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Artem Golev, Diego R Schmeda-Lopez, Simon K Smart, Glen D Corder, Eric W McFarland
For almost two decades waste electrical and electronic equipment, WEEE or e-waste, has been considered a growing problem that has global consequences. The value of recovered materials, primarily in precious and base metals, has prompted some parts of the world to informally and inappropriately process e-waste causing serious environmental and human health issues. Efforts in tackling this issue have been limited and in many ways unsuccessful. The global rates for formal e-waste treatment are estimated to be below the 20% mark, with the majority of end-of-life (EoL) electronic devices still ending up in the landfills or processed through rudimentary means...
September 26, 2016: Waste Management
Hülya Kurtul Yildiz, Elif Evrim Ekin
PURPOSE: The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFLL)/lateral patellar retinaculum (LPR) ratio were assessed in knees as a means to detect patellar malalignment. We also aimed to evaluate the prevalence of the various types of trochlear dysplasia in patients with patellar malalignment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After approval of our institutional ethics committee, we conducted a retrospective study that included 450 consecutive patients to evaluate them for the presence of patellar malalignment...
2016: SpringerPlus
Brian D Byrd
Mosquito-borne diseases remain a significant cause of economic, social, and health burdens in North Carolina. Although recently overshadowed by emerging threats such as chikungunya virus and Zika virus, La Crosse virus and other endemic arboviruses remain persistent environmental health hazards. Indeed, La Crosse virus, West Nile virus, and Eastern equine encephalitis virus accounted for more than 98% of the reported human arboviral diseases acquired in North Carolina in the past decade. Arbovirus infection is increasingly prevalent in Western North Carolina, with La Crosse encephalitis being endemic in this area...
September 2016: North Carolina Medical Journal
Kerry O'Donnell, Deanna A Sutton, Nathan Wiederhold, Vincent A R G Robert, Pedro W Crous, David M Geiser
Multilocus DNA sequence data was used to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically distinct species, all but two of which were previously known to infect humans, distributed among eight species complexes. The majority of the veterinary isolates (47/67 = 70.1%) were nested within the F. solani species complex (FSSC), and these included 8 phylospecies and 33 unique 3-locus sequence types (STs)...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
John J Shepard, Theodore G Andreadis, Michael C Thomas, Goudarz Molaei
BACKGROUND: Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a highly pathogenic mosquito-borne arbovirus, with active transmission foci in freshwater hardwood swamps in eastern North America, where enzootic transmission is maintained between the ornithophilic mosquito, Culiseta melanura, and wild passerine birds. The role of other locally abundant mosquito species in virus transmission and their associations with vertebrate hosts as sources of blood meals within these foci are largely unknown but are of importance in clarifying the dynamics of enzootic and epidemic/epizootic transmission...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Scott Medlin, Eleanor R Deardorff, Christopher S Hanley, Claire Vergneau-Grosset, Asia Siudak-Campfield, Rebecca Dallwig, Amelia Travassos da Rosa, Robert B Tesh, Maria Pia Martin, Scott C Weaver, Christopher Vaughan, Oscar Ramirez, Kurt K Sladky, Joanne Paul-Murphy
We screened for antibodies to 16 arboviruses in four populations of free-ranging sloths in Costa Rica. Blood samples were taken from 16 Hoffman's two-toed sloths (HTSs; Choloepus hoffmanni ) and 26 brown-throated sloths (BTSs; Bradypus variegatus ) over a 3-yr period. We used serologic assays to detect antibodies against 10 arboviruses previously described in sloths (St. Louis encephalitis [SLEV], Changuinola, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Ilheus [ILHV], Oropouche, Mayaro, Utinga, Murutucu, Punta Toro, and vesicular stomatitis [VSV] viruses) and six arboviruses not described in sloths (Rio Grande, West Nile [WNV], eastern equine encephalitis, Piry, Munguba, and La Crosse viruses)...
October 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Amanda Guthrie, Scott Citino, Leah Rooker, Alexandra Zelazo-Kessler, Ailam Lim, Carl Myers, Steven R Bolin, Karen Trainor
CASE DESCRIPTION Within a 2-week period, 4 southern cassowaries (Casuarius casuarius) at an exhibit at a Virginia zoo died acutely subsequent to eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) infection. This prompted a search for other EEEV outbreaks in cassowaries, which resulted in the identification of 2 additional cassowaries that died of EEEV infection at a conservation center in Florida. CLINICAL FINDINGS Both juvenile and adult birds were affected. Three of the 6 birds died acutely with no premonitory signs...
August 1, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Kendall G Byler, Jasmine T Collins, Ifedayo Victor Ogungbe, William N Setzer
Alphaviruses such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), O'Nyong-Nyong virus (ONNV), Ross River virus (RRV), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), and Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), are mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause fevers, rash, and rheumatic diseases (CHIKV, ONNV, RRV) or potentially fatal encephalitis (EEEV, VEEV, WEEV) in humans. These diseases are considered neglected tropical diseases for which there are no current antiviral therapies or vaccines available...
June 21, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Shannon E Ronca, Kelly T Dineley, Slobodan Paessler
The recent surge in viral clinical cases and associated neurological deficits have reminded us that viral infections can lead to detrimental, long-term effects, termed sequelae, in survivors. Alphaviruses are enveloped, single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses in the Togaviridae family. Transmission of alphaviruses between and within species occurs mainly via the bite of an infected mosquito bite, giving alphaviruses a place among arboviruses, or arthropod-borne viruses. Alphaviruses are found throughout the world and typically cause arthralgic or encephalitic disease in infected humans...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Nathan D Burkett-Cadena, Jennifer Gibson, Miranda Lauth, Tanise Stenn, Carolina Acevedo, Rui-de Xue, James McNelly, Edward Northey, Hassan K Hassan, Ali Fulcher, Andrea M Bingham, Jose van Olphen, Alberto van Olphen, Thomas R Unnasch
Zoonotic mosquito-borne viruses, such as the West Nile virus (WNV) and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), are major public health threats in the United States. Early detection of virus transmission and targeted vector management are critical to protect humans against these pathogens. Sentinel chickens and pool screening of mosquitoes, the most widely used methods of arbovirus early detection, have technical time-lags that compromise their early-detection value. The exploitation of sugar-feeding by trapped mosquitoes for arbovirus surveillance may represent a viable alternative to other methods...
June 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
C Gabriel Sentíes-Cué, Rodrigo A Gallardo, Nancy Reimers, Arthur A Bickford, Bruce R Charlton, H L Shivaprasad
Avian encephalomyelitis (AE) was diagnosed in three flocks of leghorn layer pullets following AE vaccination. Ages of the birds were 11, 12, and 14 wk. The submissions came from three different companies located in two geographic areas of the Central Valley of California. The clinical signs included birds down on their legs, unilateral recumbency or sitting on their hocks, lethargy, reluctance to move, dehydration, unevenness in size, low weight, tremors of the head in a few birds, and mildly to moderately elevated mortality...
June 2016: Avian Diseases
Takahiro Goto, Takashi Sano, Takao Kojo, Ryusuke Ae, Yasuko Aoyama, Nobuko Makino, Kazuhiko Kotani, Yosikazu Nakamura
BACKGROUND: Although it is known that cardiac lesions of Kawasaki disease (KD) are prevented by intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy and associated with patient's age and sex, the time course of cardiac lesions remains unclear in large population. METHODS: We used the data of the 22nd nationwide survey of KD in Japan (2011-2012). We divided the time course of cardiac lesions into 8 groups according to the combination of timing (at the first visit to hospitals, acute phase, and sequelae) and existence of cardiac lesions (E is existence of cardiac lesions and N is nonexistence of cardiac lesions): EEE, EEN, ENE, NEE, ENN, NEN, NNE, and NNN...
June 10, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
A C Kinsley, R D Moon, K Johnson, M Carstensen, D Neitzel, M E Craft
An adult mosquito survey was conducted at 12 sites using carbon dioxide traps in northern Minnesota throughout the summer of 2012. Specimens were counted, identified to species, sorted into pools, and tested for eastern equine encephalitis (EEEV) and West Nile virus (WNV). Our findings extend the known range of Culiseta melanura, Anopheles barberi, and An. quadrimaculatus and document the presence and abundance of 27 other mosquito taxa in the region. None of the pools tested positive for EEEV or WNV.
June 2016: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
Kumudini M Meepagala, Alden S Estep, James J Becnel
Mosquitoes play a major role as vectors that transmit parasitic and viral diseases worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical countries. Mosquito borne diseases not only affect humans but they also affect livestock in many parts of the world. They carry diseases that are lethal to dogs and horses. Dog heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic disease spread through mosquitoes. This disease is not limited to dogs, but it can affect other animals and humans as well. Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and West Nile virus (WNV) are also mosquito borne diseases that affect the central nervous system of horses and cause severe complications and death...
June 22, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Erin M Borland, Jeremy P Ledermann, Ann M Powers
Highlands J virus (HJV) is an alphavirus closely related to western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV). HJV is an avian pathogen with the potential for disruption of poultry operations, but is not known to cause human or equine disease. HJV has only been identified in the eastern United States and is thought to have a transmission cycle similar to that of EEEV involving Culiseta melanura mosquitoes and birds. However, HJV is more genetically similar to WEEV and it remains unclear if it may be transmitted by Culex species mosquitoes like WEEV...
August 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Kairav J Shah, Kartikeya Cherabuddi
A 50-year-old man was admitted in midwinter with fever, altered mental status and new onset generalised tonic-clonic seizure with urinary incontinence. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed an opening pressure of 14.5 cm of water, normal glucose and protein 82 mg/dL (reference range: 15-45 mg/dL). Cell count showed: red cells 11 (reference range: <5 mm(3)), white cell count 1 (reference range: <5 mm(3)). The patient's blood and CSF cultures had no growth. MRI of the brain with and without gadolinium contrast showed abnormal T2 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signals within bilateral ventricular nuclei, hippocampi, left frontal and parietal regions...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Kerri Pedersen, David R Marks, Eryu Wang, Gillian Eastwood, Scott C Weaver, Samuel M Goldstein, David R Sinnett, Thomas J DeLiberto
Wild birds serve as amplifying hosts for many arboviruses, and are thought to be responsible for introducing these viruses into new areas during migration as well as reintroducing them to places where winter temperatures disrupt mosquito-borne transmission. To learn more about four mosquito-borne arboviruses of concern to human or animal health, we tested sera from 997 wild birds of 54 species and 17 families across 44 states of the United States collected from January 1, 2013, through September 30, 2013. Samples were tested for antibody against eastern equine encephalitis, St...
July 6, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Amy Y Vittor, Blas Armien, Publio Gonzalez, Jean-Paul Carrera, Claudia Dominguez, Anayansi Valderrama, Greg E Glass, Davis Beltran, Julio Cisneros, Eryu Wang, Alex Castillo, Brechla Moreno, Scott C Weaver
BACKGROUND: Neurotropic arboviral infections are an important cause of encephalitis. A zoonotic, vector-borne alphavirus, Madariaga virus (MADV; formerly known as South American eastern equine encephalitis virus), caused its first documented human outbreak in 2010 in Darien, Panama, where the genetically similar Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is endemic. We report the results of a seroprevalence survey of animals and humans, illustrating contrasting features of MADV and VEEV ecology and epidemiology...
April 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jodie A Jarvis, Mary A Franke, April D Davis
An examination using the routine rabies direct fluorescent antibody test was performed on rabies or Eastern equine encephalitis positive mammalian brain tissue to assess inactivation of the virus. Neither virus was inactivated with acetone fixation nor the routine test, thus laboratory employees should treat all samples as rabies and when appropriate Eastern equine encephalitis positive throughout the whole procedure.
August 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Gregory J Atkins, Brian J Sheahan
Alphaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-stranded RNA genome, of the family Togaviridae. In mammals and birds they are mosquito-transmitted and are of veterinary and medical importance. They cause primarily two types of disease: encephalitis and polyarthritis. Here we review attempts to understand the molecular basis of encephalitis and virulence for the central nervous system (CNS) in mouse models. Sindbis virus (SINV) was the first virus to be studied in this way. Other viruses analysed are Semliki Forest virus (SFV), Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus and Western equine encephalitis virus...
June 2016: Journal of General Virology
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