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Dong Zhang, Yuhong Li, Xinyu Zhang, Ping Zha, Rongcheng Lin
Chlorophyll biosynthesis is critical for chloroplast development and photosynthesis in plants. Although reactions in the biosynthetic pathway are well established, little is known about the regulation of this pathway. In this study, we found that the dark-grown knockout and knockdown mutants and RNA interference transgenic seedlings of BRAHMA (BRM), encoding a SWI2/SNF2 chromatin-remodeling ATPase, had higher greening rates, accumulated less protochlorophyllide, and produced less reactive oxygen species than did Arabidopsis wild-type plants upon light exposure...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Plant
Ruirui Huang, Qiangqiang Ding, Yanan Xiang, Tingting Gu, Yi Li
DNA methylation plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Mushrooms belonging to the phylum Basidiomycota are highly valued for both nutritional and pharmaceutical uses. A growing number of studies have demonstrated the significance of DNA methylation in the development of plants and animals. However, our understanding of DNA methylation in mushrooms is limited. In this study, we identified and conducted comprehensive analyses on DNA methyltransferases (DNMtases) in representative species from Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, and obtained new insights into their classification and characterization in fungi...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yunmin Xu, Changkui Guo, Bingying Zhou, Chenlong Li, Huasen Wang, Ben Zheng, Han Ding, Zhujun Zhu, Angela Peragine, Yuhai Cui, Scott Poethig, Gang Wu
Plants progress from a juvenile vegetative phase of development to an adult vegetative phase of development before they enter the reproductive phase. miR156 has been shown to be the master regulator of the juvenile-to-adult transition in plants. However, the mechanism of how miR156 is transcriptionally regulated still remains elusive. In a forward genetic screen, we identified that a mutation in the SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodeling ATPase BRAHMA (BRM) exhibited an accelerated vegetative phase change phenotype by reducing the expression of miR156, which in turn caused a corresponding increase in the levels of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE genes...
December 2016: Plant Physiology
Dmitry M Korzhnev, Dante Neculai, Sirano Dhe-Paganon, Cheryl H Arrowsmith, Irina Bezsonova
HLTF is a SWI2/SNF2-family ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzyme that acts in the error-free branch of DNA damage tolerance (DDT), a cellular mechanism that enables replication of damaged DNA while leaving damage repair for a later time. Human HLTF and a closely related protein SHPRH, as well as their yeast homologue Rad5, are multi-functional enzymes that share E3 ubiquitin-ligase activity required for activation of the error-free DDT. HLTF and Rad5 also function as ATP-dependent dsDNA translocases and possess replication fork reversal activities...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
Lin Ma, Feng Hao, Constantinos C Stoumpos, Brian T Phelan, Michael R Wasielewski, Mercouri G Kanatzidis
The dynamics of photoexcited lead-free perovskite films, CH3NH3SnI3, were studied using broadband transient absorption (TA) and time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) spectroscopy. Similar to its lead analogue CH3NH3PbI3, we show that free carrier (electrons and holes) recombination is also the dominant relaxation pathway in CH3NH3SnI3 films. The slow hot carrier relaxation time is 0.5 ps. Long carrier diffusion lengths for electrons (279 ± 88 nm) and holes (193 ± 46 nm) were obtained from fluorescence quenching measurements...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Stéphanie Käser-Pébernard, Catherine Pfefferli, Caroline Aschinger, Chantal Wicky
BACKGROUND: The nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase complex promotes cell fate decisions throughout embryonic development. Its core enzymatic subunit, the SNF2-like ATPase and Helicase Mi2, is well conserved throughout the eukaryotic kingdom and can be found in multiple and highly homologous copies in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. However, the reasons for such duplications and their implications for embryonic development are unknown. RESULTS: Here we studied the two C...
2016: Epigenetics & Chromatin
C Ganss, J Marten, A T Hara, N Schlueter
OBJECTIVES: To investigate in vitro a range of differently characterised toothpastes with respect to their efficacy in an erosion/abrasion setting with special emphasis on the role of the particulate ingredients. METHODS: Human enamel samples were erosively demineralised with citric acid (2min, 6×/day; 0.5%, pH 2.5; 10 days) and immersed in slurries (2min, 2×/day) either without or with brushing (15s, load 200g). The toothpastes were eight NaF-toothpastes, three hydroxyapatite-toothpastes (one without and two with NaF), one fluoride-free chitosan-toothpaste and three Sn-toothpastes...
November 2016: Journal of Dentistry
Karin Weiss, Paulien A Terhal, Lior Cohen, Michael Bruccoleri, Melita Irving, Ariel F Martinez, Jill A Rosenfeld, Keren Machol, Yaping Yang, Pengfei Liu, Magdalena Walkiewicz, Joke Beuten, Natalia Gomez-Ospina, Katrina Haude, Chin-To Fong, Gregory M Enns, Jonathan A Bernstein, Judith Fan, Garrett Gotway, Mohammad Ghorbani, Koen van Gassen, Glen R Monroe, Gijs van Haaften, Lina Basel-Vanagaite, Xiang-Jiao Yang, Philippe M Campeau, Maximilian Muenke
Chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 4 (CHD4) is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler involved in epigenetic regulation of gene transcription, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. Also known as Mi2β, CHD4 is an integral subunit of a well-characterized histone deacetylase complex. Here we report five individuals with de novo missense substitutions in CHD4 identified through whole-exome sequencing and web-based gene matching. These individuals have overlapping phenotypes including developmental delay, intellectual disability, hearing loss, macrocephaly, distinct facial dysmorphisms, palatal abnormalities, ventriculomegaly, and hypogonadism as well as additional findings such as bone fusions...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Christian F Nielsen, Ian D Hickson
PICH is an SNF2-family DNA translocase that appears to play a role specifically in mitosis. Characterization of PICH in human cells led to the initial discovery of "ultra-fine DNA bridges" (UFBs) that connect the 2 segregating DNA masses in the anaphase of mitosis. These bridge structures, which arise from specific regions of the genome, are a normal feature of anaphase but had escaped detection previously because they do not stain with commonly used DNA dyes. Nevertheless, UFBs are important for genome maintenance because defects in UFB resolution can lead to cytokinesis failure...
October 17, 2016: Cell Cycle
Aparajita Gangrade, Vandana Gade, Sanjay Patil, Jaykumar Gade, Deepika Chandhok, Deepa Thakur
BACKGROUND: Caries is the most common dental disease facing the world population. Caries can be prevented by remineralizing early enamel lesions. AIM: To evaluate remineralization efficacy of stannous fluoride (SnF2), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate with fluoride (CPP-ACPF) and calcium sucrose phosphate (CaSP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty enamel samples were taken; they were divided into five groups (n = 10). Demineralization was carried out with Groups A, B, C, and E...
July 2016: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
Chao Wang, Mana Oki, Toru Nishikawa, Daisuke Harada, Mari Yotsu-Yamashita, Kazuo Nagasawa
11-Saxitoxinethanoic acid (SEA) is a member of the saxitoxin (STX) family of paralytic shellfish poisons, and contains an unusual C-C bond at the C11 position. Reported herein is a total synthesis of SEA. The key to our synthesis lies in a Mukaiyama aldol condensation reaction of silyl enol ether with glyoxylate in the presence of an anhydrous fluoride reagent, [Bu4 N][Ph3 SnF2 ], which directly constructs the crucial C-C bond at the C11 position in SEA. The NaV Ch-inhibitory activities of SEA and its derivatives were evaluated by means of cell-based assay...
September 12, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Yi Qu, Naouel Gharbi, Xing Yuan, Jan Roger Olsen, Pernille Blicher, Bjørn Dalhus, Karl A Brokstad, Biaoyang Lin, Anne Margrete Øyan, Weidong Zhang, Karl-Henning Kalland, Xisong Ke
Oncogenic mutations of the Wnt (wingless)/β-catenin pathway are frequently observed in major cancer types. Thus far, however, no therapeutic agent targeting Wnt/β-catenin signaling is available for clinical use. Here we demonstrate that axitinib, a clinically approved drug, strikingly blocks Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cancer cells, zebrafish, and Apc(min/+) mice. Notably, axitinib dramatically induces Wnt asymmetry and nonrandom DNA segregation in cancer cells by promoting nuclear β-catenin degradation independent of the GSK3β (glycogen synthase kinase3β)/APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) complex...
August 16, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
N X West, T He, E L Macdonald, J Seong, N Hellin, M L Barker, S L Eversole
OBJECTIVES: The aim of these investigations was to assess the ability of two fluoride dentifrices to protect against the initiation and progression of dental erosion using a predictive in vitro erosion cycling model and a human in situ erosion prevention clinical trial for verification of effectiveness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A stabilized stannous fluoride (SnF2) dentifrice (0.454 % SnF2 + 0.077 % sodium fluoride [NaF]; total F = 1450 ppm F) [dentifrice A] and a sodium monofluorophosphate [SMFP]/arginine dentifrice (1...
August 1, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
Inga Harks, Yvonne Jockel-Schneider, Ulrich Schlagenhauf, Theodor W May, Martina Gravemeier, Karola Prior, Gregor Petersilka, Benjamin Ehmke
AIM: This 12-week prospective, randomized, double-blind, two-center trial evaluated the impact of a microcrystalline zinc hydroxyapatite (mHA) dentifrice on plaque formation rate (PFR) in chronic periodontitis patients. We hypothesized that mHA precipitates cause delayed plaque development when compared to a fluoridated control (AmF/SnF2), and therefore would improve periodontal health. MATERIAL & METHODS: At baseline and after 4 and 12 weeks, PFR and other clinical and microbiological parameters were recorded...
2016: PloS One
Daniela Kobbe, Andy Kahles, Maria Walter, Tobias Klemm, Anja Mannuss, Alexander Knoll, Manfred Focke, Holger Puchta
DNA lesions such as crosslinks represent obstacles for the replication machinery. Nonetheless, replication can proceed via the DNA damage tolerance pathway also known as postreplicative repair pathway. SNF2 ATPase Rad5 homologs, such as RAD5A of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, are important for the error-free mode of this pathway. We able to demonstrate before, that RAD5A is a key factor in the repair of DNA crosslinks in Arabidopsis. Here, we show by in vitro analysis that AtRAD5A protein is a DNA translocase able to catalyze fork regression...
July 26, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Yanan Wang, Juanxiu Qin, Qian Liu, Xufen Hong, Tianming Li, Yuanjun Zhu, Lei He, Bing Zheng, Min Li
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and has an extremely poor prognosis. Surgical resection is always inapplicable to HCC patients diagnosed at an advanced tumor stage. The mechanisms underlying HCC cell proliferation remain obscure. In the present study, SWItch/sucrose nonfermentable catalytic subunit SNF2 (SNF2H) expression was tested in HCC tissues and Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation upon overexpression of SNF2H or knockdown of SNF2H expression was investigated in cultured HCC cells...
August 2016: Oncology Letters
Guichuan Xing, Mulmudi Hemant Kumar, Wee Kiang Chong, Xinfeng Liu, Yao Cai, Hong Ding, Mark Asta, Michael Grätzel, Subodh Mhaisalkar, Nripan Mathews, Tze Chien Sum
The family of solution-processed tin-based perovskites is demonstrated as a new and superior near-infrared gain medium. Due to the large electron-hole bimolecular recombination associated with tin and the reduced trap density with SnF2 treatment, these lead-free "green" perovskites yield stable coherent light emission extending to ≈1 μm at strikingly low thresholds.
July 15, 2016: Advanced Materials
Stephanie Hampp, Tina Kiessling, Kerstin Buechle, Sabrina F Mansilla, Jürgen Thomale, Melanie Rall, Jinwoo Ahn, Helmut Pospiech, Vanesa Gottifredi, Lisa Wiesmüller
DNA damage tolerance facilitates the progression of replication forks that have encountered obstacles on the template strands. It involves either translesion DNA synthesis initiated by proliferating cell nuclear antigen monoubiquitination or less well-characterized fork reversal and template switch mechanisms. Herein, we characterize a novel tolerance pathway requiring the tumor suppressor p53, the translesion polymerase ι (POLι), the ubiquitin ligase Rad5-related helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF), and the SWI/SNF catalytic subunit (SNF2) translocase zinc finger ran-binding domain containing 3 (ZRANB3)...
July 26, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xian Xia, Xiaoyu Liu, Tong Li, Xianyang Fang, Zhucheng Chen
SWI2/SNF2 family proteins regulate a myriad of nucleic acid transactions by sliding, removing and reconstructing nucleosomes in eukaryotic cells. They contain two RecA-like core domains, which couple ATP hydrolysis and DNA translocation to chromatin remodeling. Here we report the crystal structure of Snf2 from the yeast Myceliophthora thermophila. The data show the two RecA-like core domains of Snf2 stacking together and twisting their ATP-binding motifs away from each other, thus explaining the inactivity of the protein in the ground state...
August 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Lisa A Poole, David Cortez
DNA replication is constantly challenged by both endogenous and exogenous sources of replication stress. SMARCAL1, an SNF2 family DNA translocase, functions in the DNA damage response to address these obstacles and promote the completion of replication. Most studies examining the function of SMARCAL1 and related enzymes have relied on the addition of exogenous genotoxic agents, but SMARCAL1 is needed even in the absence of these drugs to maintain genome stability during DNA replication. We recently determined that SMARCAL1 functions to limit DNA damage during replication of difficult-to-replicate telomere sequences...
May 3, 2016: Nucleus
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