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Taenia solium burden

Toan Nguyen, Fei Wen Cheong, Jonathan Wee Kent Liew, Yee Ling Lau
BACKGROUND: Despite the global effort against neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), developing countries with middle to low income are still burdened by them. Vietnam has been undergoing substantial economic growth and urbanization, but underprivileged people living in rural and suburban areas are still having little access to public health infrastructure and proper sanitation. Hitherto, limited information is available for seroprevalence and risk factors of several parasitic diseases in Vietnam...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
J Tharmalingam, A T Prabhakar, P Gangadaran, P Dorny, J Vercruysse, P Geldhof, V Rajshekhar, M Alexander, A Oommen
Neurocysticercosis (NCC), Taenia solium larval infection of the brain, is an important cause of acquired seizures in endemic countries, which relate to number, location and degenerating cysts in the brain. Multicyst infections are common in endemic countries although single-cyst infection prevails in India. Single-cyst infections in an endemic country suggest a role for host immunity limiting the infection. This study examined ex vivo CD4(+) T cells and in vitro Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses to T. solium cyst antigens of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy subjects from endemic and nonendemic regions and of single- and multicyst-infected patients for association with cyst burden of NCC...
October 2016: Parasite Immunology
Pramod K Mishra, Qun Li, Luis E Munoz, Chris A Mares, Elizabeth G Morris, Judy M Teale, Astrid E Cardona
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the most common helminth parasitic diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and the leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. NCC is caused by the presence of the metacestode larvae of the tapeworm Taenia solium within brain tissues. NCC patients exhibit a long asymptomatic phase followed by a phase of symptoms including increased intra-cranial pressure and seizures. While the asymptomatic phase is attributed to the immunosuppressive capabilities of viable T. solium parasites, release of antigens by dying organisms induce strong immune responses and associated symptoms...
June 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
John C Lam, Stephen R Robinson, Andrew Schell, Stephen Vaughan
BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis occurs when the eggs of the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) migrate and hatch into larvae within the central nervous system. Neurocysticercosis is the most common cause of seizures in the developing world and is characterized on brain imaging by cysts in different stages of evolution. In Canada, cases of neurocysticercosis are rare and most of these patients acquire the disease outside of Canada. We report the case of a patient with multiple intracranial lesions whose history and diagnostic imaging were consistent with neurocysticercosis...
2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Maria Vang Johansen, Chiara Trevisan, Sarah Gabriël, Pascal Magnussen, Uffe Christian Braae
The World Health Organization announced in November 2014 at the fourth international meeting on 'the control of neglected zoonotic diseases - from advocacy to action', that intervention tools for eliminating Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis (TSTC) are in place. The aim of this work was to elucidate theoretical outcomes of various control options suggested for TSTC elimination in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) over a 4-year period. Our current knowledge regarding T. solium epidemiology and control primarily builds on studies from Latin America...
April 20, 2016: Parasitology
Ar Kar Aung, Denis W Spelman
Human taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium has been identified as a potentially eradicable disease by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication of the World Health Organization. In southeast Asia, T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is considered one of the major neglected tropical diseases afflicting the region. In the last few decades, a considerable effort has been invested toward establishing the epidemiology and burden of disease in several southeast Asian countries...
May 4, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
B B Singh, M S Khatkar, J P S Gill, N K Dhand
Taenia solium is an endemic parasite in India which occurs in two forms in humans: cysticercosis (infection of soft tissues) and taeniosis (intestinal infection). Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most severe form of cysticercosis in which cysts develop in the central nervous system. This study was conducted to estimate health and economic impact due to human NCC-associated active epilepsy in India. Input data were sourced from published research literature, census data and other official records. Economic losses due to NCC-associated active epilepsy were estimated based on cost of treatment, hospitalisation and severe injury as well as loss of income...
January 20, 2016: Acta Tropica
Arie H Havelaar, Martyn D Kirk, Paul R Torgerson, Herman J Gibb, Tine Hald, Robin J Lake, Nicolas Praet, David C Bellinger, Nilanthi R de Silva, Neyla Gargouri, Niko Speybroeck, Amy Cawthorne, Colin Mathers, Claudia Stein, Frederick J Angulo, Brecht Devleesschauwer
Illness and death from diseases caused by contaminated food are a constant threat to public health and a significant impediment to socio-economic development worldwide. To measure the global and regional burden of foodborne disease (FBD), the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), which here reports their first estimates of the incidence, mortality, and disease burden due to 31 foodborne hazards. We find that the global burden of FBD is comparable to those of the major infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis...
December 2015: PLoS Medicine
Yannick Fogoum Fogang, Abdoul Aziz Savadogo, Massaman Camara, Dènahin Hinnoutondji Toffa, Anna Basse, Adjaratou Djeynabou Sow, Mouhamadou Mansour Ndiaye
Taenia solium neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a major cause of neurological morbidity in the world. Variability in the neuropathology and clinical presentation of NCC often make it difficult to diagnose and manage. Diagnosis of NCC can be challenging especially in endemic and resource-limited countries where laboratory and imaging techniques are often lacking. NCC management can also be challenging as current treatment options are limited and involve symptomatic agents, antiparasitic agents, or surgery. Although antiparasitic treatment probably reduces the number of active lesions and long-term seizure frequency, its efficacy is limited and strategies to improve treatment regimens are warranted...
2015: International Journal of General Medicine
Yunus Amade Assane, Chiara Trevisan, Clara Maria Schutte, Emilia Virginia Noormahomed, Maria Vang Johansen, Pascal Magnussen
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important neurological disease in countries with high prevalence of Taenia solium infection and is emerging as a serious public health and economic problem. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of NCC in Angónia district, Tete province, Mozambique based on: prevalence of human T. solium cysticercosis assessed by antigen Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (Ag-ELISA) seropositivity, history of epilepsy, and brain computed tomography (CT) scan results. A cross sectional study was conducted between September and November 2007 in Angónia district...
October 28, 2015: Acta Tropica
Aloukick K Singh, Satyendra K Singh, Amrita Singh, Kamlesh K Gupta, Jahanarah Khatoon, Amit Prasad, Ravi P Rai, Rakesh K Gupta, Mukesh Tripathi, Nuzhat Husain, Kashi N Prasad
Albendazole is the drug of choice for Taenia solium infection. Concomitant administration of steroid has been advocated to avoid adverse reactions to albendazole therapy in neurocysticercosis. Some T. solium cysticerci (larvae) respond to albendazole therapy while others do not and the reasons remain unexplained. We hypothesise that the immune response differs between treatment responder and non-responder cysticerci and this may determine the outcome. Twenty swine naturally infected with T. solium were purchased from the market and the infection was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging...
October 2015: International Journal for Parasitology
Mwemezi Lutakyawa Kabululu, Helena Aminiel Ngowi, Sharadhuli Iddi Kimera, Faustin Paul Lekule, Eliakunda Casmir Kimbi, Maria Vang Johansen
A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine risk factors for prevalence of common endo- and ectoparasites of pigs kept by smallholder farmers in Mbozi and Mbeya (Rural) districts of Mbeya Region, in Tanzania. A total of 482 pigs from 220 households of 16 villages, eight in each district were randomly selected and examined. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis was 11.5%, gastrointestinal nematodes 63.7% and ectoparasites 21.2% based on Ag-ELISA, McMaster technique and full body searches/ear scrapings, respectively...
September 15, 2015: Veterinary Parasitology
Brecht Devleesschauwer, Alberto Allepuz, Veronique Dermauw, Maria V Johansen, Minerva Laranjo-González, G Suzanne A Smit, Smaragda Sotiraki, Chiara Trevisan, Nicola A Wardrop, Pierre Dorny, Sarah Gabriël
The pork tapeworm Taenia solium causes an important economic and health burden, mainly in rural or marginalized communities of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin-America. Although improved pig rearing conditions seem to have eliminated the parasite in most Western European countries, little is known about the true endemicity status of T. solium throughout Europe. Three recent reviews indicate that autochthonous human T. solium taeniosis/cysticercosis may be possible in Europe, but that current peer-reviewed literature is biased towards Western Europe...
August 11, 2015: Acta Tropica
Vincent Porphyre, Harentsoaniaina Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, Andriatsilavina Rakotoarimanana, Ony Rasamoelina, Claire Bernard, Ronan Jambou, Eric Cardinale
BACKGROUND: Taenia solium cysticercosis is a parasitic meat-borne disease that is highly prevalent in pigs and humans in Africa, but the burden is vastly underestimated due to the lack of official control along the pork commodity chain, which hampers long-term control policies. METHODS: The apparent and corrected prevalences of T. solium cysticercosis were investigated in pork carcasses slaughtered and retailed in Antananarivo (Madagascar), thanks to a 12-month monitoring plan in two urban abattoirs...
2015: Parasites & Vectors
Amanda Ash, Anna Okello, Boualam Khamlome, Phouth Inthavong, John Allen, R C Andrew Thompson
Taenia solium taeniasis-cysticercosis and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are parasitic Neglected Tropical Diseases endemic throughout Southeast Asia. Within Lao PDR, a remote northern hill tribe village had previously been identified as a hyper endemic focus for Taenia solium. To reduce this observed prevalence, a One Health intervention covering both pigs and humans was implemented, which included two Mass Drug Administrations (MDA1 and MDA2) for village residents using a triple dose albendazole 400mg treatment regime...
May 19, 2015: Acta Tropica
Stephanie Burniston, Anna L Okello, Boualam Khamlome, Phouth Inthavong, Jeffrey Gilbert, Stuart D Blacksell, John Allen, Susan C Welburn
Pig rearing is an important income source in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), with many smallholder farmers using traditional free-range pig production systems. Despite the potentially significant health risks posed by pig production regarding pig-associated zoonoses, information on the sociocultural drivers of these zoonoses is significantly lacking. This review summarises the existing sociocultural knowledge on eight pig-associated zoonoses suspected to be endemic in Southeast Asia: brucellosis, Q fever (Coxiella burnetii), trichinellosis, hepatitis E virus, leptospirosis, Japanese encephalitis, Streptococcus suis and Taenia solium taeniasis-cysticercosis...
2015: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Ewan Hunter, Kathryn Burton, Ahmed Iqbal, Daniel Birchall, Margaret Jackson, Jane Rogathe, Ahmed Jusabani, William Gray, Eric Aris, Gathoni Kamuyu, Patricia P Wilkins, Charles R Newton, Richard Walker
OBJECTIVE: To assess the contribution of NCC to the burden of epilepsy in a rural Tanzanian population. METHODS: We identified adult people with epilepsy (PWE) in a door-to-door study in an established demographic surveillance site. PWE and community controls were tested for antibodies to Taenia solium, the causative agent of NCC, and all PWE were offered a computerised tomography (CT) head scan. Data on household occupancy and sanitation, pig-keeping and pork consumption were collected from PWE and controls and associations with epilepsy were assessed using Chi-square or Fisher's Exact tests...
May 5, 2015: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Calvin Paul Lipendele, Faustine Paul Lekule, Daniel Elias Mushi, Helena Ngowi, Eliakunda Casmir Kimbi, Helena Mejer, Stig Milan Thamsborg, Maria Vang Johansen
An on farm experiment was carried out to assess the effects of production systems on the performance of local pigs kept by smallholder farmers. Six villages from Mbeya and Mbozi districts, Tanzania were purposely selected based on the prominent pig production systems: free range, semi-confinement and total confinement. Fifteen pig keeping households were randomly selected from each village to participate in the study. A participatory rural appraisal and structured questionnaire were used for collecting information from the households on pig production and reproduction performance...
August 2015: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Mitra Khumbatta, Bahrom Firozgary, David John Tweardy, Joel Weinstock, Gohar Firozgary, Zal Bhatena, Tushar Bulsara, Ricardo Siller, Prema Robinson
Cysticercosis is an infection of tissues with the larval cysts of the cestode, Taenia solium. While live parasites elicit little or no inflammation, dying parasites initiate a granulomatous reaction presenting as painful muscle nodules or seizures when cysts are located in the brain. We previously showed in the T. crassiceps murine model of cysticercosis that substance P (SP), a neuropeptide, was detected in early granulomas and was responsible for promoting granuloma formation, while somatostatin (SOM), another neuropeptide and immunomodulatory hormone, was detected in late granulomas; SOM's contribution to granuloma formation was not examined...
2014: BioMed Research International
H Carabin, P R Torgerson, C Budke, L D Cowan, T Nash, A L Willingham, R C Krecek, L M Michael, P M Schantz, P Dorny, R Rodríguez-Hidalgo, W Benitez-Ortiz, S Geerts, D Geyson, J Ron-Román, F Proaño-Pérez, M A Chávez-Larrea, M Barrionuevo-Samaniego, M Celi-Erazo, L Vizcaíno-Ordóñez, J Brandt, D J Jenkins, M W Lightowlers, D D Heath, C Eddi, K De Balogh, J Lubroth, W Amanfu, A Speedy, D Battaglia
This collection of articles provides an account of the papers delivered at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP)(held in New Orleans, LA, USA, from 10 to 14 August 2003) in a symposium session on assessing the burden of Taenia solium cysticercosis and echinococcosis organised and chaired by A. Lee Willingham III from the WHO/FAO Collaborating Center for Research and Training on Emerging and other Parasitic Zoonoses in Denmark and Peter M...
October 28, 2004: Veterinary Parasitology
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