alice Carrier, Sophie Vasseur, Veronique Bourgarel, Duje Buric, Nicolas André, Diane Braguer, Manon Carré
Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer development, mediated by genetic and epigenetic alterations that may be pharmacologically targeted. Among oncogenes, the kinase Akt is commonly overexpressed in tumors and favors glycolysis, providing a rationale for using Akt inhibitors. Here, we addressed the question of whether and how inhibiting Akt activity could improve therapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that represents more than 80% of all lung cancer cases. First, we demonstrated that Akt inhibitors interacted synergistically with Microtubule-Targeting Agents (MTAs) and specifically in cancer cell lines, including those resistant to chemotherapy agents and anti-EGFR targeted therapies...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331549/dynamics-of-5-methylcytosine-and-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-during-pronuclear-development-in-equine-zygotes-produced-by-icsi
#18
Sonia Heras, Katrien Smits, Catharina De Schauwer, Ann Van Soom
BACKGROUND: Global epigenetic reprogramming is considered to be essential during embryo development to establish totipotency. In the classic model first described in the mouse, the genome-wide DNA demethylation is asymmetric between the paternal and the maternal genome. The paternal genome undergoes ten-eleven translocation (TET)-mediated active DNA demethylation, which is completed before the end of the first cell cycle. Since TET enzymes oxidize 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, the latter is postulated to be an intermediate stage toward DNA demethylation...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331164/immortalized-prairie-vole-derived-fibroblasts-vmf-k4dts-can-be-transformed-into-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-provide-a-useful-tool-with-which-to-determine-optimal-reprogramming-conditions
#19
Masafumi Katayama, Takashi Hirayama, Tohru Kiyono, Manabu Onuma, Tetsuya Tani, Satoru Takeda, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Tomokazu Fukuda
The cellular conditions required to establish induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), such as the number of reprogramming factors and/or promoter selection, differ among species. The establishment of iPSCs derived from cells of previously unstudied species therefore requires the extensive optimization of programming conditions, including promoter selection and the optimal number of reprogramming factors, through a trial-and-error approach. While the four Yamanaka factors Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc are sufficient for iPSC establishment in mice, we reported previously that six reprogramming factors were necessary for the creation of iPSCs from primary prairie vole-derived cells...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330176/molecular-dissection-of-pathway-components-unravel-atisine-biosynthesis-in-a-non-toxic-aconitum-species-a-heterophyllum-wall
#20
Varun Kumar, Nikhil Malhotra, Tarun Pal, Rajinder Singh Chauhan
Aconitum heterophyllum is an important component for various herbal drug formulations due to the occurrence of non-toxic aconites including marker compound, atisine. Despite huge pharmacological potential, the reprogramming of aconites production is limited due to lack of understanding on their biosynthesis. To address this problem, we have proposed here the complete atisine biosynthetic pathway for the first time connecting glycolysis, MVA/MEP, serine biosynthesis and diterpene biosynthetic pathways. The transcript profiling revealed phosphorylated pathway as a major contributor towards serine production in addition to repertoire of genes in glycolysis (G6PI, PFK, ALD and ENO), serine biosynthesis (PGDH and PSAT) and diterpene biosynthesis (KO and KH) sharing a similar pattern of expression (2-4-folds) in roots compared to shoots vis-à-vis atisine content (0-0...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
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