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Riki Terui, Koji Nagao, Yoshitaka Kawasoe, Kanae Taki, Torahiko L Higashi, Seiji Tanaka, Takuro Nakagawa, Chikashi Obuse, Hisao Masukata, Tatsuro S Takahashi
Post-replicative correction of replication errors by the mismatch repair (MMR) system is critical for suppression of mutations. Although the MMR system may need to handle nucleosomes at the site of chromatin replication, how MMR occurs in the chromatin environment remains unclear. Here, we show that nucleosomes are excluded from a >1-kb region surrounding a mismatched base pair in Xenopus egg extracts. The exclusion was dependent on the Msh2-Msh6 mismatch recognition complex but not the Mlh1-containing MutL homologs and counteracts both the HIRA- and CAF-1 (chromatin assembly factor 1)-mediated chromatin assembly pathways...
June 13, 2018: Genes & Development
Menattallah Elserafy, Arwa A Abugable, Reham Atteya, Sherif F El-Khamisy
Not only have helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF) and SNF2 histone-linker PHD-finger RING-finger helicase (SHPRH) proved to be important players in post-replication repair like their yeast counterpart, Rad5, but they are also involved in multiple biological functions and are associated with several human disorders. We provide here an updated view of their functions, associated diseases, and potential therapeutic approaches.
May 25, 2018: Trends in Genetics: TIG
Haifeng Wang, Danhua Jiang, Elin Axelsson, Zdravko J Lorković, Sean Montgomery, Sarah Holec, Bas J G E Pieters, Abbas H K Al Temimi, Jasmin Mecinović, Frédéric Berger
Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1) is a major regulator of chromatin structure and function. In animals, the network of proteins interacting with HP1 is mainly associated with constitutive heterochromatin marked by H3K9me3. HP1 physically interacts with the putative orthologue of the SNF2 chromatin remodeler ATRX, which controls deposition of the histone variant H3.3 in mammals. In Arabidopsis thaliana, we show that the orthologue of ATRX participates in H3.3 deposition and characterize the function of conserved domains of plant ATRX...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Plant
Elisa Dultz, Roberta Mancini, Guido Polles, Pascal Vallotton, Frank Alber, Karsten Weis
Chromatin organization is highly dynamic and regulates transcription. Upon transcriptional activation, chromatin is remodeled and referred to as "open", but quantitative and dynamic data of this decompaction process are lacking. Here, we have developed a quantitative high-resolution microscopy assay in living yeast cells to visualize and quantify chromatin dynamics using the GAL7-10-1 locus as a model system. Upon transcriptional activation of these three clustered genes, we detect an increase of the mean distance across this locus by >100 nm...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Chetan Purushottam Raut, Kunal Sunder Sethi, Bhagyashree Kohale, Alefiya Mamajiwala, Ayushya Warang
Background: Postsurgical root sensitivity has always been an enigma to the periodontists. There is a plethora of evidence suggesting the presence of root sensitivity following periodontal flap surgical procedures. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare and evaluate the effect of low-power diode lasers with and without topical application of stannous fluoride (SnF2 ) gel in the treatment of root sensitivity and also evaluate whether laser creates any placebo effect in the control group or not...
March 2018: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Zhiye Wang, Zeyang Ma, Claudia Castillo-González, Di Sun, Yanjun Li, Bin Yu, Baoyu Zhao, Pingwei Li, Xiuren Zhang
Chromatin remodelling factors (CHRs) typically function to alter chromatin structure. CHRs also reside in ribonucleoprotein complexes, but little is known about their RNA-related functions. Here we show that CHR2 (also known as BRM), the ATPase subunit of the large switch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) complex, is a partner of the Microprocessor component Serrate (SE). CHR2 promotes the transcription of primary microRNA precursors (pri-miRNAs) while repressing miRNA accumulation in vivo. Direct interaction with SE is required for post-transcriptional inhibition of miRNA accumulation by CHR2 but not for its transcriptional activity...
May 16, 2018: Nature
Cristina Krause, Nathalie Lunau, Farzana Sufi
OBJECTIVES: To examine dentin hypersensitivity (DH) at multiple time points over a 14-day period in participants who brushed twice daily with a 0.454% SnF2 dentifrice (Test) compared to a 0.76% sodium monofluorophosphate dentifrice with no known anti-sensitivity properties (Control). METHODS: This was a two-week, single-center, randomized, controlled, examiner-blind, two-treatment, parallel-group study in healthy participants with DH. The sensitivity of two selected test teeth and of all sensitive teeth was assessed at baseline and after one, three, seven, 10, and 14 days' treatment in response to evaporative (air) Schiff sensitivity score and visual analogue scale [VAS]) and tactile (tactile threshold) stimuli...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
Michael Cannon, Deepa Khambe, Malgorzata Klukowska, David L Ramsey, Melanie Miner, Tom Huggins, Donald J White
OBJECTIVES: The clinical effects of stannous fluoride (SnF2) dentifrice in reducing symptoms of gingivitis and reducing the virulence of subgingival plaque through suppression of activation of gene expression in toll receptor based reporter cells were previously reported. This study expanded analysis of the clinical study to include evaluation of dentifrice effects on salivary metabolites using 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) systems biology-based metabonomics. METHODS: The clinical design was reported previously (J Clin Dent2017;28:16-26)...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
Kaitlyn Ellis, Joanna Wardwell-Ozgo, Kenneth H Moberg, Barry Yedvobnick
The Drosophila domino locus encodes DNA-dependent ATPases of the SWI2/SNF2 class. This class of chromatin remodeler is associated with an array of cellular activities encompassing transcription, replication, repair and recombination. Moreover, domino was observed initially to maintain a repressive chromatin state via genetic interaction studies with homeotic genes. Although domino mutations were also characterized with a cell death phenotype, its association with a death pathway has not been investigated. Here we have used targeted RNA interference to depress domino function in the wing...
May 11, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Ritu Bansal, Vijendra Arya, Ramesh Sethy, Radhakrishnan Rakesh, Rohini Muthuswami
ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling proteins use the energy released from ATP hydrolysis to reposition nucleosomes in DNA-dependent processes.  These proteins are classified as SF2 helicases. SMARCAL1, a member of this protein family, is known to modulate both DNA repair and transcription by specifically recognizing DNA molecules possessing double-strand to single-strand transition regions.  Mutations in this gene cause a rare autosomal recessive disorder known as Schimke Immuno-Osseous Dysplasia (SIOD). Structural studies have shown that the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling proteins possess two Rec A-like domains termed as Rec A-like domain 1 and Rec A-like domain 2...
May 10, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Cristiane Meira Assunção, Adrian Lussi, Jonas Almeida Rodrigues, Thiago Saads Carvalho
AIM: To evaluate the erosive preventive effect of toothpastes in permanent (PT) and deciduous teeth (dt). DESIGN: Enamel samples were divided into five groups (n = 20): G1: placebo toothpaste; G2: NaF toothpaste; G3: AmF-NaF-SnCl2 anti-erosion toothpaste; G4: SnF2- toothpaste; and G5: NaF anti-erosion toothpaste for children. The samples were exposed to five erosion-abrasion cycles (artificial saliva incubation; 3 min in 1% citric acid; 2 min in slurry, toothbrush abrasion, 50 strokes, 200 g)...
May 2, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
A Lucchese, A Bertacci, S Zanna, S Chersoni, M Manuelli, A Visone, D Moro, G Valdrè
This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness in reducing dentine permeability of three different toothpastes comparing with a sodium fluoride one. Dentine permeability was measured by a fluid filtration system. Dentin discs were randomized in four experimental groups and treated with different commercial toothpastes, as it follows. Group A: Sensodyne® Rapid, with strontium acetate; group B: Elmex Sensitive ProfessionalTM, with arginine and 450 ppm monofluoro-phosphate; group C: Colgate Total Advanced®, with 1450 ppm NaF; group D: AZ Pro-Expert®, with 1100 ppm SnF2...
March 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
A Bertacci, A Lucchese, S Chersoni, S Zanna, M Manuelli, G Valdrè
This study aimed to evaluate the effect in vitro of a single application of a stannous fluoride- (SnF2-) containing toothpaste on eroded enamel. Forty-eight teeth were subjected to three acid treatments: 15% hydrochloric acid for 120 s (HA group); 1% citric acid (pH=4) for 180 s (CA group); 37% phosphoric acid for 30 s (PA group). They were brushed with an electric toothbrush with pressure control and 1 g of SnF2 (1100 ppm) toothpaste for 2 min. Polyether replicas of buccal enamel surfaces were obtained at baseline, after acid exposure and after brushing, gold sputtered and inspected by SEM for fluid droplets presence...
March 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Sebastian Eustermann, Kevin Schall, Dirk Kostrewa, Kristina Lakomek, Mike Strauss, Manuela Moldt, Karl-Peter Hopfner
In the eukaryotic nucleus, DNA is packaged in the form of nucleosomes, each of which comprises about 147 base pairs of DNA wrapped around a histone protein octamer. The position and histone composition of nucleosomes is governed by ATP-dependent chromatin remodellers1-3 such as the 15-subunit INO80 complex 4 . INO80 regulates gene expression, DNA repair and replication by sliding nucleosomes, the exchange of histone H2A.Z with H2A, and the positioning of + 1 and -1 nucleosomes at promoter DNA5-8 . The structures and mechanisms of these remodelling reactions are currently unknown...
April 2018: Nature
Rafael Ayala, Oliver Willhoft, Ricardo J Aramayo, Martin Wilkinson, Elizabeth A McCormack, Lorraine Ocloo, Dale B Wigley, Xiaodong Zhang
Access to DNA within nucleosomes is required for a variety of processes in cells including transcription, replication and repair. Consequently, cells encode multiple systems that remodel nucleosomes. These complexes can be simple, involving one or a few protein subunits, or more complicated multi-subunit machines 1 . Biochemical studies2-4 have placed the motor domains of several chromatin remodellers in the superhelical location 2 region of the nucleosome. Structural studies of yeast Chd1 and Snf2-a subunit in the complex with the capacity to remodel the structure of chromatin (RSC)-in complex with nucleosomes5-7 have provided insights into the basic mechanism of nucleosome sliding performed by these complexes...
April 2018: Nature
Liu Qian, Yilin Sun, Mingmao Wu, Chun Li, Dan Xie, Liming Ding, Gaoquan Shi
Organo-lead halide perovskites have emerged as promising materials for high-performance photodetectors. However, the toxicity of lead cations in these materials limits their further applications. Here, a flexible photoconductor is developed based on lead-free two-dimensional (2D) perovskite (PEA)2SnI4via a one-step solution processing method. The flexible transparent electrodes are patterned from rGO/(PEDOT:PSS) hybrid films. The stability and reproducibility of the devices are significantly improved on adding 30 mol% SnF2 to the perovskite...
April 19, 2018: Nanoscale
Sung-Hwan Cho, Chung-Hee Lee, Eunji Gi, Yehyun Yim, Hee-Jong Koh, Kiyoon Kang, Nam-Chon Paek
In rice ( Oryza sativa ), moderate leaf rolling increases photosynthetic competence and raises grain yield; therefore, this important agronomic trait has attracted much attention from plant biologists and breeders. However, the relevant molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, we isolated and characterized Rolled Fine Striped ( RFS ), a key gene affecting rice leaf rolling, chloroplast development, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging. The rfs-1 gamma-ray allele and the rfs-2 T-DNA insertion allele of RFS failed to complement each other and their mutants had similar phenotypes, producing extremely incurved leaves due to defective development of vascular cells on the adaxial side...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Wen Shuo Chen, Ling Yu Guo, Chia Chun Tang, Cheng Kang Tsai, Hui Hua Huang, Ting Yu Chin, Mong-Lin Yang, Yui Whei Chen-Yang
In this study, we first synthesized a slow-degrading silica nanofiber (SNF2) through an electrospun solution with an optimized tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) ratio. Then, laminin-modified SNF2, namely SNF2-AP-S-L, was obtained through a series of chemical reactions to attach the extracellular matrix protein, laminin, to its surface. The SNF2-AP-S-L substrate was characterized by a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, and contact angle measurements...
March 14, 2018: Nanomaterials
Buqing Ye, Benyu Liu, Liuliu Yang, Xiaoxiao Zhu, Dongdong Zhang, Wei Wu, Pingping Zhu, Yanying Wang, Shuo Wang, Pengyan Xia, Ying Du, Shu Meng, Guanling Huang, Jiayi Wu, Runsheng Chen, Yong Tian, Zusen Fan
Divergent long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent a major lncRNA biotype in mouse and human genomes. The biological and molecular functions of the divergent lncRNAs remain largely unknown. Here, we show that lncKdm2b , a divergent lncRNA for Kdm2b gene, is conserved among five mammalian species and highly expressed in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and early embryos. LncKdm2b knockout impairs ESC self-renewal and causes early embryonic lethality. LncKdm2b can activate Zbtb3 by promoting the assembly and ATPase activity of Snf2-related CREBBP activator protein (SRCAP) complex in trans Zbtb3 potentiates the ESC self-renewal in a Nanog-dependent manner...
April 13, 2018: EMBO Journal
Alejandro Saettone, Jyoti Garg, Jean-Philippe Lambert, Syed Nabeel-Shah, Marcelo Ponce, Alyson Burtch, Cristina Thuppu Mudalige, Anne-Claude Gingras, Ronald E Pearlman, Jeffrey Fillingham
BACKGROUND: The chromatin remodelers of the SWI/SNF family are critical transcriptional regulators. Recognition of lysine acetylation through a bromodomain (BRD) component is key to SWI/SNF function; in most eukaryotes, this function is attributed to SNF2/Brg1. RESULTS: Using affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry (AP-MS) we identified members of a SWI/SNF complex (SWI/SNFTt ) in Tetrahymena thermophila. SWI/SNFTt is composed of 11 proteins, Snf5Tt , Swi1Tt , Swi3Tt , Snf12Tt , Brg1Tt , two proteins with potential chromatin-interacting domains and four proteins without orthologs to SWI/SNF proteins in yeast or mammals...
March 9, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
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