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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930973/intracortical-inhibition-within-the-primary-motor-cortex-can-be-modulated-by-changing-the-focus-of-attention
#1
Yves-Alain Kuhn, Martin Keller, Jan Ruffieux, Wolfgang Taube
It is well recognized that an external focus (EF) compared with an internal focus (IF) of attention improves motor learning and performance. Studies have indicated benefits in accuracy, balance, force production, jumping performance, movement speed, oxygen consumption, and fatiguing task. Although behavioral outcomes of using an EF strategy are well explored, the underlying neural mechanisms remain unknown. A recent TMS study compared the activity of the primary motor cortex (M1) between an EF and an IF. More precisely, this study showed that, when adopting an EF, the activity of intracortical inhibitory circuits is enhanced...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930864/neural-correlates-to-the-increase-in-maximal-force-after-dexamethasone-administration
#2
Stéphane Baudry, Alberto Botter, Jacques Duchateau, Marco A Minetto
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of short-term glucocorticoid administration on voluntary activation and intracortical inhibitory and facilitatory circuits. METHODS: Seventeen healthy men participated in a pseudo randomized double-blind study to receive either dexamethasone (8 mg·d, n = 9 subjects) or placebo (n = 8 subjects) for 7 days. The ankle dorsiflexion torque, corresponding electromyography (EMG) of the tibialis anterior, and voluntary activation assessed by the interpolated twitch method using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were measured during a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)...
September 19, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928641/comparison-of-navigation-related-brain-regions-in-migratory-versus-non-migratory-noctuid-moths
#3
Liv de Vries, Keram Pfeiffer, Björn Trebels, Andrea K Adden, Ken Green, Eric Warrant, Stanley Heinze
Brain structure and function are tightly correlated across all animals. While these relations are ultimately manifestations of differently wired neurons, many changes in neural circuit architecture lead to larger-scale alterations visible already at the level of brain regions. Locating such differences has served as a beacon for identifying brain areas that are strongly associated with the ecological needs of a species-thus guiding the way towards more detailed investigations of how brains underlie species-specific behaviors...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927833/modulation-of-hippocampal-activity-with-fornix-deep-brain-stimulation
#4
Paul H Stypulkowski, Scott R Stanslaski, Jonathon E Giftakis
BACKGROUND: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) within the Papez circuit is under investigation as a treatment for epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease. We previously reported the effects of stimulation at nodes within this network (anterior thalamic nucleus and hippocampus) on hippocampal activity in a large animal model, using a chronic implantable, clinical-grade system that permits concurrent stimulation and recording. OBJECTIVE: In this study we extended earlier work to compare the effects of fornix DBS on evoked potentials (EPs) and local field potential (LFP) activity within the hippocampus, and to assess closed-loop stimulation...
September 6, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927305/discovery-and-application-of-immune-biomarkers-for-hematological-malignancies
#5
Dimitrios Zafeiris, Jayakumar Vadakekolathu, Sarah Wagner, Alan Graham Pockley, Graham Roy Ball, Sergio Rutella
Hematological malignancies originate and progress in primary and secondary lymphoid organs, where they establish a uniquely immune-suppressive tumour microenvironment. Although high-throughput transcriptomic and proteomic approaches are being employed to interrogate immune surveillance and escape mechanisms in patients with solid tumours, and to identify actionable targets for immunotherapy, our knowledge of the immunological landscape of hematological malignancies, as well as our understanding of the molecular circuits that underpin the establishment of immune tolerance, is not comprehensive...
September 19, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924621/an-altered-scaffold-for-information-processing-cognitive-control-development-in-adolescents-with-autism
#6
Marjorie Solomon, Jeremy Hogeveen, Lauren Libero, Christine Nordahl
We investigated how cognitive neuroscientific studies during the last decade have advanced understanding of cognitive control from adolescence to young adulthood in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To do so, we conducted a selective review of the larger structural, resting state, and diffusion imaging studies of brain regions and networks related to cognitive control that have been conducted since 2007 in individuals with ASD and typical development (TYP) ages 10 to 30 years that examined how these regions and networks support behavioral and task-based fMRI performance on tasks assessing cognitive control during this period...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924263/refinement-of-ectopic-protein-expression-through-the-gal4-uas-system-in-bombyx-mori-application-to-behavioral-and-developmental-studies
#7
Chiho Hara, Koudai Morishita, Seika Takayanagi-Kiya, Akihisa Mikami, Keiro Uchino, Takeshi Sakurai, Ryohei Kanzaki, Hideki Sezutsu, Masafumi Iwami, Taketoshi Kiya
Silkmoth, Bombyx mori, is one of the important model insects in which transgenic techniques and the GAL4/UAS system are applicable. However, due to cytotoxicity and low transactivation activity of GAL4, effectiveness of the GAL4/UAS system and its application in B. mori are still limited. In the present study, we refined the previously reported UAS vector by exploiting transcriptional and translational enhancers, and achieved 200-fold enhancement of reporter GFP fluorescence in the GAL4/UAS system. Enhanced protein expression of membrane-targeted GFP and calcium indicator protein (GCaMP5G) drastically improved visualization of fine neurite structures and neural activity, respectively...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923971/prolactin-action-in-the-medial-preoptic-area-is-necessary-for-postpartum-maternal-nursing-behavior
#8
Rosemary S E Brown, Mari Aoki, Sharon R Ladyman, Hollian R Phillipps, Amanda Wyatt, Ulrich Boehm, David R Grattan
Pregnancy hormones, such as prolactin, sensitize neural circuits controlling parental interactions to induce timely activation of maternal behaviors immediately after parturition. While the medial preoptic area (MPOA) is known to be critical for maternal behavior, the specific role of prolactin in this brain region has remained elusive. Here, we evaluated the role of prolactin action in the MPOA using complementary genetic strategies in mice. We characterized prolactin-responsive neurons within the MPOA at different hormonal stages and delineated their projections in the brain...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923596/chemically-activated-luminopsins-allow-optogenetic-inhibition-of-distributed-nodes-in-an-epileptic-network-for-non-invasive-and-multi-site-suppression-of-seizure-activity
#9
Jack K Tung, Fu Hung Shiu, Kevin Ding, Robert E Gross
Although optogenetic techniques have proven to be invaluable for manipulating and understanding complex neural dynamics over the past decade, they still face practical and translational challenges in targeting networks involving multiple, large, or difficult-to-illuminate areas of the brain. We utilized inhibitory luminopsins to simultaneously inhibit multiple limbic structures of the rat brain in a hardware-independent and cell-type specific manner to suppress seizure activity in a rat model of epilepsy. In addition to elucidating mechanisms of seizure suppression never directly demonstrated before, this work also illustrates how precise multi-focal control of pathological circuits can be advantageous for the treatment of epilepsy, which may also be applicable to the treatment and understanding of other neurological disorders involving broad neural circuits...
September 15, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918515/oligodendrocyte-neuron-interactions-impact-on-myelination-and-brain-function
#10
Takeshi Shimizu, Yasuyuki Osanai, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
In the past, glial cells were considered to be 'glue' cells whose primary role was thought to be merely filling gaps in neural circuits. However, a growing number of reports have indicated the role of glial cells in higher brain function through their interaction with neurons. Myelin was originally thought to be just a sheath structure surrounding neuronal axons, but recently it has been shown that myelin exerts effects on the conduction velocity of neuronal axons even after myelin formation. Therefore, the investigation of glial cell properties and the neuron-glial interactions is important for understanding higher brain function...
September 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918081/developmental-alcohol-exposure-impairs-synaptic-plasticity-without-overtly-altering-microglial-function-in-mouse-visual-cortex
#11
Elissa L Wong, Nina M Lutz, Victoria A Hogan, Cassandra E Lamantia, Helene R McMurray, Jason R Myers, John M Ashton, Ania K Majewska
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), caused by gestational ethanol (EtOH) exposure, is one of the most common causes of non-heritable and life-long mental disability worldwide, with no standard treatment or therapy available. While EtOH exposure can alter the function of both neurons and glia, it is still unclear how EtOH influences brain development to cause deficits in sensory and cognitive processing later in life. Microglia play an important role in shaping synaptic function and plasticity during neural circuit development and have been shown to mount an acute immunological response to EtOH exposure in certain brain regions...
September 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917658/multiple-events-of-gene-manipulation-via-in-pouch-electroporation-in-a-marsupial-model-of-mammalian-forebrain-development
#12
Annalisa Paolino, Laura R Fenlon, Peter Kozulin, Linda J Richards, Rodrigo Suárez
BACKGROUND: The technique of in utero electroporation has been widely used in eutherians, such as mice and rats, to investigate brain development by selectively manipulating gene expression in specific neuronal populations. A major challenge, however, is that surgery is required to access the embryos, affecting animal survival and limiting the number of times it can be performed within the same litter. New method: Marsupials are born at an early stage of brain development as compared to eutherians...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917165/cerebellar-induced-differential-polyglot-aphasia-a-neurolinguistic-and-fmri-study
#13
Peter Mariën, Kim van Dun, Johanna Van Dormael, Dorien Vandenborre, Stefanie Keulen, Mario Manto, Jo Verhoeven, Jubin Abutalebi
Research has shown that linguistic functions in the bilingual brain are subserved by similar neural circuits as in monolinguals, but with extra-activity associated with cognitive and attentional control. Although a role for the right cerebellum in multilingual language processing has recently been acknowledged, a potential role of the left cerebellum remains largely unexplored. This paper reports the clinical and fMRI findings in a strongly right-handed (late) multilingual patient who developed differential polyglot aphasia, ataxic dysarthria and a selective decrease in executive function due to an ischemic stroke in the left cerebellum...
September 13, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917135/failing-to-learn-from-negative-prediction-errors-obesity-is-associated-with-alterations-in-a-fundamental-neural-learning-mechanism
#14
David Mathar, Jane Neumann, Arno Villringer, Annette Horstmann
Prediction errors (PEs) encode the difference between expected and actual action outcomes in the brain via dopaminergic modulation. Integration of these learning signals ensures efficient behavioral adaptation. Obesity has recently been linked to altered dopaminergic fronto-striatal circuits, thus implying impairments in cognitive domains that rely on its integrity. 28 obese and 30 lean human participants performed an implicit stimulus-response learning paradigm inside an fMRI scanner. Computational modeling and psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis was utilized for assessing PE-related learning and associated functional connectivity...
August 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916627/interactions-between-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-dorsomedial-striatum-are-necessary-for-odor-span-capacity-in-rats-role-of-glun2b-containing-nmda-receptors
#15
Don A Davies, Quentin Greba, Jantz C Selk, Jillian K Catton, Landon D Baillie, Sean J Mulligan, John G Howland
Working memory is involved in the maintenance and manipulation of information essential for complex cognition. While the neural substrates underlying working memory capacity have been studied in humans, considerably less is known about the circuitry mediating working memory capacity in rodents. Therefore, the present experiments tested the involvement of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and dorsal striatum (STR) in the odor span task (OST), a task proposed to assay working memory capacity in rodents. Initially, Long Evans rats were trained to dig in scented sand for food following a serial delayed nonmatching-to-sample rule...
October 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916300/distinct-neuronal-populations-in-the-basolateral-and-central-amygdala-are-activated-with-acute-pain-conditioned-fear-and-fear-conditioned-analgesia
#16
Ryan K Butler, Sarah Ehling, Megan Barbar, Jess Thomas, Mary A Hughes, Charles E Smith, Vladimir M Pogorelov, Dipendra K Aryal, William C Wetsel, B Duncan X Lascelles
Fear-conditioned analgesia (FCA) is modulated by brain areas involved in the descending inhibitory pain pathway such as the basolateral (BLA) and central amygdala (CEA). The BLA contains Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and parvalbumin (PV) neurons. CEA neurons are primarily inhibitory (GABAergic) that comprise enkephalin (ENK) interneurons and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) - neurons that project to the periaqueductal grey. The purpose of our experiment was to determine the pattern of activation of CaMKII/PV and ENK/CRF neurons following the expression of acute pain, conditioned fear, and FCA...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915387/can-circular-inference-relate-the-neuropathological-and-behavioral-aspects-of-schizophrenia
#17
REVIEW
Pantelis Leptourgos, Sophie Denève, Renaud Jardri
Schizophrenia is a complex and heterogeneous mental disorder, and researchers have only recently begun to understand its neuropathology. However, since the time of Kraepelin and Bleuler, much information has been accumulated regarding the behavioral abnormalities usually encountered in patients suffering from schizophrenia. Despite recent progress, how the latter are caused by the former is still debated. Here, we argue that circular inference, a computational framework proposed as a potential explanation for various schizophrenia symptoms, could help end this debate...
September 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914603/synaptic-up-scaling-preserves-motor-circuit-output-after-chronic-natural-inactivity
#18
Joseph M Santin, Mauricio Vallejo, Lynn K Hartzler
Neural systems use homeostatic plasticity to maintain normal brain functions and to prevent abnormal activity.  Surprisingly, homeostatic mechanisms that regulate circuit output have mainly been demonstrated during artificial and/or pathological perturbations.  Natural, physiological scenarios that activate these stabilizing mechanisms in neural networks of mature animals remain elusive.  To establish the extent to which a naturally inactive circuit engages mechanisms of homeostatic plasticity, we utilized the respiratory motor circuit in bullfrogs that normally remains inactive for several months during the winter...
September 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913718/identify-a-shared-neural-circuit-linking-multiple-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-with-alzheimer-s-pathology
#19
Xixi Wang, Ping Ren, Mark Mapstone, Yeates Conwell, Anton P Porsteinsson, John J Foxe, Rajeev D S Raizada, Feng Lin
Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated neurodegeneration. However, NPS lack a consistent relationship with AD pathology. It is unknown whether any common neural circuits can link these clinically disparate while mechanistically similar features with AD pathology. Here, we explored the neural circuits of NPS in AD-associated neurodegeneration using multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) of resting-state functional MRI data. Data from 98 subjects (70 amnestic mild cognitive impairment and 28 AD subjects) were obtained...
September 15, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913594/developmental-trajectory-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-a-systematic-review-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-studies
#20
Sónia S Sousa, Edson Amaro, Alberto Crego, Óscar F Gonçalves, Adriana Sampaio
Fluctuations in gray and white matter volumes in addition to the fibers' reorganization and refinement of synaptic connectivity apparently happen in a particular temporo-spatial sequence during the dynamic and prolonged process of cerebral maturation. These developmental events are associated with regional modifications of brain tissues and neural circuits, contributing to networks' specialization and enhanced cognitive processing. According to several studies, improvements in cognitive processes are possibly myelin-dependent and associated to white matter maturation...
September 15, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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