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Language acquisition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813071/content-validation-clarity-relevance-reliability-and-internal-consistency-of-enunciative-signs-of-language-acquisition
#1
Anelise Henrich Crestani, Anaelena Bragança de Moraes, Ana Paula Ramos de Souza
Purpose: To analyze the results of the validation of building enunciative signs of language acquisition for children aged 3 to 12 months. Methods: The signs were built based on mechanisms of language acquisition in an enunciative perspective and on clinical experience with language disorders. The signs were submitted to judgment of clarity and relevance by a sample of six experts, doctors in linguistic in with knowledge of psycholinguistics and language clinic. In the validation of reliability, two judges/evaluators helped to implement the instruments in videos of 20% of the total sample of mother-infant dyads using the inter-evaluator method...
August 10, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812316/literacy-acquisition-influences-children-s-rapid-automatized-naming
#2
Robin L Peterson, Anne B Arnett, Bruce F Pennington, Brian Byrne, Stefan Samuelsson, Richard K Olson
Previous research has established that learning to read improves children's performance on reading-related phonological tasks, including phoneme awareness (PA) and nonword repetition. Few studies have investigated whether literacy acquisition also promotes children's rapid automatized naming (RAN). We tested the hypothesis that literacy acquisition should influence RAN in an international, longitudinal population sample of twins. Cross-lagged path models evaluated the relationships among literacy, PA, and RAN across four time points from pre-kindergarten through grade 4...
August 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810135/is-processing-of-symbols-and-words-influenced-by-writing-system-evidence-from-chinese-korean-english-and-greek
#3
Angeliki Altani, George K Georgiou, Ciping Deng, Jeung-Ryeul Cho, Katerina Katopodi, Wei Wei, Athanassios Protopapas
We examined cross-linguistic effects in the relationship between serial and discrete versions of digit naming and word reading. In total, 113 Mandarin-speaking Chinese children, 100 Korean children, 112 English-speaking Canadian children, and 108 Greek children in Grade 3 were administered tasks of serial and discrete naming of words and digits. Interrelations among tasks indicated that the link between rapid naming and reading is largely determined by the format of the tasks across orthographies. Multigroup path analyses with discrete and serial word reading as dependent variables revealed commonalities as well as significant differences between writing systems...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806599/resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-anterior-striatum-and-prefrontal-cortex-predicts-reading-performance-in-school-age-children
#4
Sarael Alcauter, Liliana García-Mondragón, Zeus Gracia-Tabuenca, Martha B Moreno, Juan J Ortiz, Fernando A Barrios
The current study investigated the neural basis of reading performance in 60 school-age Spanish-speaking children, aged 6 to 9years. By using a data-driven approach and an automated matching procedure, we identified a left-lateralized resting state network that included typical language regions (Wernicke's and Broca's regions), prefrontal cortex, pre- and post-central gyri, superior and middle temporal gyri, cerebellum, and subcortical regions, and explored its relevance for reading performance (accuracy, comprehension and speed)...
August 11, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803620/language-growth-in-english-monolingual-and-spanish-english-bilingual-children-from-2-5-to-5-years
#5
Erika Hoff, Krystal M Ribot
OBJECTIVE: To describe the trajectories of English and Spanish language growth in typically developing children from bilingual homes and compare those with the trajectories of English growth in children from monolingual homes, to assess effects of dual language exposure on language growth in typically developing children. STUDY DESIGN: Expressive vocabularies were assessed at 6-month intervals from age 30 to 60 months, in English for monolinguals and English and Spanish for bilinguals...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803559/rethinking-the-idea-of-late-autism-spectrum-disorder-onset
#6
Elizabeth C Bacon, Eric Courchesne, Cynthia Carter Barnes, Debra Cha, Sunny Pence, Laura Schreibman, Aubyn C Stahmer, Karen Pierce
A common theory of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom onset includes toddlers who do not display symptoms until well after age 2, which are termed late-onset ASD cases. Objectives were to analyze differences in clinical phenotype between toddlers identified as ASD at initial evaluations (early diagnosed) versus those initially considered nonspectrum, then later identified as ASD (late diagnosed). Two hundred seventy-three toddlers recruited from the general population based on a failed developmental screening form or parent or physician concerns were followed longitudinally from 12 months and identified as early- and late-diagnosed cases of ASD, language delayed, or typically developing...
August 14, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800441/digital-image-analysis-protocol-for-determining-the-radiocarpal-joint-space-in-the-rheumatoid-arthritic-wrist
#7
S J Wilkinson, A Naylor, K L Goh
This paper describes a simple protocol for measuring the joint space of the rheumatoid arthritic (RA) wrist from projection radiographs. The protocol is implemented using a computer algorithm based upon the Interactive Data Language platform. The computerized algorithm features a user-friendly graphical interface to aid the operator to measure joint space parameters, namely distance and area, of the wrist vertebral morphometry at the radiocarpal region. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) radiograph of a standard hand and wrist phantom was evaluated using the measurement protocol to determine the accuracy and precision of the protocol...
August 1, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798703/neural-correlates-of-morphology-acquisition-through-a-statistical-learning-paradigm
#8
Michelle Sandoval, Dianne Patterson, Huanping Dai, Christopher J Vance, Elena Plante
The neural basis of statistical learning as it occurs over time was explored with stimuli drawn from a natural language (Russian nouns). The input reflected the "rules" for marking categories of gendered nouns, without making participants explicitly aware of the nature of what they were to learn. Participants were scanned while listening to a series of gender-marked nouns during four sequential scans, and were tested for their learning immediately after each scan. Although participants were not told the nature of the learning task, they exhibited learning after their initial exposure to the stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798672/learning-morse-code-alters-microstructural-properties-in-the-inferior-longitudinal-fasciculus-a-dti-study
#9
Lara Schlaffke, Alexander Leemans, Lauren M Schweizer, Sebastian Ocklenburg, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke
Learning relies on neuroplasticity, which has mainly been studied in gray matter (GM). However, there is mounting evidence indicating a critical role of white matter changes involved in learning processes. One of the most important learning processes in human development is language acquisition. However, due to the length of this learning process, it has been notoriously difficult to investigate the underlying neuroplastic changes. Here, we report a novel learning paradigm to assess the role of white matter plasticity for language acquisition...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796874/do-the-hard-things-first-a-randomized-controlled-trial-testing-the-effects-of-exemplar-selection-on-generalization-following-therapy-for-grammatical-morphology
#10
Amanda Jean Owen Van Horne, Marc Fey, Maura Curran
Purpose: Complexity-based approaches to treatment have been gaining popularity in domains such as phonology and aphasia but have not yet been tested in child morphological acquisition. In this study, we examined whether beginning treatment with easier-to-inflect (easy first) or harder-to-inflect (hard first) verbs led to greater progress in the production of regular past-tense -ed by children with developmental language disorder. Method: Eighteen children with developmental language disorder (ages 4-10) participated in a randomized controlled trial (easy first, N = 10, hard first, N = 8)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776756/longitudinal-vocabulary-development-in-australian-urban-aboriginal-children-protective-and-risk-factors
#11
K Short, P Eadie, J Descallar, E Comino, L Kemp
BACKGROUND: Vocabulary is a key component of language that can impact on children's future literacy and communication. The gap between Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children's reading and academic outcomes is well reported and similar to Indigenous/non-Indigenous gaps in other nations. Determining factors that influence vocabulary acquisition over time and may be responsive to treatment is important for improving Aboriginal children's communication and academic outcomes. AIM: To determine what factors influence Australian urban Aboriginal children's receptive vocabulary acquisition and whether any of these are risks or protective for vocabulary development...
August 3, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774649/the-dynamic-imprint-of-word-learning-on-the-dorsal-language-pathway
#12
María-Ángeles Palomar-García, Ana Sanjuán, Elisenda Bueichekú, Noelia Ventura-Campos, César Ávila
According to Hickok and Poeppel (2007), the acquisition of new vocabulary rests on the dorsal language pathway connecting auditory and motor areas. The present study tested this hypothesis longitudinally by measuring BOLD signal changes during a verbal repetition task and modulation of resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) in the dorsal stream. Thirty-five healthy participants, divided into trained and control groups, completed fMRI sessions on days 1, 10, and 24. Between days 1 and 10, the trained group learned 84 new pseudowords associated with 84 native words...
July 31, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772137/action-verb-fluency-deficits-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-linking-language-cognition-and-interpersonal-functioning
#13
Daria Smirnova, Melanie Clark, Assen Jablensky, Johanna C Badcock
Deficits in action (verb) fluency have previously been reported in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The degree to which this reflects difficulties generating verbs in different semantic categories is unknown. Here, action fluency responses of 46 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 76 healthy controls were classified as action or mental state verbs, using well-established taxonomies. The word length, frequency, age of acquisition, valence and concreteness of the verbs produced were also examined...
July 25, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770642/playing-with-fire-effects-of-negative-mood-induction-and-working-memory-on-vocabulary-acquisition
#14
Zachary F Miller, Jessica K Fox, Jason S Moser, Aline Godfroid
We investigated the impact of emotions on learning vocabulary in an unfamiliar language to better understand affective influences in foreign language acquisition. Seventy native English speakers learned new vocabulary in either a negative or a neutral emotional state. Participants also completed two sets of working memory tasks to examine the potential mediating role of working memory. Results revealed that participants exposed to negative stimuli exhibited difficulty in retrieving and correctly pairing English words with Indonesian words, as reflected in a lower performance on the prompted recall tests and the free recall measure...
August 3, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768183/learning-and-using-knowledge-about-what-other-people-do-and-don-t-know-despite-amnesia
#15
Si On Yoon, Melissa C Duff, Sarah Brown-Schmidt
Successful communication requires keeping track of what other people do and do not know, and how this differs from our own knowledge. Here we ask how knowledge of what others know is stored in memory. We take a neuropsychological approach, comparing healthy adults to patients with severe declarative memory impairment (amnesia). We evaluate whether this memory impairment disrupts the ability to successfully acquire and use knowledge about what other people know when communicating with them. We tested participants in a referential communication task in which the participants described a series of abstract "tangram" images for a partner...
July 13, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764813/an-ontology-driven-tool-for-structured-data-acquisition-using-web-forms
#16
Rafael S Gonçalves, Samson W Tu, Csongor I Nyulas, Michael J Tierney, Mark A Musen
BACKGROUND: Structured data acquisition is a common task that is widely performed in biomedicine. However, current solutions for this task are far from providing a means to structure data in such a way that it can be automatically employed in decision making (e.g., in our example application domain of clinical functional assessment, for determining eligibility for disability benefits) based on conclusions derived from acquired data (e.g., assessment of impaired motor function). To use data in these settings, we need it structured in a way that can be exploited by automated reasoning systems, for instance, in the Web Ontology Language (OWL); the de facto ontology language for the Web...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758118/human-brain-mapping-of-visual-script-familiarity-between-phonological-and-logographic-language-3%C3%A2-t-functional-mri-study
#17
Nambeom Kim, Jongho Kim, Chang-Ki Kang, Chan-A Park, Mi-Ra Lim, Young-Bo Kim, Byung-Gee Bak
Neurolinguistic circuitry for two different scripts of language, such as phonological scripts (PhonoS) versus logographic scripts (LogoS) (e.g., English versus Chinese, resp.), recruits segregated neural pathways according to orthographic regularity (OrthoR). The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of VSF for cortical representation according to different OrthoR to represent Hangul versus Hanja as PhonoS versus LogoS, respectively. A total of 24 right-handed, native Korean undergraduate students with the first language of PhonoS and the second language of LogoS were divided into high- or low-competent groups for L2 of LogoS...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756551/family-centered-services-for-children-with-asd-and-limited-speech-the-experiences-of-parents-and-speech-language-pathologists
#18
Kelsey Mandak, Janice Light
Although family-centered services have long been discussed as essential in providing successful services to families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ideal implementation is often lacking. This study aimed to increase understanding of how families with children with ASD and limited speech receive services from speech-language pathologists (SLPs). 99 parents of children with ASD and limited speech and 211 SLPs who served children with ASD and limited speech completed questionnaires measuring their experiences with the provision of family-centered services...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750494/brain-pet-and-functional-mri-why-simultaneously-using-hybrid-pet-mr-systems
#19
Diego Cecchin, Alessandro Palombit, Marco Castellaro, Erica Silvestri, Franco Bui, Henryk Barthel, Osama Sabri, Maurizio Corbetta, Alessandra Bertoldo
INTRODUCTION: In the last 20 years growing attention has been devoted to multimodal imaging. The recent literature is rich of clinical and research studies that have been performed using different imaging modalities on both separate and integrated Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Magnetic Resonance (MR) scanners. However, today, hybrid PET/MR systems measure signals related to brain structure, metabolism, neurochemistry, perfusion, and neuronal activity simultaneously, i.e. in the same physiological conditions...
July 27, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750415/influences-of-phonological-context-on-tense-marking-in-spanish-english-dual-language-learners
#20
Philip N Combiths, Jessica A Barlow, Irina Potapova, Sonja Pruitt-Lord
Purpose: The emergence of tense-morpheme marking during language acquisition is highly variable, which confounds the use of tense marking as a diagnostic indicator of language impairment in linguistically diverse populations. In this study, we seek to better understand tense-marking patterns in young bilingual children by comparing phonological influences on marking of 2 word-final tense morphemes. Method: In spontaneous connected speech samples from 10 Spanish-English dual language learners aged 56-66 months (M = 61...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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