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Taenia solium burden

Chiara Trevisan, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Nicolas Praet, Alberto Pondja, Yunus Amade Assane, Pierre Dorny, Stig Milan Thamsborg, Pascal Magnussen, Maria Vang Johansen
BACKGROUND: The zoonotic parasite Taenia solium is endemic in Angónia district, Tete province, Mozambique, though the burden of the disease complex is unknown. METHODS: As part of two cross-sectional studies on human and porcine cysticercosis in the area, unique epidemiological and cost data were collected in Angónia district, Mozambique in 2007. These data provided the basis for the assessment of the societal cost of T. solium in the district, which estimates the impact of the disease on human and pig populations and includes both health and economic approaches in the analysis...
March 13, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Emma C Hobbs, Kabemba E Mwape, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Sarah Gabriël, Mwelwa Chembensofu, Moses Mambwe, Isaac K Phiri, Maxwell Masuku, Gideon Zulu, Angela Colston, Arve Lee Willingham, Dirk Berkvens, Pierre Dorny, Emmanuel Bottieau, Niko Speybroeck
The tapeworm Taenia solium is endemic in Zambia, however its socioeconomic cost is unknown. During a large-scale interventional study conducted in Zambia, baseline economic costs of human and porcine T. solium infections were measured. Questionnaire surveys were conducted within three neighbourhoods in Zambia's Eastern province in 2015 and 2016. A human health questionnaire, capturing costs of clinical symptoms commonly attributable to human cysticercosis and taeniasis, was conducted in randomly selected households (n = 267)...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Emma C Hobbs, Kabemba Evans Mwape, Inge Van Damme, Dirk Berkvens, Gideon Zulu, Moses Mambwe, Mwelwa Chembensofu, Isaac Khozozo Phiri, Maxwell Masuku, Emmanuel Bottieau, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Niko Speybroeck, Angela Colston, Pierre Dorny, Arve Lee Willingham, Sarah Gabriël
OBJECTIVE: The zoonotic helminth Taenia solium is endemic in Zambia, causing human (taeniasis and (neuro)cysticercosis) and pig (porcine cysticercosis) diseases with high health, social and economic burdens. We aimed to evaluate the impact of a health educational program intended to lead to powerful and cumulative improvements in knowledge, attitudes and practices that decrease parasite transmission and disease occurrence. METHODS: Half-day health education workshops were conducted in three primary schools in the highly endemic Eastern Province of Zambia, using the computer-based T...
January 4, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Christian Klotz, Barbara Šoba, Miha Skvarč, Sarah Gabriël, Lucy J Robertson
Food-borne parasites (FBPs) are a neglected topic in food safety, partly due to a lack of awareness of their importance for public health, especially as symptoms tend not to develop immediately after exposure. In addition, methodological difficulties with both diagnosis in infected patients and detection in food matrices result in under-detection and therefore the potential for underestimation of their burden on our societies. This, in consequence, leads to lower prioritization for basic research, e.g. for development new and more advanced detection methods for different food matrices and diagnostic samples, and thus a vicious circle of neglect and lack of progress is propagated...
November 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Renzo Gutierrez-Loli, Miguel A Orrego, Oscar G Sevillano-Quispe, Luis Herrera-Arrasco, Cristina Guerra-Giraldez
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, endogenous, non-coding, single-stranded RNAs involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Although, several miRNAs have been identified in parasitic helminths, there is little information about their identification and function in Taenia. Furthermore, the impact of miRNAs in neurocysticercosis, the brain infection caused by larvae of Taenia solium is still unknown. During chronic infection, T. solium may activate numerous mechanisms aimed to modulate host immune responses...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Gianfranco Arroyo, Silvia Rodriguez, Andres G Lescano, Karen A Alroy, Javier A Bustos, Saul Santivañez, Isidro Gonzales, Herbert Saavedra, E Javier Pretell, Armando E Gonzalez, Robert H Gilman, Victor C W Tsang, Hector H Garcia
Background: The enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay is the reference serological test for neurocysticercosis (NCC). A positive result on EITB does not always correlate with the presence of active infections in the central nervous system (CNS), and patients with a single viable brain cyst may be EITB negative. Nonetheless, EITB antibody banding patterns appears to be related with the expression of 3 protein families of Taenia solium, and in turn with the characteristics of NCC in the CNS (type, stage, and burden of viable cysts)...
January 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Uffe Christian Braae, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Fortune Sithole, Ziqi Wang, Arve Lee Willingham
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to map the occurrence of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis at national level within Central America and the Caribbean basin, and to map the distribution of porcine cysticercosis at first-level administrative subdivision level (department level) and the porcine population at risk. This zoonotic parasite is believed to be widely endemic across most of Latin America. However, there is little information readily available for Central America and the Caribbean basin...
September 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Satyendra K Singh, Kashi N Prasad, Aloukick K Singh, Kamlesh K Gupta, Amrita Singh, Mukesh Tripathi, Rakesh K Gupta
The treatment of neurocysticercosis (NCC) varies with location, number and stage of the Taenia solium cysticerci (cysts). Albendazole (ABZ) effectively kills cysticerci, and subsequently induces neuro-inflammation facilitated by leukocyte infiltration. We hypothesize that immune response varies around drug responder (degenerating/dying) and non-responder (viable) cysts after ABZ and ABZ plus steroid (ABZS) therapy, which may determine the disease pathogenesis. Twenty cysticercotic swine were treated with ABZ (n = 10; group1) and ABZS (n = 10; group2)...
November 2017: Experimental Parasitology
Anna L Okello, Lian Francesca Thomas
Human taeniasis is a zoonotic condition resulting from infection with the adult stages of Taenia saginata ("beef tapeworm"), Taenia solium ("pork tapeworm") or Taenia asiatica ("Asian tapeworm"). Although these parasites have a worldwide distribution, the overwhelming burden is felt by communities in low- and middle-income countries. This is particularly true for T. solium, whereby infection of the central nervous system with the larval stage of the parasite (neurocysticercosis) is a major cause of acquired epilepsy in low-resource settings...
2017: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy
Priyadarshi S Sahu, Yvonne A L Lim, Rohela Mahmud, Sushela D Somanath, Chong T Tan, C P Ramachandran
Seizures due to neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a neglected human-to-human transmitted disorder and an emerging problem worldwide. A substantial portion of recent onset seizures is known to be attributed to NCC in Taenia solium (T. solium) endemic areas where populations which neither raise pigs nor eat pig meat are also at risk. High prevalence of NCC causing epilepsy has been reported in the underdeveloped areas of Southeast Asia (SEA) however, only fragmentary information on its incidence is available in countries like Malaysia...
April 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Ian W Pray, Viterbo Ayvar, Ricardo Gamboa, Claudio Muro, Luz M Moyano, Victor Benavides, Robert H Flecker, Hector H Garcia, Seth E O'Neal
BACKGROUND: Taenia solium, a parasite that affects humans and pigs, is the leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. Geographic hotspots of pigs testing positive for serologic markers of T. solium exposure have been observed surrounding the locations of human tapeworm carriers. This clustered pattern of seropositivity in endemic areas formed the basis for geographically targeted control interventions, which have been effective at reducing transmission. In this study, we further explore the spatial relationship between human tapeworm carriers and infected pigs using necroscopic examination as a quantitative gold-standard diagnostic to detect viable T...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Lucy B Gripper, Susan C Welburn
BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection of the human central nervous system, the most common form of which involves infection of the brain parenchyma with the larval form of the Taenia solium tapeworm. A causal relationship between such an NCC infection and the development of epilepsy in infected individuals is acknowledged, in part supported by high levels of comorbidity in endemic countries worldwide. METHODS: This study undertook a systematic review and critical analysis of the NCC-epilepsy relationship with the primary objective of quantifying the risk of developing epilepsy following NCC infection...
April 5, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Ildebrando Patamia, Piermario Nicotra, Davide Amodeo, Loretta Giuliano, Calogero Edoardo Cicero, Alessandra Nicoletti
A dramatic increasing immigration flow was recorded in Europe during the last years. Only in Sicily 120,239 people arrived in 2014. Immigrants may carry neglected tropical diseases endemic in their origin countries. The aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of geo-helminthiasis, and in particular of intestinal taeniasis, in a sample of migrants hosted in a large asylum seeker centre in the province of Catania. A stool sample was obtained from all the enrolled subjects and a coproparasitological examination was performed...
June 2017: Neurological Sciences
Robert H Flecker, Ian W Pray, Saul J Santivaňez, Viterbo Ayvar, Ricardo Gamboa, Claudio Muro, Luz Maria Moyano, Victor Benavides, Hector H Garcia, Seth E O'Neal
BACKGROUND: Taenia solium inflicts substantial neurologic disease and economic losses on rural communities in many developing nations. "Ring-strategy" is a control intervention that targets treatment of humans and pigs among clusters of households (rings) that surround pigs heavily infected with cysticerci. These pigs are typically identified by examining the animal's tongue for cysts. However, as prevalence decreases in intervened communities, more sensitive methods may be needed to identify these animals and to maintain control pressure...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Kate Brizzi, Sonam Pelden, Tshokey Tshokey, Damber K Nirola, Megan B Diamond, Joshua P Klein, Lhab Tshering, Sonam Deki, Dechen Nidup, Veronica Bruno, Pierre Dorny, Hector Hugo Garcia, Farrah J Mateen
BACKGROUND: We sought to provide an assessment of the burden of neurocysticercosis among people with epilepsy (PWE) in Bhutan and evaluate the yield of various tests for Taenia solium. METHODS: PWE were enrolled at the National Referral Hospital in Thimphu (2014-2015). Serum was tested for anti-Taenia solium IgG using ELISA (Ab-ELISA), enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB), and parasite antigen. Results were compared to brain MRI. Participants were categorized as definite neurocysticercosis (MRI and EITB positive), probable neurocysticercosis (MRI or EITB positive), or without neurocysticercosis...
September 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Danilo Solano, Juan Carlos Navarro, Antonio León-Reyes, Washington Benítez-Ortiz, Richar Rodríguez-Hidalgo
Tapeworms Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are the causative agents of taeniasis/cysticercosis. These are diseases with high medical and veterinary importance due to their impact on public health and rural economy in tropical countries. The re-emergence of T. solium as a result of human migration, the economic burden affecting livestock industry, and the large variability of symptoms in several human cysticercosis, encourage studies on genetic diversity, and the identification of these parasites with molecular phylogenetic tools...
December 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Toan Nguyen, Fei Wen Cheong, Jonathan Wee Kent Liew, Yee Ling Lau
BACKGROUND: Despite the global effort against neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), developing countries with middle to low income are still burdened by them. Vietnam has been undergoing substantial economic growth and urbanization, but underprivileged people living in rural and suburban areas are still having little access to public health infrastructure and proper sanitation. Hitherto, limited information is available for seroprevalence and risk factors of several parasitic diseases in Vietnam...
September 5, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
J Tharmalingam, A T Prabhakar, P Gangadaran, P Dorny, J Vercruysse, P Geldhof, V Rajshekhar, M Alexander, A Oommen
Neurocysticercosis (NCC), Taenia solium larval infection of the brain, is an important cause of acquired seizures in endemic countries, which relate to number, location and degenerating cysts in the brain. Multicyst infections are common in endemic countries although single-cyst infection prevails in India. Single-cyst infections in an endemic country suggest a role for host immunity limiting the infection. This study examined ex vivo CD4(+) T cells and in vitro Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses to T. solium cyst antigens of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy subjects from endemic and nonendemic regions and of single- and multicyst-infected patients for association with cyst burden of NCC...
October 2016: Parasite Immunology
Pramod K Mishra, Qun Li, Luis E Munoz, Chris A Mares, Elizabeth G Morris, Judy M Teale, Astrid E Cardona
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the most common helminth parasitic diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and the leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. NCC is caused by the presence of the metacestode larvae of the tapeworm Taenia solium within brain tissues. NCC patients exhibit a long asymptomatic phase followed by a phase of symptoms including increased intra-cranial pressure and seizures. While the asymptomatic phase is attributed to the immunosuppressive capabilities of viable T. solium parasites, release of antigens by dying organisms induce strong immune responses and associated symptoms...
June 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
John C Lam, Stephen R Robinson, Andrew Schell, Stephen Vaughan
BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis occurs when the eggs of the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) migrate and hatch into larvae within the central nervous system. Neurocysticercosis is the most common cause of seizures in the developing world and is characterized on brain imaging by cysts in different stages of evolution. In Canada, cases of neurocysticercosis are rare and most of these patients acquire the disease outside of Canada. We report the case of a patient with multiple intracranial lesions whose history and diagnostic imaging were consistent with neurocysticercosis...
June 2, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
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