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W Chen, Q Zhu, Y Liu, Q Zhang
Chromatin remodeling, an important facet of the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes, is performed by two major types of multisubunit complexes, covalent histone- or DNA-modifying complexes, and ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling complexes. Snf2 family DNA-dependent ATPases constitute the catalytic subunits of ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling complexes, which accounts for energy supply during chromatin remodeling. Increasing evidence indicates a critical role of chromatin remodeling in the establishment of long-lasting, even transgenerational immune memory in plants, which is supported by the findings that DNA methylation, histone deacetylation, and histone methylation can prime the promoters of immune-related genes required for disease defense...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
Dongli Wan, Yongqing Wan, Qi Yang, Bo Zou, Weibo Ren, Yong Ding, Zhen Wang, Ruigang Wang, Kai Wang, Xiangyang Hou
Stipa grandis P. Smirn. is a dominant plant species in the typical steppe of the Xilingole Plateau of Inner Mongolia. Selection of suitable reference genes for the quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is important for gene expression analysis and research into the molecular mechanisms underlying the stress responses of S. grandis. In the present study, 15 candidate reference genes (EF1 beta, ACT, GAPDH, SamDC, CUL4, CAP, SNF2, SKIP1, SKIP5, SKIP11, UBC2, UBC15, UBC17, UCH, and HERC2) were evaluated for their stability as potential reference genes for qRT-PCR under different stresses...
2017: PloS One
Lan Liu, Tao Jiang
Fun30 (Function unknown now 30) is a chromatin remodeller belonging to the Snf2 family. It has previously been reported to be a regulator of several cellular activities, including DNA repair, gene silencing and maintenance of chromatin structure. Here, the crystal structure of the Fun30 ATPase-C domain (the C-lobe of the ATPase domain) is reported at 1.95 Å resolution. Although the structure displays overall similarities to those of other Snf2 family members, a new structural module was found to be specific to the Fun30 subfamily...
January 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
Athanassios G Kontos, Andreas Kaltzoglou, Eirini Siranidi, Dimitrios Palles, Giasemi K Angeli, Michalis K Arfanis, Vassilis Psycharis, Yannis S Raptis, Efstratios I Kamitsos, Pantelis N Trikalitis, Constantinos C Stoumpos, Mercouri G Kanatzidis, Polycarpos Falaras
The CsSnI3 perovskite and the corresponding SnF2-containing material with nominal composition CsSnI2.95F0.05 were synthesized by solid-state reactions and structurally characterized by powder X-ray diffraction. Both materials undergo rapid phase transformation upon exposure to air from the black orthorhombic phase (B-γ-CsSnI3) to the yellow orthorhombic phase (Y-CsSnI3), followed by irreversible oxidation into Cs2SnI6 within several hours. The phase transition occurs at a significantly lower rate in the SnF2-containing material rather than in the pure perovskite...
January 3, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Iliana Diamanti, Haroula Koletsi-Kounari, Eleni Mamai-Homata
BACKGROUND: Fluoride toothpastes presumably offer some protection against acid erosion. However, uncertainty exists towards fluoride's efficacy relatively to the concentration and the type of chemical compound used. This in vitro study evaluated the relative efficacy of toothpastes containing sodium fluoride in different concentrations or a stabilized stannous fluoride/sodium fluoride system on root dentine erosion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bovine dentin specimens were allocated into four groups (n=10): control (no F), 1450ppm F (as NaF), 5000ppm F (as NaF) and 1450ppm F (1100ppm as stabilized SnF2 and 350ppm as NaF)/sodium hexamethaphosphate...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
Rebecca L Hood, Laila C Schenkel, Sarah M Nikkel, Peter J Ainsworth, Guillaume Pare, Kym M Boycott, Dennis E Bulman, Bekim Sadikovic
Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is an autosomal dominant genetic condition characterized by short stature, delayed osseous maturation, expressive language impairment, and unique facial dysmorphology. We previously identified mutations in the chromatin remodeling protein SRCAP (SNF2-related CBP Activator Protein) as the cause of FHS. SRCAP has multiple roles in chromatin and transcriptional regulation; however, specific epigenetic consequences of SRCAP mutations remain to be described. Using high resolution genome-wide DNA methylation analysis, we identified a unique and highly specific DNA methylation "epi-signature" in the peripheral blood of individuals with FHS...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lijuan Yan, Li Wang, Yuanyuan Tian, Xian Xia, Zhucheng Chen
ISWI is a member of the SWI2/SNF2 family of chromatin remodellers, which also includes Snf2, Chd1, and Ino80. ISWI is the catalytic subunit of several chromatin remodelling complexes, which mobilize nucleosomes along genomic DNA, promoting replication progression, transcription repression, heterochromatin formation, and many other nuclear processes. The ATPase motor of ISWI is an autonomous remodelling machine, whereas its carboxy (C)-terminal HAND-SAND-SLIDE (HSS) domain functions in binding extranucleosomal linker DNA...
December 15, 2016: Nature
Dong Zhang, Yuhong Li, Xinyu Zhang, Ping Zha, Rongcheng Lin
Chlorophyll biosynthesis is critical for chloroplast development and photosynthesis in plants. Although reactions in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway have been largely known, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of this pathway. In this study, we found that the dark-grown knockout and knockdown mutants as well as RNA-interference transgenic seedlings of BRAHMA (BRM), which encodes an SWI2/SNF2 chromatin-remodeling ATPase, had higher greening rates, accumulated less protochlorophyllide, and produced less reactive oxygen species than Arabidopsis wild-type plants did upon light exposure...
January 9, 2017: Molecular Plant
Ruirui Huang, Qiangqiang Ding, Yanan Xiang, Tingting Gu, Yi Li
DNA methylation plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Mushrooms belonging to the phylum Basidiomycota are highly valued for both nutritional and pharmaceutical uses. A growing number of studies have demonstrated the significance of DNA methylation in the development of plants and animals. However, our understanding of DNA methylation in mushrooms is limited. In this study, we identified and conducted comprehensive analyses on DNA methyltransferases (DNMtases) in representative species from Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, and obtained new insights into their classification and characterization in fungi...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yunmin Xu, Changkui Guo, Bingying Zhou, Chenlong Li, Huasen Wang, Ben Zheng, Han Ding, Zhujun Zhu, Angela Peragine, Yuhai Cui, Scott Poethig, Gang Wu
Plants progress from a juvenile vegetative phase of development to an adult vegetative phase of development before they enter the reproductive phase. miR156 has been shown to be the master regulator of the juvenile-to-adult transition in plants. However, the mechanism of how miR156 is transcriptionally regulated still remains elusive. In a forward genetic screen, we identified that a mutation in the SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodeling ATPase BRAHMA (BRM) exhibited an accelerated vegetative phase change phenotype by reducing the expression of miR156, which in turn caused a corresponding increase in the levels of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE genes...
December 2016: Plant Physiology
Dmitry M Korzhnev, Dante Neculai, Sirano Dhe-Paganon, Cheryl H Arrowsmith, Irina Bezsonova
HLTF is a SWI2/SNF2-family ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzyme that acts in the error-free branch of DNA damage tolerance (DDT), a cellular mechanism that enables replication of damaged DNA while leaving damage repair for a later time. Human HLTF and a closely related protein SHPRH, as well as their yeast homologue Rad5, are multi-functional enzymes that share E3 ubiquitin-ligase activity required for activation of the error-free DDT. HLTF and Rad5 also function as ATP-dependent dsDNA translocases and possess replication fork reversal activities...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
Lin Ma, Feng Hao, Constantinos C Stoumpos, Brian T Phelan, Michael R Wasielewski, Mercouri G Kanatzidis
The dynamics of photoexcited lead-free perovskite films, CH3NH3SnI3, were studied using broadband transient absorption and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Similar to its lead analogue CH3NH3PbI3, we show that free carrier (electrons and holes) recombination is also the dominant relaxation pathway in CH3NH3SnI3 films. The slow hot carrier relaxation time is 0.5 ps. Long carrier diffusion lengths for electrons (279 ± 88 nm) and holes (193 ± 46 nm) were obtained from fluorescence quenching measurements...
November 9, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Stéphanie Käser-Pébernard, Catherine Pfefferli, Caroline Aschinger, Chantal Wicky
BACKGROUND: The nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase complex promotes cell fate decisions throughout embryonic development. Its core enzymatic subunit, the SNF2-like ATPase and Helicase Mi2, is well conserved throughout the eukaryotic kingdom and can be found in multiple and highly homologous copies in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. However, the reasons for such duplications and their implications for embryonic development are unknown. RESULTS: Here we studied the two C...
2016: Epigenetics & Chromatin
C Ganss, J Marten, A T Hara, N Schlueter
OBJECTIVES: To investigate in vitro a range of differently characterised toothpastes with respect to their efficacy in an erosion/abrasion setting with special emphasis on the role of the particulate ingredients. METHODS: Human enamel samples were erosively demineralised with citric acid (2min, 6×/day; 0.5%, pH 2.5; 10 days) and immersed in slurries (2min, 2×/day) either without or with brushing (15s, load 200g). The toothpastes were eight NaF-toothpastes, three hydroxyapatite-toothpastes (one without and two with NaF), one fluoride-free chitosan-toothpaste and three Sn-toothpastes...
November 2016: Journal of Dentistry
Karin Weiss, Paulien A Terhal, Lior Cohen, Michael Bruccoleri, Melita Irving, Ariel F Martinez, Jill A Rosenfeld, Keren Machol, Yaping Yang, Pengfei Liu, Magdalena Walkiewicz, Joke Beuten, Natalia Gomez-Ospina, Katrina Haude, Chin-To Fong, Gregory M Enns, Jonathan A Bernstein, Judith Fan, Garrett Gotway, Mohammad Ghorbani, Koen van Gassen, Glen R Monroe, Gijs van Haaften, Lina Basel-Vanagaite, Xiang-Jiao Yang, Philippe M Campeau, Maximilian Muenke
Chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 4 (CHD4) is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler involved in epigenetic regulation of gene transcription, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. Also known as Mi2β, CHD4 is an integral subunit of a well-characterized histone deacetylase complex. Here we report five individuals with de novo missense substitutions in CHD4 identified through whole-exome sequencing and web-based gene matching. These individuals have overlapping phenotypes including developmental delay, intellectual disability, hearing loss, macrocephaly, distinct facial dysmorphisms, palatal abnormalities, ventriculomegaly, and hypogonadism as well as additional findings such as bone fusions...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Christian F Nielsen, Ian D Hickson
PICH is an SNF2-family DNA translocase that appears to play a role specifically in mitosis. Characterization of PICH in human cells led to the initial discovery of "ultra-fine DNA bridges" (UFBs) that connect the 2 segregating DNA masses in the anaphase of mitosis. These bridge structures, which arise from specific regions of the genome, are a normal feature of anaphase but had escaped detection previously because they do not stain with commonly used DNA dyes. Nevertheless, UFBs are important for genome maintenance because defects in UFB resolution can lead to cytokinesis failure...
October 17, 2016: Cell Cycle
Aparajita Gangrade, Vandana Gade, Sanjay Patil, Jaykumar Gade, Deepika Chandhok, Deepa Thakur
BACKGROUND: Caries is the most common dental disease facing the world population. Caries can be prevented by remineralizing early enamel lesions. AIM: To evaluate remineralization efficacy of stannous fluoride (SnF2), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate with fluoride (CPP-ACPF) and calcium sucrose phosphate (CaSP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty enamel samples were taken; they were divided into five groups (n = 10). Demineralization was carried out with Groups A, B, C, and E...
July 2016: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
Chao Wang, Mana Oki, Toru Nishikawa, Daisuke Harada, Mari Yotsu-Yamashita, Kazuo Nagasawa
11-Saxitoxinethanoic acid (SEA) is a member of the saxitoxin (STX) family of paralytic shellfish poisons, and contains an unusual C-C bond at the C11 position. Reported herein is a total synthesis of SEA. The key to our synthesis lies in a Mukaiyama aldol condensation reaction of silyl enol ether with glyoxylate in the presence of an anhydrous fluoride reagent, [Bu4 N][Ph3 SnF2 ], which directly constructs the crucial C-C bond at the C11 position in SEA. The NaV Ch-inhibitory activities of SEA and its derivatives were evaluated by means of cell-based assay...
September 12, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Yi Qu, Naouel Gharbi, Xing Yuan, Jan Roger Olsen, Pernille Blicher, Bjørn Dalhus, Karl A Brokstad, Biaoyang Lin, Anne Margrete Øyan, Weidong Zhang, Karl-Henning Kalland, Xisong Ke
Oncogenic mutations of the Wnt (wingless)/β-catenin pathway are frequently observed in major cancer types. Thus far, however, no therapeutic agent targeting Wnt/β-catenin signaling is available for clinical use. Here we demonstrate that axitinib, a clinically approved drug, strikingly blocks Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cancer cells, zebrafish, and Apc(min/+) mice. Notably, axitinib dramatically induces Wnt asymmetry and nonrandom DNA segregation in cancer cells by promoting nuclear β-catenin degradation independent of the GSK3β (glycogen synthase kinase3β)/APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) complex...
August 16, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
N X West, T He, E L Macdonald, J Seong, N Hellin, M L Barker, S L Eversole
OBJECTIVES: The aim of these investigations was to assess the ability of two fluoride dentifrices to protect against the initiation and progression of dental erosion using a predictive in vitro erosion cycling model and a human in situ erosion prevention clinical trial for verification of effectiveness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A stabilized stannous fluoride (SnF2) dentifrice (0.454 % SnF2 + 0.077 % sodium fluoride [NaF]; total F = 1450 ppm F) [dentifrice A] and a sodium monofluorophosphate [SMFP]/arginine dentifrice (1...
August 1, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
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