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Language acquisition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147832/wh-questions-universal-statements-and-free-choice-inferences-in-child-mandarin
#1
Haiquan Huang, Peng Zhou, Stephen Crain
This study investigated 5-year-old Mandarin-speaking children's comprehension of wh-questions, universal statements and free choice inferences. Previous research has found that Mandarin-speaking children assign a universal interpretation to sentences with a wh-word (e.g., shei 'who') followed by the adverbial quantifier dou 'all' (Zhou in Appl Psycholinguist 36:411-435, 2013). Children also compute free choice inferences in sentences that contain a modal verb in addition to a wh-word and dou (Zhou, in: Nakayama, Su, Huang (eds...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146464/language-control-mechanisms-differ-for-native-languages-neuromagnetic-evidence-from-trilingual-language-switching
#2
Suzanne C A Hut, Päivi Helenius, Alina Leminen, Jyrki P Mäkelä, Minna Lehtonen
How does the brain process and control languages that are learned at a different age, when proficiency in all these languages is high? Early acquired strong languages are likely to have higher baseline activation levels than later learned less-dominant languages. However, it is still largely unknown how the activation levels of these different languages are controlled, and how interference from an irrelevant language is prevented. In this magnetoencephalography (MEG) study on language switching during auditory perception, early Finnish-Swedish bilinguals (N=18) who mastered English with high proficiency after childhood were presented with spoken words in each of the three languages, while performing a simple semantic categorisation task...
November 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131969/maternal-communicative-functions-and-mind-mindedness-at-16-months-as-predictors-of-children-s-internal-and-non-internal-language-at-20-months
#3
Emiddia Longobardi, Pietro Spataro, Cristina Colonnesi
The effects of Communicative functions and Mind-Mindedness on children's language development have been typically investigated in separate studies. The present longitudinal research was therefore designed to yield new insight into the simultaneous impact of these two dimensions of maternal responsiveness on the acquisition of expressive language skills in a sample of 25 mother-child dyads. The frequencies of five communicative functions (Tutorial, Didactic, Conversational, Control and Asynchronous) and two types of mind-related comments (attuned vs...
November 10, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128949/elvisml-an-open-data-format-for-the-exchange-and-storage-of-electrophysiological-data-in-ophthalmology
#4
Torsten Strasser, Tobias Peters, Herbert Jägle, Eberhart Zrenner
PURPOSE: The ISCEV standards and recommendations for electrophysiological recordings in ophthalmology define a set of protocols with stimulus parameters, acquisition settings, and recording conditions, to unify the data and enable comparability of results across centers. Up to now, however, there are no standards to define the storage and exchange of such electrophysiological recordings. The aim of this study was to develop an open standard data format for the exchange and storage of visual electrophysiological data (ElVisML)...
November 11, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128736/optimal-practice-conditions-enhance-the-benefits-of-gradually-increasing-error-opportunities-on-retention-of-a-stepping-sequence-task
#5
Danielle Levac, Kate Driscoll, Jessica Galvez, Kathleen Mercado, Lindsey O'Neil
INTRODUCTION: Physical therapists should implement practice conditions that promote motor skill learning after neurological injury. Errorful and errorless practice conditions are effective for different populations and tasks. Errorful learning provides opportunities for learners to make task-relevant choices. Enhancing learner autonomy through choice opportunities is a key component of the Optimizing Performance through Intrinsic Motivation and Attention for Learning (OPTIMAL) theory of motor learning...
November 9, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125089/the-development-of-determiners-in-the-context-of-french-english-bilingualism-a-study-of-cross-linguistic-influence
#6
Coralie Hervé, Ludovica Serratrice
This paper reports the preliminary results of a study examining the role of structural overlap, language exposure, and language use on cross-linguistic influence (CLI) in bilingual first language acquisition. We focus on the longitudinal development of determiners in a corpus of two French-English children between the ages of 2;4 and 3;7. The results display bi-directional CLI in the rate of development, i.e., accelerated development in English and a minor delay in French. Unidirectional CLI from English to French was instead observed in the significantly higher rate of ungrammatical determiner omissions in plural and generic contexts than in singular specific contexts in French...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124960/fostering-human-rights-through-talkbank
#7
Brian MacWhinney, Davida Fromm, Yvan Rose, Nan Bernstein Ratner
In accord with articles 19 and 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, people with speech and language disorders have the right to receive maximal benefit from academic research on speech and language acquisition and disorders. To evaluate the diverse nature of speech and language disorders, this research must have access to large datasets, as well as to refined tools for the systematic analysis of these datasets. The TalkBank system addresses this need by providing researchers with thousands of hours of open-access database archives of digital audio, video and transcript files documenting typical and disordered language use in dozens of languages and cultures...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114775/development-of-pointing-gestures-in-children-with-typical-and-delayed-language-acquisition
#8
Carina Lüke, Ute Ritterfeld, Angela Grimminger, Ulf Liszkowski, Katharina J Rohlfing
Purpose: This longitudinal study compared the development of hand and index-finger pointing in children with typical language development (TD) and children with language delay (LD). First, we examined whether the number and the form of pointing gestures during the second year of life are potential indicators of later LD. Second, we analyzed the influence of caregivers' gestural and verbal input on children's communicative development. Method: Thirty children with TD and 10 children with LD were observed together with their primary caregivers in a seminatural setting in 5 sessions between the ages of 12 and 21 months...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114770/infant-directed-speech-enhances-attention-to-speech-in-deaf-infants-with-cochlear-implants
#9
Yuanyuan Wang, Tonya R Bergeson, Derek M Houston
Purpose: Both theoretical models of infant language acquisition and empirical studies posit important roles for attention to speech in early language development. However, deaf infants with cochlear implants (CIs) show reduced attention to speech as compared with their peers with normal hearing (NH; Horn, Davis, Pisoni, & Miyamoto, 2005; Houston, Pisoni, Kirk, Ying, & Miyamoto, 2003), which may affect their acquisition of spoken language. The main purpose of this study was to determine (a) whether infant-directed speech (IDS) enhances attention to speech in infants with CIs, as compared with adult-directed speech (ADS), and (b) whether the degree to which infants with CIs pay attention to IDS is associated with later language outcomes...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114769/developmental-associations-between-working-memory-and-language-in-children-with-specific-language-impairment-a-longitudinal-study
#10
Brigitte Vugs, Marc Hendriks, Juliane Cuperus, Harry Knoors, Ludo Verhoeven
Purpose: This longitudinal study examined differences in the development of working memory (WM) between children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing (TD) children. Further, it explored to what extent language at ages 7-8 years could be predicted by measures of language and/or WM at ages 4-5 years. Method: Thirty children with SLI and 33 TD children who were previously examined on measures of WM and language at ages 4-5 years (T1) were reexamined at ages 7-8 years (T2)...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114764/understanding-bilingual-word-learning-the-role-of-phonotactic-probability-and-phonological-neighborhood-density
#11
Vishnu Kk Nair, Britta Biedermann, Lyndsey Nickels
Purpose: Previous research has shown that the language-learning mechanism is affected by bilingualism resulting in a novel word learning advantage for bilingual speakers. However, less is known about the factors that might influence this advantage. This article reports an investigation of 2 factors: phonotactic probability and phonological neighborhood density. Method: Acquisition of 15 novel words varying in phonotactic probability and phonological neighborhood density was examined in high-proficiency, early onset, Mandarin-English bilinguals and English monolinguals...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106884/impact-of-socioeconomic-factors-on-paediatric-cochlear-implant-outcomes
#12
Shalabh Sharma, Khyati Bhatia, Satinder Singh, Asish Kumar Lahiri, Asha Aggarwal
OBJECTIVES: The study was aimed at evaluating the impact of certain socioeconomic factors such as family income, level of parents' education, distance between the child's home and auditory verbal therapy clinic, and age of the child at implantation on postoperative cochlear implant outcomes. METHODS: Children suffering from congenital bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss and a chronologic age of 4 years or younger at the time of implantation were included in the study...
November 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104930/brain-and-behavioral-assessment-of-executive-functions-for-self-regulating-levels-of-language-in-reading-brain
#13
Virginia W Berninger, Todd L Richards, Robert D Abbott
This brief research report examines brain-behavioral relationships specific to levels of language in the complex reading brain. The first specific aim was to examine prior findings for significant fMRI connectivity from four seeds (left precuneus, left occipital temporal, left supramarginal, left inferior frontal) for each of four levels of language-subword, word (word-specific spelling or affixed words), syntax (with and without homonym foils or affix foils), and multi-sentence text to identify significant fMRI connectivity (a) unique to the lower level of language when compared to the immediately higher adjacent level of language across subword-word, word-syntax, and syntax-text comparisons; and (b) involving a brain region associated with executive functions...
November 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099664/acquisition-of-social-support-and-linguistic-characteristics-of-social-media-posts-about-young-adult-cancer
#14
Echo L Warner, Lee Ellington, Anne C Kirchhoff, Kristin G Cloyes
PURPOSE: Social media (SM) is a burgeoning source of social support for young adults (YAs). We explored the language used to communicate about YA cancer on Instagram and for indicators of social support (i.e., number of likes and comments). METHODS: Instagram posts using #youngadultcancer were randomly selected (N = 50). Text and hashtags were collected, and posts were coded for gender (female and male), treatment status (active treatment and survivorship), type of user (individual and organization), and caregiver status (yes and no)...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098514/parents-reading-history-as-an-indicator-of-risk-for-reading-difficulties
#15
A Giménez, A Ortiz, M López-Zamora, A Sánchez, J L Luque
Children from families whose members have reading impairments are found to be poorer performers, take less advantage of instruction, and require more time to reach the reading level of children whose relatives are good readers. As a family's reading history may not be available, a self-report of reading abilities is used to identify children's background. In this paper, we explored the contribution of phonological, literacy, and linguistic abilities and reported parental reading abilities to predict reading achievement at the end of the school year in a Spanish sample...
November 2, 2017: Annals of Dyslexia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096235/what-drives-young-children-to-over-imitate-investigating-the-effects-of-age-context-action-type-and-transitivity
#16
Zanna Clay, Harriet Over, Claudio Tennie
Imitation underlies many traits thought to characterize our species, which includes the transmission and acquisition of language, material culture, norms, rituals, and conventions. From early childhood, humans show an intriguing willingness to imitate behaviors, even those that have no obvious function. This phenomenon, known as "over-imitation," is thought to explain some of the key differences between human cultures as compared with those of nonhuman animals. Here, we used a single integrative paradigm to simultaneously investigate several key factors proposed to shape children's over-imitation: age, context, transitivity, and action type...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094348/child-directed-speech-is-infrequent-in-a-forager-farmer-population-a-time-allocation-study
#17
Alejandrina Cristia, Emmanuel Dupoux, Michael Gurven, Jonathan Stieglitz
This article provides an estimation of how frequently, and from whom, children aged 0-11 years (Ns between 9 and 24) receive one-on-one verbal input among Tsimane forager-horticulturalists of lowland Bolivia. Analyses of systematic daytime behavioral observations reveal < 1 min per daylight hour is spent talking to children younger than 4 years of age, which is 4 times less than estimates for others present at the same time and place. Adults provide a majority of the input at 0-3 years of age but not afterward...
November 2, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093659/closed-loop-experiment-manager-clem-an-open-and-inexpensive-solution-for-multichannel-electrophysiological-recordings-and-closed-loop-experiments
#18
Hananel Hazan, Noam E Ziv
There is growing need for multichannel electrophysiological systems that record from and interact with neuronal systems in near real-time. Such systems are needed, for example, for closed loop, multichannel electrophysiological/optogenetic experimentation in vivo and in a variety of other neuronal preparations, or for developing and testing neuro-prosthetic devices, to name a few. Furthermore, there is a need for such systems to be inexpensive, reliable, user friendly, easy to set-up, open and expandable, and possess long life cycles in face of rapidly changing computing environments...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090077/distant-supervision-with-transductive-learning-for-adverse-drug-reaction-identification-from-electronic-medical-records
#19
Siriwon Taewijit, Thanaruk Theeramunkong, Mitsuru Ikeda
Information extraction and knowledge discovery regarding adverse drug reaction (ADR) from large-scale clinical texts are very useful and needy processes. Two major difficulties of this task are the lack of domain experts for labeling examples and intractable processing of unstructured clinical texts. Even though most previous works have been conducted on these issues by applying semisupervised learning for the former and a word-based approach for the latter, they face with complexity in an acquisition of initial labeled data and ignorance of structured sequence of natural language...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089910/developmental-constraints-on-learning-artificial-grammars-with-fixed-flexible-and-free-word-order
#20
Iga Nowak, Giosuè Baggio
Human learning, although highly flexible and efficient, is constrained in ways that facilitate or impede the acquisition of certain systems of information. Some such constraints, active during infancy and childhood, have been proposed to account for the apparent ease with which typically developing children acquire language. In a series of experiments, we investigated the role of developmental constraints on learning artificial grammars with a distinction between shorter and relatively frequent words ('function words,' F-words) and longer and less frequent words ('content words,' C-words)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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