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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936186/assessing-the-formation-of-experience-based-gender-expectations-in-an-implicit-learning-scenario
#1
Anton Öttl, Dawn M Behne
The present study investigates the formation of new word-referent associations in an implicit learning scenario, using a gender-coded artificial language with spoken words and visual referents. Previous research has shown that when participants are explicitly instructed about the gender-coding system underlying an artificial lexicon, they monitor the frequency of exposure to male vs. female referents within this lexicon, and subsequently use this probabilistic information to predict the gender of an upcoming referent...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936014/linguistic-predictors-of-cultural-identification-in-bilinguals
#2
Scott R Schroeder, Tuan Q Lam, Viorica Marian
Most of the world's population has knowledge of at least two languages. Many of these bilinguals are also exposed to and identify with at least two cultures. Because language knowledge enables participation in cultural practices and expression of cultural beliefs, bilingual experience and cultural identity are interconnected. However, the specific links between bilingualism and cultural identity remain largely unidentified. The current study examined which aspects of bilingualism relate to identification with first- and second-language cultures...
August 1, 2017: Appl Linguist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933893/contextual-variability-and-exemplar-strength-in-phonotactic-learning
#3
Thomas Denby, Jeffrey Schecter, Sean Arn, Svetlin Dimov, Matthew Goldrick
Phonotactics-constraints on the position and combination of speech sounds within syllables-are subject to statistical differences that gradiently affect speaker and listener behavior (e.g., Vitevitch & Luce, 1999). What statistical properties drive the acquisition of such constraints? Because they are naturally highly correlated, previous work has been unable to dissociate the contribution of 2 properties: contextual variability (the number of unique phonological contexts in which a phonotactic pattern appears) and exemplar strength (the overall number of times the pattern appears)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932018/measuring-orthographic-transparency-and-morphological-syllabic-complexity-in-alphabetic-orthographies-a-narrative-review
#4
REVIEW
Elisabeth Borleffs, Ben A M Maassen, Heikki Lyytinen, Frans Zwarts
This narrative review discusses quantitative indices measuring differences between alphabetic languages that are related to the process of word recognition. The specific orthography that a child is acquiring has been identified as a central element influencing reading acquisition and dyslexia. However, the development of reliable metrics to measure differences between language scripts hasn't received much attention so far. This paper therefore reviews metrics proposed in the literature for quantifying orthographic transparency, syllabic complexity, and morphological complexity of alphabetic languages...
2017: Reading and Writing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928701/teaching-literacy-skills-to-french-minimally-verbal-school-aged-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-with-the-serious-game-sema-tic-an-exploratory-study
#5
Sylvie Serret, Stéphanie Hun, Susanne Thümmler, Prescillia Pierron, Andreia Santos, Jérémy Bourgeois, Florence Askenazy
Learning to read is very challenging for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), but also very important, as it can give them access to new knowledge. This is even more challenging in minimally verbal children, who do not have the verbal abilities to learn through usual methods. To address the learning of literacy skills in French minimally verbal school-aged children with ASD, we designed the serious game SEMA-TIC, which relies on non-verbal cognitive skills and uses specific learning strategies adapted to the features of autistic individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916330/brains-language-and-the-argumentative-mind-in-western-and-eastern-societies-the-fertile-differences-between-western-eastern-argumentative-traditions
#6
REVIEW
Jordi Vallverdú
The philosophical differences between Western and Eastern philosophy not only derive from general cultural ideas about reality, but as Nisbet writes (2003), are also methodological, ontological, and cognitively driven. Thus, we can see that strategies of thought and theory-generation are constrained and enabled by conceptual levels, and that the existence of differences and within these levels may be pragmatically combined in fruitful ways. At this point, I remark that there is not a single way to connect biology and culture, but at least we need to admit that brains allow the existence of minds and that these create languages, which also organize the world symbolically following a long set of (sometimes interconnected) heuristics...
September 12, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915299/home-and-community-language-proficiency-in-spanish-english-early-bilingual-university-students
#7
Jens Schmidtke
Purpose: This study assessed home and community language proficiency in Spanish-English bilingual university students to investigate whether the vocabulary gap reported in studies of bilingual children persists into adulthood. Method: Sixty-five early bilinguals (mean age = 21 years) were assessed in English and Spanish vocabulary and verbal reasoning ability using subtests of the Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey-Revised (Schrank & Woodcock, 2009). Their English scores were compared to 74 monolinguals matched in age and level of education...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915298/the-effect-of-stimulus-variability-on-learning-and-generalization-of-reading-in-a-novel-script
#8
Jasmeen Adwan-Mansour, Tali Bitan
Purpose: The benefit of stimulus variability for generalization of acquired skills and knowledge has been shown in motor, perceptual, and language learning but has rarely been studied in reading. We studied the effect of variable training in a novel language on reading trained and untrained words. Method: Sixty typical adults received 2 sessions of training in reading an artificial script. Participants were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: a variable training group practicing a large set of 24 words, and 2 nonvariable training groups practicing a smaller set of 12 words, with twice the number of repetitions per word...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914137/comparing-phoneme-frequency-age-of-acquisition-and-loss-in-aphasia-implications-for-phonological-universals
#9
Cristina Romani, Claudia Galuzzi, Cecilia Guariglia, Jeremy Goslin
Phonological complexity may be central to the nature of human language. It may shape the distribution of phonemes and phoneme sequences within languages, but also determine age of acquisition and susceptibility to loss in aphasia. We evaluated this claim using frequency statistics derived from a corpus of phonologically transcribed Italian words (phonitalia, available at phonitalia,org), rankings of phoneme age of acquisition (AoA) and rate of phoneme errors in patients with apraxia of speech (AoS) as an indication of articulatory complexity...
September 15, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901038/the-developmental-trajectory-of-children-s-auditory-and-visual-statistical-learning-abilities-modality-based-differences-in-the-effect-of-age
#10
Limor Raviv, Inbal Arnon
Infants, children and adults are capable of extracting recurring patterns from their environment through statistical learning (SL), an implicit learning mechanism that is considered to have an important role in language acquisition. Research over the past 20 years has shown that SL is present from very early infancy and found in a variety of tasks and across modalities (e.g., auditory, visual), raising questions on the domain generality of SL. However, while SL is well established for infants and adults, only little is known about its developmental trajectory during childhood, leaving two important questions unanswered: (1) Is SL an early-maturing capacity that is fully developed in infancy, or does it improve with age like other cognitive capacities (e...
September 12, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895004/positive-cognitive-effects-of-bilingualism-and-multilingualism-on-cerebral-function-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Cibel Quinteros Baumgart, Stephen Bates Billick
A review of the current literature regarding bilingualism demonstrates that bilingualism is linked to higher levels of controlled attention and inhibition in executive control and can protect against the decline of executive control in aging by contributing to cognitive reserve. Bilinguals may also have smaller vocabulary size and slower lexical retrieval for each language. The joint activation theory is proposed to explain these results. Older trilingual adults experience more protection against cognitive decline and children and young adults showed similar cognitive advantages to bilinguals in inhibitory control...
September 11, 2017: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887811/great-ape-gestures-intentional-communication-with-a-rich-set-of-innate-signals
#12
EDITORIAL
R W Byrne, E Cartmill, E Genty, K E Graham, C Hobaiter, J Tanner
Great apes give gestures deliberately and voluntarily, in order to influence particular target audiences, whose direction of attention they take into account when choosing which type of gesture to use. These facts make the study of ape gesture directly relevant to understanding the evolutionary precursors of human language; here we present an assessment of ape gesture from that perspective, focusing on the work of the "St Andrews Group" of researchers. Intended meanings of ape gestures are relatively few and simple...
September 8, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885484/comparative-evaluation-of-the-white-matter-fiber-integrity-in-patients-with-prelingual-and-postlingual-deafness
#13
Jinna Kim, Jae Young Choi, Jinseok Eo, Hae-Jeong Park
The aim of this study was to perform a comparative investigation of white matter integrity in patients with prelingual and postlingual deafness; we carried out a tract-based statistical analysis of diffusion tensor anisotropy in eight and ten adults with prelingual and postlingual deafness, respectively. Patients with deafness showed significant decreases in diffusion anisotropy at the right internal capsule, the right thalamus, and the splenium of the corpus callosum as well as within the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (including Heschl gyrus) and right temporal white matter...
September 6, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880767/cross-language-neighborhood-effects-in-learners-indicative-of-an-integrated-lexicon
#14
Gabriela Meade, Katherine J Midgley, Ton Dijkstra, Phillip J Holcomb
This study examined how acquisition of novel words from an unknown language (L2) is influenced by their orthographic similarity with existing native language (L1) words in beginning adult learners. Participants were tested in a two-alternative forced-choice recognition task and a typing production task as they learned to associate 80 L2 (pseudo)words with pictures depicting their meanings. There was no effect of L1 orthographic neighborhood density on accuracy in the two-alternative forced-choice task, but typing accuracy was higher for L2 words with many L1 neighbors in the earliest stages of learning...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878980/the-origins-of-babytalk-smiling-teaching-or-social-convergence
#15
Marina Kalashnikova, Christopher Carignan, Denis Burnham
When addressing their young infants, parents systematically modify their speech. Such infant-directed speech (IDS) contains exaggerated vowel formants, which have been proposed to foster language development via articulation of more distinct speech sounds. Here, this assumption is rigorously tested using both acoustic and, for the first time, fine-grained articulatory measures. Mothers were recorded speaking to their infant and to another adult, and measures were taken of their acoustic vowel space, their tongue and lip movements and the length of their vocal tract...
August 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857779/high-levels-of-postmigration-hiv-acquisition-within-nine-european-countries
#16
Debora Alvarez-Del Arco, Ibidun Fakoya, Christos Thomadakis, Nikos Pantazis, Giota Touloumi, Anne-Francoise Gennotte, Freke Zuure, Henrique Barros, Cornelia Staehelin, Siri Göpel, Christoph Boesecke, Tullio Prestileo, Alain Volny-Anne, Fiona Burns, Julia Del Amo
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the proportion of postmigration HIV acquisition among HIV-positive migrants in Europe. DESIGN: To reach HIV-positive migrants, we designed a cross-sectional study performed in HIV clinics. METHODS: The study was conducted from July 2013 to July 2015 in 57 clinics (nine European countries), targeting individuals over 18 years diagnosed in the preceding 5 years and born abroad. Electronic questionnaires supplemented with clinical data were completed in any of 15 languages...
September 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856956/semantic-and-phonological-schema-influence-spoken-word-learning-and-overnight-consolidation
#17
Viktória Havas, J S H Taylor, Lucía Vaquero, Ruth de Diego-Balaguer, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells, Matthew H Davis
We studied the initial acquisition and overnight consolidation of new spoken words that resemble words in the native language (L1) or in an unfamiliar, non-native language (L2). Spanish-speaking participants learned the spoken forms of novel words in their native language (Spanish) or in a different language (Hungarian), which were paired with pictures of familiar or unfamiliar objects, or no picture. We thereby assessed, in a factorial way, the impact of existing knowledge (schema) on word learning by manipulating both semantic (familiar vs...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854315/distributed-training-enhances-implicit-sequence-acquisition-in-children-with-specific-language-impairment
#18
Lise Desmottes, Thierry Meulemans, Marie-Aude Patinec, Christelle Maillart
Purpose: This study explored the effects of 2 different training structures on the implicit acquisition of a sequence in a serial reaction time (SRT) task in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: All of the children underwent 3 training sessions, followed by a retention session 2 weeks after the last session. In the massed-training condition, the 3 training sessions were in immediate succession on 1 day, whereas in the distributed-training condition, the 3 training sessions were spread over a 1-week period in an expanding schedule format...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841876/specific-entrustable-professional-activities-for-undergraduate-medical-internships-a-method-compatible-with-the-academic-curriculum
#19
Alicia Hamui-Sutton, Ana María Monterrosas-Rojas, Armando Ortiz-Montalvo, Felipe Flores-Morones, Uri Torruco-García, Andrea Navarrete-Martínez, Araceli Arrioja-Guerrero
BACKGROUND: Competency-based education has been considered the most important pedagogical trend in Medicine in the last two decades. In clinical contexts, competencies are implemented through Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) which are observable and measurable. The aim of this paper is to describe the methodology used in the design of educational tools to assess students´ competencies in clinical practice during their undergraduate internship (UI). In this paper, we present the construction of specific APROCs (Actividades Profesionales Confiables) in Surgery (S), Gynecology and Obstetrics (GO) and Family Medicine (FM) rotations with three levels of performance...
August 25, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841643/towards-a-category-theory-approach-to-analogy-analyzing-re-representation-and-acquisition-of-numerical-knowledge
#20
Jairo A Navarrete, Pablo Dartnell
Category Theory, a branch of mathematics, has shown promise as a modeling framework for higher-level cognition. We introduce an algebraic model for analogy that uses the language of category theory to explore analogy-related cognitive phenomena. To illustrate the potential of this approach, we use this model to explore three objects of study in cognitive literature. First, (a) we use commutative diagrams to analyze an effect of playing particular educational board games on the learning of numbers. Second, (b) we employ a notion called coequalizer as a formal model of re-representation that explains a property of computational models of analogy called "flexibility" whereby non-similar representational elements are considered matches and placed in structural correspondence...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
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