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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342382/words-cluster-phonetically-beyond-phonotactic-regularities
#1
Isabelle Dautriche, Kyle Mahowald, Edward Gibson, Anne Christophe, Steven T Piantadosi
Recent evidence suggests that cognitive pressures associated with language acquisition and use could affect the organization of the lexicon. On one hand, consistent with noisy channel models of language (e.g., Levy, 2008), the phonological distance between wordforms should be maximized to avoid perceptual confusability (a pressure for dispersion). On the other hand, a lexicon with high phonological regularity would be simpler to learn, remember and produce (e.g., Monaghan et al., 2011) (a pressure for clumpiness)...
March 22, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340356/acquiring-variation-in-an-artificial-language-children-and-adults-are-sensitive-to-socially-conditioned-linguistic-variation
#2
Anna Samara, Kenny Smith, Helen Brown, Elizabeth Wonnacott
Languages exhibit sociolinguistic variation, such that adult native speakers condition the usage of linguistic variants on social context, gender, and ethnicity, among other cues. While the existence of this kind of socially conditioned variation is well-established, less is known about how it is acquired. Studies of naturalistic language use by children provide various examples where children's production of sociolinguistic variants appears to be conditioned on similar factors to adults' production, but it is difficult to determine whether this reflects knowledge of sociolinguistic conditioning or systematic differences in the input to children from different social groups...
March 21, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339140/acquisition-of-voice-onset-time-in-toddlers-at-high-and-low-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Karen Chenausky, Helen Tager-Flusberg
Although language delay is common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research is equivocal on whether speech development is affected. We used acoustic methods to investigate the existence of sub-perceptual differences in the speech of toddlers who developed ASD. Development of the distinction between b and p was prospectively tracked in 22 toddlers at low risk for ASD (LRC), 22 at high risk for ASD without ASD (HRA-), and 11 at high risk for ASD who were diagnosed with ASD at 36 months (HRA+). Voice onset time (VOT), the main acoustic difference between b and p, was measured from spontaneously produced words at 18, 24, and 36 months...
March 24, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335558/modeling-the-development-of-audiovisual-cue-integration-in-speech-perception
#4
Laura M Getz, Elke R Nordeen, Sarah C Vrabic, Joseph C Toscano
Adult speech perception is generally enhanced when information is provided from multiple modalities. In contrast, infants do not appear to benefit from combining auditory and visual speech information early in development. This is true despite the fact that both modalities are important to speech comprehension even at early stages of language acquisition. How then do listeners learn how to process auditory and visual information as part of a unified signal? In the auditory domain, statistical learning processes provide an excellent mechanism for acquiring phonological categories...
March 21, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334346/directional-asymmetries-in-vowel-perception-of-adult-nonnative-listeners-do-not-change-over-time-with-language-experience
#5
Buddhamas Pralle Kriengwatana, Paola Escudero
Purpose: This study tested an assumption of the Natural Referent Vowel (Polka & Bohn, 2011) framework, namely, that directional asymmetries in adult vowel perception can be influenced by language experience. Method: Data from participants reported in Escudero and Williams (2014) were analyzed. Spanish participants categorized the Dutch vowels /aː/ and /ɑ/ in 2 separate sessions: before and after vowel distributional training. Sessions were 12 months apart. Categorization was assessed using the XAB task, where on each trial participants heard 3 sounds sequentially (first X, then A, then B) and had to decide whether X was more similar to A or B...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324696/online-neural-monitoring-of-statistical-learning
#6
Laura J Batterink, Ken A Paller
The extraction of patterns in the environment plays a critical role in many types of human learning, from motor skills to language acquisition. This process is known as statistical learning. Here we propose that statistical learning has two dissociable components: (1) perceptual binding of individual stimulus units into integrated composites and (2) storing those integrated representations for later use. Statistical learning is typically assessed using post-learning tasks, such that the two components are conflated...
February 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323353/multimodal-word-meaning-induction-from-minimal-exposure-to-natural-text
#7
Angeliki Lazaridou, Marco Marelli, Marco Baroni
By the time they reach early adulthood, English speakers are familiar with the meaning of thousands of words. In the last decades, computational simulations known as distributional semantic models (DSMs) have demonstrated that it is possible to induce word meaning representations solely from word co-occurrence statistics extracted from a large amount of text. However, while these models learn in batch mode from large corpora, human word learning proceeds incrementally after minimal exposure to new words. In this study, we run a set of experiments investigating whether minimal distributional evidence from very short passages suffices to trigger successful word learning in subjects, testing their linguistic and visual intuitions about the concepts associated with new words...
March 21, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316348/new-skills-new-jobs-return-migration-skill-transfers-and-business-formation-in-mexico
#8
Jacqueline Maria Hagan, Joshua Wassink
Numerous studies have documented a high propensity for self-employment and business formation among return migrants relative to non-migrants. The literature points to the importance of remitted savings, migration duration, and number and types of jobs abroad for business formation upon return. Implicit in this scholarship is the assumption that migrants acquire not only financial capital, but also human capital, which expands their opportunities upon return. Empirical work has demonstrated how the transfer of formal human capital, such as language skills and professional credentials, influences the mobility pathways of professional return migrants...
November 2016: Social Problems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315157/economic-assimilation-and-skill-acquisition-evidence-from-the-occupational-sorting-of-childhood-immigrants
#9
Marigee Bacolod, Marcos A Rangel
We study the economic assimilation of childhood immigrants to the United States. The linguistic distance between English and the predominant language in one's country of birth interacted with age at arrival is shown to be closely connected to occupational sorting in adulthood. By applying big-data techniques to occupations' detailed skill requirements, we provide evidence that childhood immigrants from English-distant countries who arrived after the primary school years reveal comparative advantages in tasks distinct from those for which (close to) Anglophone immigrants are better suited...
March 17, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288369/phrasal-prosody-constrains-syntactic-analysis-in-toddlers
#10
Alex de Carvalho, Isabelle Dautriche, Isabelle Lin, Anne Christophe
This study examined whether phrasal prosody can impact toddlers' syntactic analysis. French noun-verb homophones were used to create locally ambiguous test sentences (e.g., using the homophone as a noun: [le bébésouris] [a bien mangé] - [the baby mouse] [ate well] or using it as a verb: [le bébé] [sourità sa maman] - [the baby] [smiles to his mother], where brackets indicate prosodic phrase boundaries). Although both sentences start with the same words (le-bebe-/suʁi/), they can be disambiguated by the prosodic boundary that either directly precedes the critical word /suʁi/ when it is a verb, or directly follows it when it is a noun...
March 10, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282845/extrinsic-feedback-and-upper-limb-motor-skill-learning-in-typically-developing-children-and-children-with-cerebral-palsy-review
#11
Maxime T Robert, Krithika Sambasivan, Mindy F Levin
BACKGROUND: Improvment of upper limb motor skills occurs through motor learning that can be enhanced by providing extrinsic feedback. Different types and frequencies of feedback are discussed but specific guidelines for use of feedback for motor learning in typically-developing (TD) children and children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) are not available. OBJECTIVE: Identify the most effective modalities and frequencies of feedback for improving upper limb motor skills in TD children and children with CP...
2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282483/polish-vocabulary-development-in-2-year-olds-comparisons-with-english-using-the-language-development-survey
#12
Leslie Rescorla, Holly Constants, Marta Bialecka-Pikul, Malgorzata Stepien-Nycz, Anna Ochal
Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare vocabulary size and composition in 2-year-olds learning Polish or English as measured by the Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989). Method: Participants were 199 Polish toddlers (M = 24.14 months, SD = 0.35) and 422 U.S. toddlers (M = 24.69 months, SD = 0.78). Results: Test-retest reliability was .92, internal consistency was .99, and concurrent validity was .55. Girls had higher vocabulary scores than boys...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280057/discourses-of-prejudice-in-the-professions-the-case-of-sign-languages
#13
Tom Humphries, Poorna Kushalnagar, Gaurav Mathur, Donna Jo Napoli, Carol Padden, Christian Rathmann, Scott Smith
There is no evidence that learning a natural human language is cognitively harmful to children. To the contrary, multilingualism has been argued to be beneficial to all. Nevertheless, many professionals advise the parents of deaf children that their children should not learn a sign language during their early years, despite strong evidence across many research disciplines that sign languages are natural human languages. Their recommendations are based on a combination of misperceptions about (1) the difficulty of learning a sign language, (2) the effects of bilingualism, and particularly bimodalism, (3) the bona fide status of languages that lack a written form, (4) the effects of a sign language on acquiring literacy, (5) the ability of technologies to address the needs of deaf children and (6) the effects that use of a sign language will have on family cohesion...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278741/the-role-of-motion-and-intensity-in-deaf-children-s-recognition-of-real-human-facial-expressions-of-emotion
#14
Anna C Jones, Roberto Gutierrez, Amanda K Ludlow
There is substantial evidence to suggest that deafness is associated with delays in emotion understanding, which has been attributed to delays in language acquisition and opportunities to converse. However, studies addressing the ability to recognise facial expressions of emotion have produced equivocal findings. The two experiments presented here attempt to clarify emotion recognition in deaf children by considering two aspects: the role of motion and the role of intensity in deaf children's emotion recognition...
February 14, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276975/hebb-repetition-effects-for-non-verbal-visual-sequences-determinants-of-sequence-acquisition
#15
Andrew J Johnson, Artur Dygacz, Christopher Miles
We report four experiments premised upon the work of Horton et al. [(2008). Hebb repetition effects in visual memory: The roles of verbal rehearsal and distinctiveness. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61(12), 1769-1777] and Page et al. [(2013). Repetition-spacing and item-overlap effects in the Hebb repetition task. Journal of Memory and Language, 69(4), 506-526], and explore conditions under which the visual Hebb repetition effect is observed. Experiment 1 showed that repetition learning is evident when the items comprising the non-repeated (filler) sequences and the repeated (Hebb) sequences are different (no-overlap)...
February 28, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261118/reversing-the-approach-to-null-subjects-a-perspective-from-language-acquisition
#16
Maia Duguine
This paper proposes a new model for null subjects, and focuses on its implications for language development. The literature on pro-drop generally considers that not allowing null subjects is, informally speaking, the "default" option in natural languages, and appeals to particular morphosyntactic mechanisms in order to account for those languages in which the subject can be omitted. Shifting the perspective, the inverse approach postulates that pro-drop is (almost) a default grammatical setting, and that non-pro-drop results from the intervention of independent factors that block pro-drop in the derivation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236728/language-plasticity-after-hemispherotomy-of-the-dominant-hemisphere-in-3-patients-implication-of-non-linguistic-networks
#17
Christine Bulteau, Isabelle Jambaqué, Catherine Chiron, Sebastian Rodrigo, Georg Dorfmüller, Olivier Dulac, Lucie Hertz-Pannier, Marion Noulhiane
The neural networks involved in language recovery following hemispherotomy of the dominant hemisphere after language acquisition in children remain poorly known. Twelve hemispherotomized children (mean age at surgery: 11.3years) with comparable post-operative neuropsychological patterns underwent multi-task language functional MRI. Three of them had recovered from an initial postoperative aphasia i.e., hemispherotomy was performed on the language-dominant hemisphere. Our main results revealed (1) perisylvian activations in all patients after either left or right hemispherotomy; (2) no differences in activations between groups regarding the side of hemispherotomy; (3) additional activations in pre-frontal (3/3) and hippocampal/parahippocampal and occipito-parietal (2/3) areas, when comparing language activation in each of the three subjects with hemispherotomy of the language-dominant hemisphere to the group of 9 non-dominant hemispherotomized patients...
February 22, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222332/acquisition-of-vowel-articulation-in-childhood-investigated-by-acoustic-to-articulatory-inversion
#18
Hiroki Oohashi, Hama Watanabe, Gentaro Taga
While the acoustical features of speech sounds in children have been extensively studied, limited information is available as to their articulation during speech production. Instead of directly measuring articulatory movements, this study used an acoustic-to-articulatory inversion model with scalable vocal tract size to estimate developmental changes in articulatory state during vowel production. Using a pseudo-inverse Jacobian matrix of a model mapping seven articulatory parameters to acoustic ones, the formant frequencies of each vowel produced by three Japanese children over time at ages between 6 and 60 months were transformed into articulatory parameters...
February 18, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221185/antipyretic-therapy-in-critically-ill-septic-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Anne M Drewry, Enyo A Ablordeppey, Ellen T Murray, Carolyn R T Stoll, Sonya R Izadi, Catherine M Dalton, Angela C Hardi, Susan A Fowler, Brian M Fuller, Graham A Colditz
OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis aimed to examine the impact of antipyretic therapy on mortality in critically ill septic adults. DATA SOURCES: Literature searches were implemented in Ovid Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, and ClinicalTrials.gov through February 2016. STUDY SELECTION: Inclusion criteria were observational or randomized studies of septic patients, evaluation of antipyretic treatment, mortality reported, and English-language version available...
February 17, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220477/parent-child-learning-interactions-a-review-of-the-literature-on-scaffolding
#20
Roni Mermelshtine
BACKGROUND: Scaffolding can be observed during learning-based interactions, when interventions by parents are adjusted according to children's observed abilities, with the main goal of enabling the child to work independently (Wood et al., 1976, Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, 17, 89). Such contingent instruction behaviours occur from infancy, and are said to be relevant for children's development of executive function, language acquisition, and cognitive and academic abilities...
February 21, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
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