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Language acquisition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087242/brains-for-birds-and-babies-neural-parallels-between-birdsong-and-speech-acquisition
#1
REVIEW
Jonathan Prather, Kazuo Okanoya, Johan J Bolhuis
Language as a computational cognitive mechanism appears to be unique to the human species. However, there are remarkable behavioral similarities between song learning in songbirds and speech acquisition in human infants that are absent in non-human primates. Here we review important neural parallels between birdsong and speech. In both cases there are separate but continually interacting neural networks that underlie vocal production, sensorimotor learning, and auditory perception and memory. As in the case of human speech, neural activity related to birdsong learning is lateralized, and mirror neurons linking perception and performance may contribute to sensorimotor learning...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079529/leveraging-the-skills-of-nurses-and-the-power-of-language-nutrition-to-ensure-a-better-future-for-children
#2
Ashley Darcy Mahoney, Lauren Head Zauche, Sunny Hallowell, Arianne Weldon, Jennifer Stapel-Wax
BACKGROUND: Early language exposure is critical for language acquisition and significantly influences a child's literacy skills. However, preterm infants may experience language deprivation in the neonatal intensive care unit. Nurses are vital to helping parents understand their critical role in early language development. PURPOSE: To discuss the impact of language-rich interactions and interventions that promote early language exposure, or Language Nutrition, by parents and caregivers on the long-term developmental, language, and educational outcomes of high-risk infants...
January 11, 2017: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077259/the-growth-of-language-universal-grammar-experience-and-principles-of-computation
#3
REVIEW
Charles Yang, Stephen Crain, Robert C Berwick, Noam Chomsky, Johan J Bolhuis
YANG, C., S. Crain, R.C. Berwick, N. Chomsky and J.J. Bolhuis. The growth of language. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV VOL (ISSUE) XXX-XXX, 2016. Human infants develop language remarkably rapidly and without overt instruction. We argue that the distinctive ontogenesis of child language arises from the interplay of three factors: domain-specific principles of language (Universal Grammar), external experience, and properties of non-linguistic domains of cognition including general learning mechanisms and principles of efficient computation...
January 7, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076003/reducing-functional-mr-imaging-acquisition-times-by-optimizing-workflow
#4
Wilson B Chwang, Michael Iv, Jason Smith, Aleksandrs Kalnins, Jake Mickelsen, Roland Bammer, Dominik Fleischmann, David B Larson, Max Wintermark, Michael Zeineh
Functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a complex, specialized examination that is able to noninvasively measure information critical to patient care such as hemispheric language lateralization ( 1 ). Diagnostic functional MR imaging requires extensive patient interaction as well as the coordinated efforts of the entire health care team. We observed in our practice at an academic center that the times to perform functional MR imaging examinations were excessively lengthy, making scheduling of the examination difficult...
January 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067419/how-to-create-a-successful-reader-milestones-in-reading-development-from-birth-to-adolescence-the-contribution-of-language-cognition-and-literacy-to-reading-development
#5
REVIEW
Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus, Rachelle Schmitz, John S Hutton, Jayna Schumacher
: Reading is one of the most important academic abilities that establishes the foundation for a child's success in school. Therefore, early and accurate diagnosis of reading challenges is crucial for prevention of later academic failure. One challenge in early detection of reading difficulties is that the ability to read typically is acquired explicitly when a child is 4-6 years of age. However, reading ability relies on development of more basic abilities prior to reading acquisition, starting from birth...
January 9, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067186/minding-the-gaps-literacy-enhances-lexical-segmentation-in-children-learning-to-read
#6
Naomi Havron, Inbal Arnon
Can emergent literacy impact the size of the linguistic units children attend to? We examined children's ability to segment multiword sequences before and after they learned to read, in order to disentangle the effect of literacy and age on segmentation. We found that early readers were better at segmenting multiword units (after controlling for age, cognitive, and linguistic variables), and that improvement in literacy skills between the two sessions predicted improvement in segmentation abilities. Together, these findings suggest that literacy acquisition, rather than age, enhanced segmentation...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059462/the-infant-s-developmental-path-in-phonological-acquisition
#7
Daniel Swingley
Research on how language acquisition begins has been fragmented both in terms of scientific communities and in terms of the phenomena that are taken to characterize developmental progress. In her article, Marilyn Vihman argues for an integrative approach that takes the child's efforts at speech production as primary, and notes that infants' knowledge of how words sound may accrue over a protracted period developmentally. Here, I briefly discuss how reconceptualization of the process can help integrate perspectives previously at odds...
February 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056104/sleep-driven-computations-in-speech-processing
#8
Rebecca L A Frost, Padraic Monaghan
Acquiring language requires segmenting speech into individual words, and abstracting over those words to discover grammatical structure. However, these tasks can be conflicting-on the one hand requiring memorisation of precise sequences that occur in speech, and on the other requiring a flexible reconstruction of these sequences to determine the grammar. Here, we examine whether speech segmentation and generalisation of grammar can occur simultaneously-with the conflicting requirements for these tasks being over-come by sleep-related consolidation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053920/influence-of-adolescents-physical-activity-on-bone-mineral-acquisition-a-systematic-review-article
#9
REVIEW
Mohamed S Zulfarina, Ahmad M Sharkawi, Zaris-Sm Aqilah-S N, Sabarul-Afian Mokhtar, Shuid A Nazrun, Isa Naina-Mohamed
BACKGROUND: This study conducted to examine and to provide a systematic literature over the influence of adolescents' physical activity (PA) in maximizing`s peak bone mass (PBM). PBM or the 'bone bank' is an important determinant in achieving healthy bone. PA is one of the bone's lifestyle contributors and high PBM is one of the major strategies for preventing osteoporosis. METHODS: A computerized literature search using Medline (Ovid) and Scopus were conducted to identify relevant observational studies on the influence of different level of PA on bone acquisition among the healthy adolescent population...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048312/su-g-brb-02-an-open-source-software-analysis-library-for-linear-accelerator-quality-assurance
#10
J Kerns, D Yaldo
PURPOSE: Routine linac quality assurance (QA) tests have become complex enough to require automation of most test analyses. A new data analysis software library was built that allows physicists to automate routine linear accelerator quality assurance tests. The package is open source, code tested, and benchmarked. METHODS: Images and data were generated on a TrueBeam linac for the following routine QA tests: VMAT, starshot, CBCT, machine logs, Winston Lutz, and picket fence...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046712/mo-fg-202-03-efficient-data-collection-of-continuous-2d-and-discrete-relative-dosimetric-data-for-annual-linac-qa-using-truebeam-developer-mode-and-a-1d-scanning-tank
#11
N Knutson, M Schmidt, N Nguyen, M Belley, M Price
PURPOSE: To develop a method to exploit real-time dynamic machine and couch parameter control during linear accelerator (LINAC) beam delivery to facilitate efficient performance of TG-142 suggested, Annual LINAC QA tests. METHODS: Varian's TrueBeam Developer Mode (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) facilitates control of Varian's TrueBeam LINAC via instructions provided in Extensible Markup Language (XML) files. This allows machine and couch parameters to be varied dynamically, in real-time, during beam delivery...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040035/infant-directed-speech-reduces-english-learning-infants-preference-for-trochaic-words
#12
Yuanyuan Wang, Christopher S Lee, Derek M Houston
Over the past couple of decades, research has established that (1) infant-directed speech (IDS) facilitates speech, language, and cognitive development; and (2) infants are sensitive to the rhythmic structures in the ambient language. However, little is known about the role of IDS in infants' processing of rhythmic structures. Building on these two lines of research, whether IDS enhances infants' sensitivity to the predominant stress pattern (trochaic) in English was asked. To address this question, 9-month-old American infants were familiarized and tested with both trochaic (e...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040029/categorical-perception-of-lexical-tones-by-english-learners-of-mandarin-chinese
#13
Guannan Shen, Karen Froud
Whether native speakers of non-tonal languages can acquire categorical representations of lexical tones remains controversial. This study investigates the acquisition of lexical tone categories by native English speakers learning Mandarin Chinese as a foreign language by comparing the categorical perception (CP) of lexical tones between three groups of listeners: (1) native English speakers who had taken advanced Mandarin courses in colleges; (2) native English speakers with no knowledge of Mandarin Chinese; and (3) native Mandarin speakers...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032454/who-s-my-little-monkey-effects-of-infant-directed-speech-on-visual-retention-in-infant-rhesus-macaques
#14
Emily M Slonecker, Elizabeth A Simpson, Stephen J Suomi, Annika Paukner
Both human and nonhuman primate adults use infant-directed facial and vocal expressions across many contexts when interacting with infants (e.g., feeding, playing). This infant-oriented style of communication, known as infant-directed speech (IDS), seems to benefit human infants in numerous ways, including facilitating language acquisition. Given the variety of contexts in which adults use IDS, we hypothesized that IDS supports learning beyond the linguistic domain and that these benefits may extend to nonhuman primates...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032442/reading-comprehension-and-immersion-schooling-evidence-from-component-skills
#15
Laura Birke Hansen, Julia Morales, Pedro Macizo, Jon Andoni Duñabeitia, David Saldaña, Manuel Carreiras, Luis J Fuentes, M Teresa Bajo
The present research aims to assess literacy acquisition in children becoming bilingual via second language immersion in school. We adopt a cognitive components approach, assessing text-level reading comprehension, a complex literacy skill, as well as underlying cognitive and linguistic components in 144 children aged 7 to 14 (72 immersion bilinguals, 72 controls). Using principal component analysis, a nuanced pattern of results was observed: although emergent bilinguals lag behind their monolingual counterparts on measures of linguistic processing, they showed enhanced performance on a memory and reasoning component...
January 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029176/robot-assisted-surgery-in-gynecological-oncology-current-status-and-controversies-on-patient-benefits-cost-and-surgeon-conditions-a-systematic-review
#16
Steffen E Kristensen, Berit J Mosgaard, Mikkel Rosendahl, Tórur Dalsgaard, Signe F Bjørn, Ligita P Frøding, Henrik Kehlet, Claus K Høgdall, Henrik Lajer
INTRODUCTION: Robot-assisted surgery has become more widespread in gynecologic oncology. The purpose of this systematic review is to present current knowledge on robot-assisted surgery, and to clarify and discuss controversies that have arisen alongside the development and deployment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A database search in PubMed and EMBASE was performed up until March 4th 2016. The search strategy was developed in collaboration with an information specialist, and by application of the PRISMA guidelines...
December 28, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018146/pancreatic-cancer-a-mis-interpreter-of-the-epigenetic-language
#17
REVIEW
Eriko Iguchi, Stephanie L Safgren, David L Marks, Rachel L Olson, Martin E Fernandez-Zapico
Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer mortality in the U.S. with close to 40,000 deaths per year. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents approximately 90 percent of all pancreatic cancer cases and is the most lethal form of the disease. Current therapies for PDAC are ineffective and most patients cannot be treated by surgical resection. Most research efforts have primarily focused on how genetic alterations cause, alter progression, contribute to diagnosis, and influence PDAC management...
December 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017249/slowly-progressive-d-bifunctional-protein-deficiency-with-survival-to-adulthood-diagnosed-by-whole-exome-sequencing
#18
Takashi Matsukawa, Kagari Mano Koshi, Jun Mitsui, Taro Bannai, Miho Kawabe, Hiroyuki Ishiura, Yasuo Terao, Jun Shimizu, Keiko Murayama, Jun Yoshimura, Koichiro Doi, Shinichi Morishita, Shoji Tsuji, Jun Goto
d-Bifunctional protein (DBP) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation caused by mutations in HSD17B4. It is typically fatal by the age of two years with symptom onset during the neonatal period, and survival until late childhood is rare. We herein report the case of a patient with DBP deficiency surviving until adulthood, who showed severe sensorineural deafness, disturbances in language acquisition, slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy. This patient, in whom findings of prior investigations were nondiagnostic, had been followed up as having an early-onset spinocerebellar degeneration of unknown etiology...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004630/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-preoperative-planning-in-brain-tumour-surgery
#19
Jonathan C Lau, Suzanne E Kosteniuk, Frank Bihari, Joseph F Megyesi
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is being increasingly used for the preoperative evaluation of patients with brain tumours. METHODS: The study is a retrospective chart review investigating the use of clinical fMRI from 2002 through 2013 in the preoperative evaluation of brain tumour patients. Baseline demographic and clinical data were collected. The specific fMRI protocols used for each patient were recorded. RESULTS: Sixty patients were identified over the 12-year period...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001276/effects-of-prematurity-on-language-acquisition-and-auditory-maturation-a-systematic-review
#20
Inaê Costa Rechia, Luciéle Dias Oliveira, Anelise Henrich Crestani, Eliara Pinto Vieira Biaggio, Ana Paula Ramos de Souza
Purpose: To verify which damages prematurity causes to hearing and language. Research strategies: We used the decriptors language/linguagem, hearing/audição, prematurity/prematuridade in databases LILACS, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and Scielo. Selection criteria: randomized controlled trials, non-randomized intervention studies and descriptive studies (cross-sectional, cohort, case-control projects). Data analysis: The articles were assessed independently by two authors according to the selection criteria...
November 2016: CoDAS
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