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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685188/out-of-the-box-a-psychedelic-model-to-study-the-creative-mind
#1
K P C Kuypers
Our creativity is challenged daily when facing new situations asking for novel solutions. Creativity, a multicomponent construct includes flexible divergent and rigid convergent thinking. Psychedelic drugs like psilocybin can enhance creativity and affect state of mind (mood, empathy, openness). Of note, flexible thinking is disturbed in psychopathological conditions like anxiety disorders and depression and preliminary findings have shown psychedelics to be efficacious in the treatment of those conditions...
June 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674970/hypothesis-the-psychedelic-ayahuasca-heals-traumatic-memories-via-a-sigma-1-receptor-mediated-epigenetic-mnemonic-process
#2
Antonio Inserra
Ayahuasca ingestion modulates brain activity, neurotransmission, gene expression and epigenetic regulation. N,N -Dimethyltryptamine (DMT, one of the alkaloids in Ayahuasca) activates sigma 1 receptor (SIGMAR1) and others. SIGMAR1 is a multi-faceted stress-responsive receptor which promotes cell survival, neuroprotection, neuroplasticity, and neuroimmunomodulation. Simultaneously, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) also present in Ayahuasca prevent the degradation of DMT. One peculiarity of SIGMAR1 activation and MAOI activity is the reversal of mnemonic deficits in pre-clinical models...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674223/psychological-variables-implied-in-the-therapeutic-effect-of-ayahuasca-a-contextual-approach
#3
Alba Franquesa, Alberto Sainz-Cort, Sam Gandy, Joaquim Soler, Miguel Ángel Alcázar-Córcoles, José Carlos Bouso
Ayahuasca is a psychedelic decoction originating from Amazonia. The ayahuasca-induced introspective experience has been shown to have potential benefits in the treatment of several pathologies, to protect mental health and to improve neuropsychological functions and creativity, and boost mindfulness. The underlying psychological processes related to the use of ayahuasca in a psychotherapeutic context are not yet well described in the scientific literature, but there is some evidence to suggest that psychological variables described in psychotherapies could be useful in explaining the therapeutic effects of the brew...
April 4, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664276/effects-of-n-n-dimethyltryptamine-dmt-on-rat-behaviors-relevant-to-anxiety-and-depression
#4
Lindsay P Cameron, Charlie J Benson, Lee E Dunlap, David E Olson
Depression and anxiety disorders are debilitating diseases resulting in substantial economic costs to society. Traditional antidepressants often take weeks to months to positively affect mood and are ineffective for about 30% of the population. Alternatives, such as ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic capable of producing hallucinations, and the psychoactive tisane ayahuasca have shown great promise due to their fast-acting nature and effectiveness in treatment-resistant populations. Here, we investigate the effects of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), the principle hallucinogenic component of ayahuasca, in rodent behavioral assays relevant to anxiety and depression using adult, male, Sprague-Dawley rats...
April 17, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661378/differential-role-of-nitric-oxide-in-the-psychedelic-symptoms-induced-by-racemic-ketamine-and-esketamine-in-human-volunteers
#5
K Jonkman, R van der Schrier, M van Velzen, L Aarts, E Olofsen, E Sarton, M Niesters, A Dahan
BACKGROUND: Animal studies suggest that N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction and subsequent decline in intracellular nitric oxide (NO) are responsible for development of ketamine-induced psychedelic symptoms. To examine this mechanism in humans, we administered the NO donor sodium nitroprusside during infusion of racemic ketamine (RS-ketamine), containing equal amounts of S(+)- and R(-)-ketamine isomers, or esketamine, containing just the S(+)-isomer. METHODS: In this randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, healthy volunteers were treated with sodium nitroprusside 0...
May 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626650/rewarding-and-reinforcing-effects-of-4-chloro-2-5-dimethoxyamphetamine-and-ah-7921-in-rodents
#6
Hye Jin Cha, Seo Young Jeon, Hwa Jin Jang, Jisoon Shin, Young-Hoon Kim, Soo Kyung Suh
New psychoactive substances (NPSs), i.e., newly designed substances with chemical residues that are slightly different from those of known psychoactive substances, have been emerging since the late 2000s, and social problems related to the use of these substances are increasing globally. Two such NPSs are 4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine (DOC), a psychedelic substance that is structurally related to amphetamine, and AH-7921, an opioid analgesic that is used for recreational purposes and has a potency similar to that of morphine...
April 4, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615905/four-weekly-ayahuasca-sessions-lead-to-increases-in-acceptance-capacities-a-comparison-study-with-a-standard-8-week-mindfulness-training-program
#7
Joaquim Soler, Matilde Elices, Elisabeth Dominguez-Clavé, Juan C Pascual, Amanda Feilding, Mayte Navarro-Gil, Javier García-Campayo, Jordi Riba
Background: The therapeutic effects of the Amazonian plant tea ayahuasca may relate to its ability to enhance mindfulness capacities. Ayahuasca induces a modified state of awareness through the combined action of its active principles: the psychedelic N,N- dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and a series of centrally acting β-carbolines, mainly harmine and tetrahydroharmine. To better understand the therapeutic potential of ayahuasca, here we compared the impact on mindfulness capacities induced by two independent interventions: (a) participation in four ayahuasca sessions without any specific purpose related to improving mindfulness capacities; and (b) participation in a standard mindfulness training course: 8 weeks mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), with the specific goal of improving these skills...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602876/supple-bodies-healthy-minds-yoga-psychedelics-and-american-mental-health
#8
Lucas Richert, Matthew DeCloedt
Much discussion about mental health has revolved around treatment models. As interdisciplinary scholarship has shown, mental health knowledge, far from being a neutral product detached from the society that generated it, was shaped by politics, economics and culture. By drawing on case studies of yoga, religion and fitness, this article will examine the ways in which mental health practices-sometimes scientific, sometimes spiritual-have been conceived, debated and applied by researchers and the public. More specifically, it will interrogate the relationship between yoga, psychedelics, South Asian and Eastern religion (as understood and practiced in the USA) and mental health...
March 30, 2018: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593537/acute-pharmacological-effects-of-2c-b-in-humans-an-observational-study
#9
Esther Papaseit, Magí Farré, Clara Pérez-Mañá, Marta Torrens, Mireia Ventura, Mitona Pujadas, Rafael de la Torre, Débora González
2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine (2C-B) is a psychedelic phenylethylamine derivative, structurally similar to mescaline. It is a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A (5-HT2A ), 5-hydroxytryptamine-2B (5-HT2B ), and 5-hydroxytryptamine-2C (5-HT2C ) receptor partial agonist used recreationally as a new psychoactive substance. It has been reported that 2C-B induces mild psychedelic effects, although its acute pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetics have not yet been fully studied in humans. An observational study was conducted to assess the acute subjective and physiological effects, as well as pharmacokinetics of 2C-B...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582103/correction-to-the-hidden-therapist-evidence-for-a-central-role-of-music-in-psychedelic-therapy
#10
Mendel Kaelen, Bruna Giribaldi, Jordan Raine, Lisa Evans, Christopher Timmermann, Natalie Rodriguez, Leor Roseman, Amanda Feilding, David Nutt, Robin Carhart-Harris
The article The hidden therapist: evidence for a central role of music in psychedelic therapy, written by Mendel Kaelen, Bruna Giribaldi, Jordan Raine, Lisa Evans, Christopher Timmerman, Natalie Rodriguez, Leor Roseman, Amanda Feilding, David Nutt, Robin Carhart-Harris, was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal.
March 26, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568270/unifying-theories-of-psychedelic-drug-effects
#11
REVIEW
Link R Swanson
How do psychedelic drugs produce their characteristic range of acute effects in perception, emotion, cognition, and sense of self? How do these effects relate to the clinical efficacy of psychedelic-assisted therapies? Efforts to understand psychedelic phenomena date back more than a century in Western science. In this article I review theories of psychedelic drug effects and highlight key concepts which have endured over the last 125 years of psychedelic science. First, I describe the subjective phenomenology of acute psychedelic effects using the best available data...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559884/the-meaning-enhancing-properties-of-psychedelics-and-their-mediator-role-in-psychedelic-therapy-spirituality-and-creativity
#12
Ido Hartogsohn
Past research has demonstrated to the ability of psychedelics to enhance suggestibility, and pointed to their ability to amplify perception of meaning. This paper examines the existing evidence for the meaning-enhancing properties of psychedelics, and argues that the tendency of these agents to enhance the perception of significance offers valuable clues to explaining their reported ability to stimulate a variety of therapeutic processes, enhance creativity, and instigate mystical-type experiences. Building upon previous research, which suggested the potential role of psychedelic meaning-enhancement in enhancing placebo response, the paper explores the mechanisms by which the meaning-amplifying properties of psychedelics might also play a role in enhancing creativity, as well as in effecting mystical-type experiences...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549713/synesthetic-hallucinations-induced-by-psychedelic-drugs-in-a-congenitally-blind-man
#13
Sara Dell'Erba, David J Brown, Michael J Proulx
This case report offers rare insights into crossmodal responses to psychedelic drug use in a congenitally blind (CB) individual as a form of synthetic synesthesia. BP's personal experience provides us with a unique report on the psychological and sensory alterations induced by hallucinogenic drugs, including an account of the absence of visual hallucinations, and a compelling look at the relationship between LSD induced synesthesia and crossmodal correspondences. The hallucinatory experiences reported by BP are of particular interest in light of the observation that rates of psychosis within the CB population are extremely low...
March 14, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548884/the-entropic-brain-revisited
#14
REVIEW
Robin L Carhart-Harris
The entropic brain hypothesis proposes that within upper and lower limits, after which consciousness may be lost, the entropy of spontaneous brain activity indexes the informational richness of conscious states. Here the hypothesis is revisited four years on from its original publication. It is shown that the principle that the entropy of brain activity is elevated in the psychedelic state is increasingly well supported by separate and independent studies and analyses, and evidence for greater brain criticality under psychedelics is also highlighted...
March 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547576/hallucinogen-persisting-perception-disorder-etiology-clinical-features-and-therapeutic-perspectives
#15
REVIEW
Giovanni Martinotti, Rita Santacroce, Mauro Pettorruso, Chiara Montemitro, Maria Chiara Spano, Marco Lorusso, Massimo di Giannantonio, Arturo G Lerner
Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD) is a rare, and therefore, poorly understood condition linked to hallucinogenic drugs consumption. The prevalence of this disorder is low; the condition is more often diagnosed in individuals with a history of previous psychological issues or substance misuse, but it can arise in anyone, even after a single exposure to triggering drugs. The aims of the present study are to review all the original studies about HPPD in order to evaluate the following: (1) the possible suggested etiologies; (2) the possible hallucinogens involved in HPPD induction; (3) the clinical features of both HPPD I and II; (4) the possible psychiatric comorbidities; and (5) the available and potential therapeutic strategies...
March 16, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545753/neuroendocrine-associations-underlying-the-persistent-therapeutic-effects-of-classic-serotonergic-psychedelics
#16
REVIEW
Emmanuelle A D Schindler, Ryan M Wallace, Jordan A Sloshower, Deepak C D'Souza
Recent reports on the effects of psychedelic-assisted therapies for mood disorders and addiction, as well as the effects of psychedelics in the treatment of cluster headache, have demonstrated promising therapeutic results. In addition, the beneficial effects appear to persist well after limited exposure to the drugs, making them particularly appealing as treatments for chronic neuropsychiatric and headache disorders. Understanding the basis of the long-lasting effects, however, will be critical for the continued use and development of this drug class...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537989/psilocin-and-ketamine-microdosing-effects-of-subchronic-intermittent-microdoses-in-the-elevated-plus-maze-in-male-wistar-rats
#17
Rachel R Horsley, Tomáš Páleníček, Jan Kolin, Karel Valeš
Short-term moderate doses of serotonergic and dissociative hallucinogens can be useful in the treatment of anxiety. Recently, a trend has developed for long-term intermittent 'microdosing' (usually one-tenth of a 'full' active dose), with reports of long-lasting relief from anxiety and related disorders; however, there is no scientific evidence for the efficacy of therapeutic microdosing nor to show its lasting effects. The objective of this study was to test for lasting effects on anxiety in rats after microdosing with ketamine or psilocin...
March 13, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532180/serotonergic-psychedelics-experimental-approaches-for-assessing-mechanisms-of-action
#18
Clinton E Canal
Recent, well-controlled - albeit small-scale - clinical trials show that serotonergic psychedelics, including psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide, possess great promise for treating psychiatric disorders, including treatment-resistant depression. Additionally, fresh results from a deluge of clinical neuroimaging studies are unveiling the dynamic effects of serotonergic psychedelics on functional activity within, and connectivity across, discrete neural systems. These observations have led to testable hypotheses regarding neural processing mechanisms that contribute to psychedelic effects and therapeutic benefits...
March 13, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515449/the-psychedelic-debriefing-in-alcohol-dependence-treatment-illustrating-key-change-phenomena-through-qualitative-content-analysis-of-clinical-sessions
#19
Elizabeth M Nielson, Darrick G May, Alyssa A Forcehimes, Michael P Bogenschutz
Research on the clinical applications of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy has demonstrated promising early results for treatment of alcohol dependence. Detailed description of the content and methods of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy, as it is conducted in clinical settings, is scarce. Methods: An open-label pilot (proof-of-concept) study of psilocybin-assisted treatment of alcohol dependence (NCT01534494) was conducted to generate data for a phase 2 RCT (NCT02061293) of a similar treatment in a larger population...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515439/clinical-interpretations-of-patient-experience-in-a-trial-of-psilocybin-assisted-psychotherapy-for-alcohol-use-disorder
#20
Michael P Bogenschutz, Samantha K Podrebarac, Jessie H Duane, Sean S Amegadzie, Tara C Malone, Lindsey T Owens, Stephen Ross, Sarah E Mennenga
After a hiatus of some 40 years, clinical research has resumed on the use of classic hallucinogens to treat addiction. Following completion of a small open-label feasibility study, we are currently conducting a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of psilocybin-assisted treatment of alcohol use disorder. Although treatment effects cannot be analyzed until the study is complete, descriptive case studies provide a useful window into the therapeutic process of psychedelic-assisted treatment of addiction...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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