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Brain CT

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926610/image-similarity-evaluation-of-the-bulk-density-assigned-synthetic-ct-derived-from-mri-of-intracranial-regions-for-radiation-treatment
#1
Shin-Wook Kim, Hun-Joo Shin, Jin-Ho Hwang, Jin-Sol Shin, Sung-Kwang Park, Jin-Young Kim, Ki-Jun Kim, Chul-Seung Kay, Young-Nam Kang
OBJECTIVE: Various methods for radiation-dose calculation have been investigated over previous decades, focusing on the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) only. The bulk-density-assignment method based on manual segmentation has exhibited promising results compared to dose-calculation with computed tomography (CT). However, this method cannot be easily implemented in clinical practice due to its time-consuming nature. Therefore, we investigated an automatic anatomy segmentation method with the intention of providing the proper methodology to evaluate synthetic CT images for a radiation-dose calculation based on MR images...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926581/imaging-grafted-cells-with-18f-fhbg-using-an-optimized-hsv1-tk-mammalian-expression-vector-in-a-brain-injury-rodent-model
#2
Anne-Sophie Salabert, Laurence Vaysse, Marie Beaurain, Mathieu Alonso, Germain Arribarat, Jean-Albert Lotterie, Isabelle Loubinoux, Mathieu Tafani, Pierre Payoux
INTRODUCTION: Cell transplantation is an innovative therapeutic approach after brain injury to compensate for tissue damage. To have real-time longitudinal monitoring of intracerebrally grafted cells, we explored the feasibility of a molecular imaging approach using thymidine kinase HSV1-TK gene encoding and [18F]FHBG as a reporter probe to image enzyme expression. METHODS: A stable neuronal cell line expressing HSV1-TK was developed with an optimised mammalian expression vector to ensure long-term transgene expression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925823/deep-learning-mr-imaging-based-attenuation-correction-for-pet-mr-imaging
#3
Fang Liu, Hyungseok Jang, Richard Kijowski, Tyler Bradshaw, Alan B McMillan
Purpose To develop and evaluate the feasibility of deep learning approaches for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-based attenuation correction (AC) (termed deep MRAC) in brain positron emission tomography (PET)/MR imaging. Materials and Methods A PET/MR imaging AC pipeline was built by using a deep learning approach to generate pseudo computed tomographic (CT) scans from MR images. A deep convolutional auto-encoder network was trained to identify air, bone, and soft tissue in volumetric head MR images coregistered to CT data for training...
September 19, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923560/computed-tomography-findings-in-young-children-with-minor-head-injury-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-greater-than-24h-post-injury
#4
Renana Gelernter, Giora Weiser, Eran Kozer
BACKGROUND: Large studies which developed decision rules for the use of Computed tomography (CT) in children with minor head trauma excluded children with late presentation (more than 24h). OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of significant traumatic brain injury (TBI) on CT in infants with head trauma presenting to the emergency department (ED) more than 24h from the injury. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of infants less than 24 months old referred for head CT because of traumatic brain injury from January 2004 to December 2014 in Assaf-Harofeh medical center was conducted...
September 11, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923143/validation-of-the-cognition-test-battery-for-spaceflight-in-a-sample-of-highly-educated-adults
#5
Tyler M Moore, Mathias Basner, Jad Nasrini, Emanuel Hermosillo, Sushila Kabadi, David R Roalf, Sarah McGuire, Adrian J Ecker, Kosha Ruparel, Allison M Port, Chad T Jackson, David F Dinges, Ruben C Gur
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological changes that may occur due to the environmental and psychological stressors of prolonged spaceflight motivated the development of the Cognition Test Battery. The battery was designed to assess multiple domains of neurocognitive functions linked to specific brain systems. Tests included in Cognition have been validated, but not in high-performing samples comparable to astronauts, which is an essential step toward ensuring their usefulness in long-duration space missions...
October 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922962/changes-in-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-activities-in-a-shockwave-induced-traumatic-brain-injury-model-using-lithotripsy
#6
Afshin Andre Divani, Jenny-Ann Phan, Pascal Salazar, Karen S SantaCruz, Ornina Bachour, Javad Mahmoudi, Xiao-Hong Zhu, Martin Pomper
We present a longitudinal study of cerebral metabolism using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in a rat model of shockwave-induced traumatic brain injury (SW-TBI). Anesthetized rats received 5 or 10 shockwave pulses to the right anterior lateral or dorsal frontal regions using shockwave lithotripsy. Animals were scanned for FDG uptake at baseline, 3 hours post-injury, and 3 days post-injury, using a small animal PET/CT scanner. FDG uptake at all time points was quantified as the ratio of brain activity relative to peripheral activity in the left ventricle (LV) in the heart (Abrain/ALV) for the entire brain, each hemisphere, and four cortices (motor, cingulate, somatosensory, and restrosplenial)...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922334/common-malignant-brain-tumors-can-18f-fdg-pet-ct-aid-in-differentiation
#7
Nilendu C Purandare, Ameya Puranik, Sneha Shah, Archi Agrawal, Tejpal Gupta, Aliasgar Moiyadi, Prakash Shetty, Epari Shridhar, Rakesh Jalali, Venkatesh Rangarajan
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evalute the metabolic characteristics of common malignant space-occupying lesions (SOL) of the brain and to determine the utility of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) PET/CT in differentiating between the common types of malignant brain SOL. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients with brain SOL who were referred for an F-FDG PET/CT scan by a multidisciplinary team were included in this retrospective study. The metabolic characteristics of the brain lesions in the form of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) along with tumor-to-background activity ratios were determined and differences were compared using nonparametric statistical tests...
September 15, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921843/potential-proton-and-photon-dose-degradation-in-advanced-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-by-intratherapy-changes
#8
Kristin Stützer, Annika Jakobi, Anna Bandurska-Luque, Steffen Barczyk, Carolin Arnsmeyer, Steffen Löck, Christian Richter
PURPOSE: Evaluation of dose degradation by anatomic changes for head-and-neck cancer (HNC) intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) relative to intensity-modulated photon therapy (IMRT) and identification of potential indicators for IMPT treatment plan adaptation. METHODS: For 31 advanced HNC datasets, IMPT and IMRT plans were recalculated on a computed tomography scan (CT) taken after about 4 weeks of therapy. Dose parameter changes were determined for the organs at risk (OARs) spinal cord, brain stem, parotid glands, brachial plexus, and mandible, for the clinical target volume (CTV) and the healthy tissue outside planning target volume (PTV)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921727/hot-off-the-press-embedded-clinical-decision-support-in-electronic-health-record-decreases-use-of-high-cost-imaging-in-the-emergency-department-embed-study
#9
Corey Heitz, Justin Morgenstern, William K Milne
This longitudinal before/after study of embedded CDRs assessed the effects of clinical decision support on use of common imaging studies. Among high users, rates of CT-brain and CT c-spine were reduced after implementation of embedded clinical decision instruments, while in low users, rates increased. This article summarizes the manuscript and the Skeptics Guide to Emergency Medicine podcast, as well as the ensuing social media/online discussion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
September 15, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921047/child-dermoid-cyst-mimicking-a-craniopharyngioma-the-benefit-of-mri-t2-weighted-diffusion-sequence
#10
Aymeric Amelot, Alin Borha, Raphael Calmon, Patrick Barbet, Stephanie Puget
BACKGROUND: Brain dermoid cysts are very rare lesions. Although benign, these cysts may be associated with devastating complications due to mass effect or meningitis. The discovery of completely asymptomatic dermoid cysts in the pediatric population is exceedingly rare. Despite the advances in imaging modalities, it sometimes remains difficult to exclude the differential diagnosis of craniopharyngioma. CASE REPORT: We describe a 12-year-old boy addressed for suspicion of craniopharyngioma diagnosed by decreased visual acuity, bitemporal hemianopia and a CT scan showing a large hypodense suprasellar lesion with intralesional calcifications...
September 18, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919314/24-hour-alberta-stroke-program-early-ct-score-assessment-in-post-stroke-spasticity-development-in-patients-with-a-first-documented-anterior-circulation-ischemic-stroke
#11
Ondrej Volny, Maria Justanova, Petra Cimflova, Linda Kasickova, Ivana Svobodova, Jan Muzik, Martin Bares
BACKGROUND: Neuroanatomic substrates responsible for development of post-stroke spasticity are still poorly understood. The study is focused on identification of brain regions within the territory of the middle cerebral artery associated with spasticity development. METHODS: This is a single-center prospective cohort study of first documented anterior circulation ischemic strokes with a neurologic deficit lasting >7 days (from March 2014 to September 2016, all patients are involved in a registry)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918316/mr-guided-joint-reconstruction-of-activity-and-attenuation-in-brain-pet-mr
#12
Abolfazl Mehranian, Habib Zaidi, Andrew J Reader
With the advent of time-of-flight (TOF) PET scanners, joint maximum-likelihood reconstruction of activity and attenuation (MLAA) maps has recently regained attention for the estimation of PET attenuation maps from emission data. However, the estimated attenuation and activity maps are scaled by unknown scaling factors. We recently demonstrated that in hybrid PET-MR, the scaling issue of this algorithm can be effectively addressed by imposing MR spatial constraints on the estimation of attenuation maps using a penalized MLAA (P-MLAA(+)) algorithm...
September 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917660/stereotaxic-18-f-fdg-pet-and-mri-templates-with-three-dimensional-digital-atlas-for-statistical-parametric-mapping-analysis-of-tree-shrew-brain
#13
Qi Huang, Binbin Nie, Chen Ma, Jing Wang, Tianhao Zhang, Shaofeng Duan, Shang Wu, Shengxiang Liang, Panlong Li, Hua Liu, Hua Sun, Jiangning Zhou, Lin Xu, Baoci Shan
BACKGROUND: Tree shrews are proposed as an alternative animal model to nonhuman primates due to their close affinity to primates. Neuroimaging techniques are widely used to study brain functions and structures of humans and animals. However, tree shrews are rarely applied in neuroimaging field partly due to the lack of available species specific analysis methods. NEW METHOD: In this study, 10 PET/CT and 10 MRI images of tree shrew brain were used to construct PET and MRI templates; based on histological atlas we reconstructed a three-dimensional digital atlas with 628 structures delineated; then the digital atlas and templates were aligned into a stereotaxic space...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917584/pneumatoceles-in-pediatric-blunt-trauma-common-and-benign
#14
Lindsey B Armstrong, David P Mooney
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic pneumatoceles are reported to be rare in children and to have an uncertain clinical significance. We report a single institution series of traumatic pneumatoceles to better define their frequency and clinical significance. METHODS: After obtaining approval from the IRB, data were extracted from the trauma registry of a level 1 pediatric trauma center on children diagnosed with a pulmonary contusion (International Classification of Diseases-9th edition diagnosis codes: 861...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916167/structural-neuroimaging-in-sport-related-concussion
#15
Erin D Bigler
Structural neuroimaging of athletes who have sustained a sports-related concussion (SRC) can be viewed as either standard clinical imaging or with advanced neuroimaging methods that quantitatively assess brain structure. Negative findings from conventional computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the norm in SRC. Nonetheless, these conventional measures remain the first line of neuroimaging of the athlete as they do detect clinically significant pathologies, when present, such as hemorrhagic abnormalities in the form of hematomas, contusions and mircobleeds along with regions of focal encephalomalacia or other signal abnormalities, with CT best capable of detecting skull fractures...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915161/unenhanced-dual-energy-computed-tomography-visualization-of-brain-edema
#16
Mohammed F Mohammed, Olivia Marais, Adam Min, David Ferguson, Sabeena Jalakhan, Faisal Khosa, Michael OʼKeeffe, Tim OʼConnell, Heiko Schmiedeskamp, Bernhard Krauss, Axel Rohr, Savvas Nicolaou
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine whether dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) imaging is superior to conventional noncontrast computed tomography (CT) imaging for the detection of acute ischemic stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective, single-center study of 40 patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) of a major, acute care, teaching center with signs and symptoms of acute stroke. Only those patients who presented to the ED within 4 hours of symptom onset were included in this study...
September 14, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913776/interactions-of-antisera-to-different-chlamydia-and-chlamydophila-species-with-the-ribosomal-protein-rps27a-correlate-with-impaired-protein-synthesis-in-a-human-choroid-plexus-papilloma-cell-line
#17
Abdullah Almamy, Christian Schwerk, Horst Schroten, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Abdul Rahman Asif, Bernhard Reuss
Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and the Chlamydophila species (CS) Chlamydophila pneumoniae (CPn), and Chlamydophila psittaci (CPs) are suggested to induce autoantibodies causative of several human autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of the present study was therefore to identify cellular protein interaction partners with antisera to CT (α-CT) or CS (α-CS) and to identify functional consequences of such interaction in vitro. As detected with a commercial first trimester human prenatal brain multiprotein array (hEXselect, Engine, Germany), the most frequent interaction partner with both α-CT and α-CS was the ribosomal small subunit protein RPS27a...
September 14, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913731/inter-and-intra-observer-reproducibility-of-quantitative-analysis-for-fp-cit-spect-in-patients-with-dlb
#18
Atsutaka Okizaki, Michihiro Nakayama, Kaori Nakajima, Takayuki Katayama, Takahiro Uno, Fumiyoshi Morikawa, Juichiro Naoe, Koji Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Dopamine transporter single photon emission CT (DAT-SPECT) is useful in the evaluation of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The specific binding ratio (SBR) is an index to measure DAT density. However, poorly reproducible cases are occasionally experienced in clinical practice. We hypothesized that distance-weighted histogram (DWH) may be useful to improve the reproducibility of SBR. The purpose of this study was to investigate inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of SBR with conventional and DWH methods, and to visually evaluate the precision in reference voxel of interest (VOI) definition using these methods...
September 14, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913298/the-unnecessity-of-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-in-the-etiologic-evaluation-of-neurodevelopmental-delay-in-craniosynostosis-patients
#19
Chae Eun Yang, Eun Kyung Park, Myung Chul Lee, Kyu Won Shim, Yong Oock Kim
BACKGROUND: In evaluation of craniosynostosis patients in terms of neurodevelopmental delay, positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT) scan can be used to assess brain abnormalities through glucose metabolism. We aimed to determine the unnecessity of PET-CT in this study. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients diagnosed with craniosynostosis who underwent distraction osteogenesis from October, 2010 to November, 2013 were reviewed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and PET-CT scan were carried out for evaluation of the brain structure and function, whereas X-ray and CT scan were taken for evaluation of the skull...
March 2017: Arch Craniofac Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913286/treatment-of-nonsyndromic-craniosynostosis-using-multi-split-osteotomy-and-rigid-fixation-with-absorbable-plates
#20
Su Bong Nam, Kyeong Wook Nam, Jae Woo Lee, Kyeong Ho Song, Yong Chan Bae
BACKGROUND: Nonsyndromic craniosynostosis is a relatively common craniofacial anomaly and various techniques were introduced to achieve its operative goals. Authors found that by using smaller bone fragments than that used in conventional cranioplasty, sufficiently rigid bone union and effective regeneration capacity could be achieved with better postoperative outcome, only if their stable fixation was ensured. METHODS: Through bicoronal incisional approach, involved synostotic cranial bone together with its surrounding areas were removed...
December 2016: Arch Craniofac Surg
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