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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719394/cochlear-implantation-in-children-under-12-months-of-age
#1
Samantha McKinney
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Children with congenital hearing loss are being identified earlier, leading to earlier intervention. Current US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) criteria states a child must be 12 months or older for cochlear implantation. The purpose of this article is to review recent publications regarding the benefits of implanting infants under 12 months of age. Topics include: safety and efficacy of surgery, speech and language acquisition outcomes, audiologic components, and limitations...
July 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711720/onset-age-of-l2-acquisition-influences-language-network-in-early-and-late-cantonese-mandarin-bilinguals
#2
Xiaojin Liu, Liu Tu, Junjing Wang, Bo Jiang, Wei Gao, Ximin Pan, Meng Li, Miao Zhong, Zhenzhen Zhu, Meiqi Niu, Yanyan Li, Ling Zhao, Xiaoxi Chen, Chang Liu, Zhi Lu, Ruiwang Huang
Early second language (L2) experience influences the neural organization of L2 in neuro-plastic terms. Previous studies tried to reveal these plastic effects of age of second language acquisition (AoA-L2) and proficiency-level in L2 (PL-L2) on the neural basis of language processing in bilinguals. Although different activation patterns have been observed during language processing in early and late bilinguals by task-fMRI, few studies reported the effect of AoA-L2 and high PL-L2 on language network at resting state...
July 13, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710000/the-perisylvian-language-network-and-language-analytical-abilities
#3
Olga Kepinska, Egbert A J F Lakke, Eleanor M Dutton, Johanneke Caspers, Niels O Schiller
Aiming at exploring the brain's structural organisation underlying successful second language learning, we investigate the anatomy of the perisylvian language network in a group of healthy adults, consisting of participants with high and average language analytical abilities. Utilising deterministic tractography, six tracts per participant (left and right long direct segment, left and right indirect anterior segment and left and right indirect posterior segment) were virtually dissected and measurements pertaining to their microstructural organisation were collected...
July 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706990/distinct-distributed-patterns-of-neural-activity-are-associated-with-two-languages-in-the-bilingual-brain
#4
Min Xu, Daniel Baldauf, Chun Qi Chang, Robert Desimone, Li Hai Tan
A large body of previous neuroimaging studies suggests that multiple languages are processed and organized in a single neuroanatomical system in the bilingual brain, although differential activation may be seen in some studies because of different proficiency levels and/or age of acquisition of the two languages. However, one important possibility is that the two languages may involve interleaved but functionally independent neural populations within a given cortical region, and thus, distinct patterns of neural computations may be pivotal for the processing of the two languages...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701983/acquiring-the-impossible-developmental-stages-of-copredication
#5
Elliot Murphy
Much is known about the acquisition of phonological competence and lexical categories, but there has been substantially less research into word meaning development. In an attempt to contribute to this debate, a group of 24 children aged 4-11 were asked to define a set of words, as were a group of 12 adult controls. The stimuli included both concrete and abstract words, in particular words exhibiting a rare form of polysemy known as copredication, which permits the simultaneous attribution of concrete and abstract senses to a single nominal, creating an 'impossible' entity...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701981/language-mediated-concept-activation-in-bilingual-memory-facilitates-cognitive-flexibility
#6
Anatoliy V Kharkhurin
This is the first attempt of empirical investigation of language mediated concept activation (LMCA) in bilingual memory as a cognitive mechanism facilitating divergent thinking. Russian-English bilingual and Russian monolingual college students were tested on a battery of tests including among others Abbreviated Torrance Tests for Adults assessing divergent thinking traits and translingual priming (TLP) test assessing the LMCA. The latter was designed as a lexical decision priming test, in which a prime and a target were not related in Russian (language of testing), but were related through their translation equivalents in English (spoken only by bilinguals)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691732/prereader-to-beginning-reader-changes-induced-by-reading-acquisition-in-print-and-speech-brain-networks
#7
Katarzyna Chyl, Bartosz Kossowski, Agnieszka Dębska, Magdalena Łuniewska, Anna Banaszkiewicz, Agata Żelechowska, Stephen J Frost, William Einar Mencl, Marek Wypych, Artur Marchewka, Kenneth R Pugh, Katarzyna Jednoróg
BACKGROUND: Literacy acquisition is a demanding process that induces significant changes in the brain, especially in the spoken and written language networks. Nevertheless, large-scale paediatric fMRI studies are still limited. METHODS: We analyzed fMRI data to show how individual differences in reading performance correlate with brain activation for speech and print in 111 children attending kindergarten or first grade and examined group differences between a matched subset of emergent-readers and prereaders...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690782/sequential-learning-in-individuals-with-agrammatic-aphasia-evidence-from-artificial-grammar-learning
#8
Julia Schuchard, Cynthia K Thompson
We examined sequential learning in individuals with agrammatic aphasia (n = 12) and healthy age-matched participants (n = 12) using an artificial grammar. Artificial grammar acquisition, 24-hour retention, and the potential benefits of additional training were examined by administering an artificial grammar judgment test (1) immediately following auditory exposure-based training, (2) one day after training, and (3) after a second training session on the second day. An untrained control group (n = 12 healthy age-matched participants) completed the tests on the same time schedule...
2017: Journal of Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688078/differences-in-neural-correlates-of-speech-perception-in-3-month-olds-at-high-and-low-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Laura A Edwards, Jennifer B Wagner, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Charles A Nelson
In this study, we investigated neural precursors of language acquisition as potential endophenotypes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in 3-month-old infants at high and low familial ASD risk. Infants were imaged using functional near-infrared spectroscopy while they listened to auditory stimuli containing syllable repetitions; their neural responses were analyzed over left and right temporal regions. While female low risk infants showed initial neural activation that decreased over exposure to repetition-based stimuli, potentially indicating a habituation response to repetition in speech, female high risk infants showed no changes in neural activity over exposure...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683665/nordic-registry-based-cohort-studies-possibilities-and-pitfalls-when-combining-nordic-registry-data
#10
John Maret-Ouda, Wenjing Tao, Karl Wahlin, Jesper Lagergren
AIMS: All five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) have nationwide registries with similar data structure and validity, as well as personal identity numbers enabling linkage between registries. These resources provide opportunities for medical research that is based on large registry-based cohort studies with long and complete follow-up. This review describes practical aspects, opportunities and challenges encountered when setting up all-Nordic registry-based cohort studies...
July 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680660/memory-for-stimulus-sequences-a-divide-between-humans-and-other-animals
#11
Stefano Ghirlanda, Johan Lind, Magnus Enquist
Humans stand out among animals for their unique capacities in domains such as language, culture and imitation, yet it has been difficult to identify cognitive elements that are specifically human. Most research has focused on how information is processed after it is acquired, e.g. in problem solving or 'insight' tasks, but we may also look for species differences in the initial acquisition and coding of information. Here, we show that non-human species have only a limited capacity to discriminate ordered sequences of stimuli...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679455/te-reo-m%C3%A4-ori-indigenous-language-acquisition-in-the-context-of-new-zealand-english
#12
Elaine Reese, Peter Keegan, Stuart McNaughton, Te Kani Kingi, Polly Atatoa Carr, Johanna Schmidt, Jatender Mohal, Cameron Grant, Susan Morton
This study assessed the status of te reo Māori, the indigenous language of New Zealand, in the context of New Zealand English. From a broadly representative sample of 6327 two-year-olds (Growing Up in New Zealand), 6090 mothers (96%) reported their children understood English, and 763 mothers (12%) reported their children understood Māori. Parents completed the new MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory short forms for te reo Māori (NZM: CDI sf) and New Zealand English (NZE: CDI sf). Mothers with higher education levels had children with larger vocabularies in both te reo Māori and NZ English...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678863/early-positivity-signals-changes-in-an-abstract-linguistic-pattern
#13
Júlia Monte-Ordoño, Juan M Toro
The extraction of abstract structures from speech (or from gestures in the case of sign languages) has been claimed to be a fundamental mechanism for language acquisition. In the present study we registered the neural responses that are triggered when a violation of an abstract, token-independent rule is detected. We registered ERPs while presenting participants with trisyllabic CVCVCV nonsense words in an oddball paradigm. Standard stimuli followed an ABB rule (where A and B are different syllables). Importantly, to distinguish neural responses triggered by changes in surface information from responses triggered by changes in the underlying abstract structure, we used two types of deviant stimuli...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676769/spacing-repetitions-over-long-timescales-a-review-and-a-reconsolidation-explanation
#14
Christopher D Smith, Damian Scarf
Recent accounts of the spacing effect have proposed molecular explanations that explain spacing over short, but not long timescales. In the first half of this paper, we review research on the spacing effect that has employed spaces of 24 h or more across skill-related tasks, language-related tasks and generalization for adults and children. Throughout this review, we distinguish between learning and retention by defining learning (or acquisition) as performance at the end of training and retention as performance after a delay period...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668643/-she-didn-t-have-a-word-of-english-we-didn-t-have-a-word-of-vietnamese-exploring-parent-experiences-of-communication-with-toddlers-who-were-adopted-internationally
#15
Brid McAndrew, Mary-Pat O Malley-Keighran
The purpose of this study was to explore in detail parents' experiences of communicating with toddlers who were adopted internationally. Often, there is a mismatch between parents and children in terms of language, particularly in the early post-adoption period. There is a gap in the literature regarding parent experiences of this phase of their lives. Changing patterns in international adoption have led to an increase in adoptions of toddlers and older children. Due to institutional care, these toddlers and older children often lack exposure to their native language which may lead to language delay...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663494/restoring-auditory-cortex-plasticity-in-adult-mice-by-restricting-thalamic-adenosine-signaling
#16
Jay A Blundon, Noah C Roy, Brett J W Teubner, Jing Yu, Tae-Yeon Eom, K Jake Sample, Amar Pani, Richard J Smeyne, Seung Baek Han, Ryan A Kerekes, Derek C Rose, Troy A Hackett, Pradeep K Vuppala, Burgess B Freeman, Stanislav S Zakharenko
Circuits in the auditory cortex are highly susceptible to acoustic influences during an early postnatal critical period. The auditory cortex selectively expands neural representations of enriched acoustic stimuli, a process important for human language acquisition. Adults lack this plasticity. Here we show in the murine auditory cortex that juvenile plasticity can be reestablished in adulthood if acoustic stimuli are paired with disruption of ecto-5'-nucleotidase-dependent adenosine production or A1-adenosine receptor signaling in the auditory thalamus...
June 30, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663013/dependency-distance-a-new-perspective-on-the-syntactic-development-in-second-language-acquisition-comment-on-dependency-distance-a-new-perspective-on-syntactic-patterns-in-natural-language-by-haitao-liu-et-al
#17
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658646/help-me-if-i-can-t-social-interaction-effects-in-adult-contextual-word-learning
#18
Laura Verga, Sonja A Kotz
A major challenge in second language acquisition is to build up new vocabulary. How is it possible to identify the meaning of a new word among several possible referents? Adult learners typically use contextual information, which reduces the number of possible referents a new word can have. Alternatively, a social partner may facilitate word learning by directing the learner's attention toward the correct new word meaning. While much is known about the role of this form of 'joint attention' in first language acquisition, little is known about its efficacy in second language acquisition...
June 25, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654601/nonsyndromic-craniosynostosis-and-associated-abnormal-speech-and-language-development
#19
Sanjay Naran, Matthew Miller, Sameer Shakir, Benjamin Ware, Liliana Camison, Matthew Ford, Jesse Goldstein, Joseph E Losee
BACKGROUND: Although many metrics for neurodevelopment in children with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis have been analyzed, few have directly examined early language acquisition and speech development. The authors characterized language acquisition and speech development in children with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis. METHODS: The authors' institutional database was queried for nonsyndromic craniosynostosis from 2000 to 2014. Patients with an identified syndrome were excluded...
July 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652342/early-phonology-revealed-by-international-adoptees-birth-language-retention
#20
Jiyoun Choi, Mirjam Broersma, Anne Cutler
Until at least 6 mo of age, infants show good discrimination for familiar phonetic contrasts (i.e., those heard in the environmental language) and contrasts that are unfamiliar. Adult-like discrimination (significantly worse for nonnative than for native contrasts) appears only later, by 9-10 mo. This has been interpreted as indicating that infants have no knowledge of phonology until vocabulary development begins, after 6 mo of age. Recently, however, word recognition has been observed before age 6 mo, apparently decoupling the vocabulary and phonology acquisition processes...
June 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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