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Héctor F Araya, Hugo Sepulveda, Carlos O Lizama, Oscar A Vega, Sofia Jerez, Pedro F Briceño, Roman Thaler, Scott M Riester, Marcelo Antonelli, Flavio Salazar-Onfray, Juan Pablo Rodríguez, Ricardo D Moreno, Martin Montecino, Martine Charbonneau, Claire M Dubois, Gary S Stein, Andre J van Wijnen, Mario A Galindo
Osteoblast differentiation is controlled by transcription factor RUNX2 which temporally activates or represses several bone-related genes, including those encoding extracellular matrix proteins or factors that control cell-cell, and cell-matrix interactions. Cell-cell communication in the many skeletal pericellular micro-niches is critical for bone development and involves paracrine secretion of growth factors and morphogens. This paracrine signaling is in part regulated by "A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase" (ADAM) proteins...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Zbigniew Gugala, Elizabeth A Olmsted-Davis, Yuqing Xiong, Eleanor L Davis, Alan R Davis
De novo bone formation can occur in soft tissues as a result of traumatic injury. This process, known as heterotopic ossification (HO), has recently been linked to the peripheral nervous system. Studies suggest that HO may resemble neural crest-derived bone formation and is activated through the release of key bone matrix proteins leading to opening of the blood-nerve barrier (BNB). One of the first steps in this process is the activation of a neuro-inflammatory cascade, which results in migration of chondro-osseous progenitors, and other cells from both the endoneurial and perineurial regions of the peripheral nerves...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Tomás Armenteros, Zoraida Andreu, Rafael Hortigüela, D Chichung Lie, Helena Mira
Neuronal production from neural stem cells persists during adulthood in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Extracellular signals provided by the hippocampal microenvironment regulate the neuronal fate commitment of the stem cell progeny. To date, the identity of those signals and their crosstalk has been only partially resolved. Here we show that adult rat hippocampal neural stem and progenitor cells (AH-NSPCs) express receptors for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and that the BMP/P-Smad pathway is active in AH-NSPCs undergoing differentiation towards the neuronal lineage...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Genciana Terova, Simona Rimoldi, Marisol Izquierdo, Cristina Pirrone, Wafa Ghrab, Giovanni Bernardini
Currently, the larviculture of many marine fish species with small-sized larvae depends for a short time after hatching, on the supply of high-quality live zooplankton to ensure high survival and growth rates. During the last few decades, the research community has made great efforts to develop artificial diets, which can completely substitute live prey. However, studies aimed at determining optimal levels of minerals in marine larvae compound feeds and the potential of novel delivery vectors for mineral acquisition has only very recently begun...
June 17, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Zengkui Lu, Lixin Du, Ruizao Liu, Ran Di, Liping Zhang, Youji Ma, Qing Li, Enmin Liu, Mingxing Chu, Caihong Wei
MicroRNA (miRNA) is a sort of endogenous ~20-25 nt non-coding RNAs, and it can regulate a variety of biological events. We found the miR-378 may involve in regulating the muscle development of sheep during our previous research. However, the molecular mechanism of miR-378 regulating myoblast proliferation is still unclear. In this research, we predicted that BMP2 (Bone morphogenetic protein 2) was the target gene of miR-378 and the BMP-Smad signal pathway that BMP2 participated in playing an important role in the muscle development...
June 13, 2018: Gene
Sofia Bougioukli, Osamu Sugiyama, Ram K Alluri, Robert Yoho, Daniel A Oakes, Jay R Lieberman
In this study, we developed a lentiviral two-step transcriptional amplification (TSTA) system expressing bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) under the control of a GAL4FF transactivator to enhance gene expression and limit toxicity for bone repair applications. To this end human MSCs, isolated from bone marrow or adipose tissue, were transduced overnight with a LV-TSTA system (GAL4FF or GAL4vp16) expressing BMP-2 or GFP and evaluated in vitro for transduction efficiency, mean fluorescence intensity, cell viability, and BMP-2 production...
June 15, 2018: Gene Therapy
Shuangshuang Wang, Siwang Hu, Jian Wang, Yahui Liu, Ruochi Zhao, Maoqing Tong, Hanbin Cui, Nan Wu, Xiaomin Chen
BACKGROUND: Arterial calcification is associated with cardiovascular disease as a complication of advanced atherosclerosis and is a significant contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in arterial calcification and is characterized by cellular necrosis, inflammation, and lipoprotein and phospholipid complexes, especially in atherosclerotic calcification. The conditioned medium from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-CM) is well known as a rich source of autologous cytokines and is universally used for tissue regeneration in current clinical medicine...
June 13, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Inés Moreno-Jiménez, Stuart A Lanham, Janos M Kanczler, Gry Hulsart-Billstrom, Nicholas D Evans, Richard O C Oreffo
Traditionally used as an angiogenic assay, the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay of the chick embryo offers significant potential as an in vivo model for xenograft organ-culture. Viable human bone can be cultivated on the CAM and increases in bone volume are evident, however, it remains unclear by what mechanism this change occurs and whether this reflects the physiological process of bone remodelling. In this study we tested the hypothesis that CAM-induced bone remodelling is a consequence of host and graft mediated processes...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Shuli Fan, Xiang Gao, Peng Chen, Xu Li
Myricetin has been reported to promote osteogenic differentiation and inhibit osteoclastogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of myricetin on glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) both in vivo and in vitro. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were given dexamethasone (DEX, 0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) once daily and myricetin (1 mg/kg or 2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) once every other day for a total of five weeks. Body weight was recorded once a week. Bone mineral density (BMD), the activities or levels of bone turnover markers, and histological changes were assessed...
June 5, 2018: Life Sciences
Tao Chen, Si Wang, Fan He, Zhijun Guo, Pei Hu, Rui Zhao, Yuanding Huang, Qianming Chen, Ping Ji, Liangyin Chu, Shujuan Zou
A bioactive paradigm is required to promote osseointegration of implant materials. Here, a protamine/alginate/bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) biofunctionalized composite coating was created on nanopolymorphic titanium (Ti) surfaces to promote the osseointegration of Ti implants. Alkali and heat (AH) treatment was used to make porous Ti implants (TiAH) with a superhydrophilic and negatively charged surface, which facilitates the adsorption of a positively charged protamine/alginate/protamine (TiAH-Pro/Alg/Pro) coating...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Bongjun Kim, Jong-Ho Lee, Won Jong Jin, Hong-Hee Kim, Hyunil Ha, Zang Hee Lee
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) signaling has been shown to inhibit osteogenesis. However, therapeutic efficacy of inhibiting PDGF signaling to bone regeneration in vivo and the specific mechanisms by which PDGFR signaling inhibits osteogenic differentiation remain unclear. In the present study, we examined the osteogenic effect of inhibiting PDGFR using trapidil, a PDGFR antagonist, in vivo and in vitro, and evaluated its mechanisms. A rat calvarial defect model was analyzed by micro-computed tomography and histology to determine the pro-osteogenic effect of trapidil in vivo...
June 4, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Haruka Suzuki, Shunsuke Yaguchi
During gastrulation, one of the most important morphogenetic events in sea urchin embryogenesis, the gut bends toward the ventral side to form an open mouth. Although the involvement of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signals in the cell-fate specification of the ectoderm and endoderm along the dorsal-ventral axis has been well reported, it remains unclear what controls the morphogenetic behavior of gut bending. Here, using two sea urchin species, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus and Temnopleurus reevesii, we show that TGF-β signals are required for gut bending toward the ventral side...
May 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
E M Lennon, L B Borst, L L Edwards, A J Moeser
Mast cells are well established as divergent modulators of inflammation and immunosuppression, but their role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains to be fully defined. While previous studies have demonstrated a proinflammatory role for mast cells in acute models of chemical colitis, more recent investigations have shown that mast cell deficiency can exacerbate inflammation in spontaneous colitis models, thus suggesting a potential anti-inflammatory role of mast cells in IBD. Here, we tested the hypothesis that in chronic, spontaneous colitis, mast cells are protective...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Hong-Jin Zhao, Hsun-Ming Chang, Hua Zhu, Christian Klausen, Yan Li, Peter C K Leung
Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and activin A belong to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and are highly expressed in human endometrium and placenta. Studies have demonstrated that activin A and BMP2 play essential roles in the process of early embryo implantation by promoting human trophoblast cell invasion. However, whether activin A production can be regulated by BMP2 in human trophoblast cells remains unknown. The aim of our study was to determine the effects of BMP2 on activin A production and its role in human trophoblast invasion...
May 25, 2018: Endocrinology
Na Lv, Meng Zhao, Yantao Han, Lianhua Cui, Weizhen Zhong, Chunbo Wang, Qixiao Jiang
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a wide spread environmental pollutant, was associated with developmental cardiotoxicity in chicken embryo, while the underlying molecular mechanism had not been fully elucidated. In the current study, 2 mg/kg (egg weight) PFOA and/or 100 mg/kg (egg weight) l-carnitine were exposed to embryonic day zero (ED0) chicken embryo via air cell injection, and then bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) silencing lentivirus or BMP2 recombinant protein were introduced into ED2 embryo. Electrocardiography and histological methods were utilized to assess the cardiac function and morphology in hatchling chickens, respectively...
May 23, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Youn Hee Jee, Jeffrey Baron, Ola Nilsson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genome-wide approaches including genome-wide association studies as well as exome and genome sequencing represent powerful new approaches that have improved our ability to identify genetic causes of human disorders. The purpose of this review is to describe recent advances in the genetic causes of short stature. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to SHOX deficiency which is one of the most common causes of isolated short stature, PAPPA2, aggrecan, C-natriuretic peptide, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), NPR2 (CNP receptor), protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11(PTPN11) (and other rasopathies), Fibrillin 1 (FBN1), IHH and BMP2 have been identified in isolated growth disorders with or without other mild skeletal findings...
May 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Yonglun Kong, Qingchun Liang, Yanting Chen, Pingzhen Yang, Xiaoyu Liu, Yining Li, Siyuan Feng, Ji Wu, Wantao Liu, Jingyi Tang, Huimin Yu, Jing-Song Ou, Lihe Lu, Jianyun Yan
Vascular calcification is a highly regulated biological process similar to bone formation involving osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Hyaluronan (HA), a major structural component of the extracellular matrix in cartilage, has been shown to inhibit osteoblast differentiation. However, whether HA affects osteogenic differentiation and calcification of VSMCs remains unclear. In the present study, we used in vitro and ex vivo models of vascular calcification to investigate the role of HA in vascular calcification...
May 21, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Xiang Lu, Kai Li, Youtao Xie, Shengcai Qi, Qingyi Shen, Jiangming Yu, Liping Huang, Xuebin Zheng
Osteoimmunology has revealed the importance of a favorable immune response for successful biomaterial-mediated osteogenesis. Boron-incorporated calcium silicate (Ca11 Si4 B2 O22 , B-CS) coating has been reported as a potential candidate for improving osteogenesis in orthopedic applications in vitro. However, relatively little is known about its effects on the immune response and subsequent osteogenesis. In this work, the immunomodulatory properties of the B-CS coating and its specific mechanism of action were explored...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Qingqing Wu, Bo Yang, Cong Cao, Kevin Hu, Ping Wang, Yi Man
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are regarded as a new cell source for regenerative medicine. Recent advances in tissue engineering have brought to light the therapeutic application of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in bone defect repair. However, a safe and efficient way to differentiate iPSCs into osteogenic lineage remains to be a major challenge. Here we describe an approach using anti-BMP2 antibodies (Abs) to mediate osteogenic differentiation of iPSC-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (iMSCs)...
May 17, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Rajnee Kanwal, Sanjeev Shukla, Ethan Walker, Sanjay Gupta
The role of CD133 (Prominin-1) as a cancer stem cell marker may be useful for therapeutic approaches and prognostication in prostate cancer patients. We investigated the stem-cell-related function and biological features of a subpopulation of CD133+ cells isolated from established primary human prostate cancer cell lines. The CD133+ cells sorted from human prostate cancer 22Rv1 exhibited high clonogenic and tumorigenic capabilities, sphere forming capacity and serially reinitiated transplantable tumors in NOD-SCID mice...
May 15, 2018: Cancer Letters
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