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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608078/how-do-task-characteristics-affect-learning-and-performance-the-roles-of-variably-mapped-and-dynamic-tasks
#1
Brooke N Macnamara, David J Frank
For well over a century, scientists have investigated individual differences in performance. The majority of studies have focused on either differences in practice, or differences in cognitive resources. However, the predictive ability of either practice or cognitive resources varies considerably across tasks. We are the first to examine task characteristics' impact on learning and performance in a complex task while controlling for other task characteristics. In 2 experiments we test key theoretical task characteristic thought to moderate the relationship between practice, cognitive resources, and performance...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573562/lived-experiences-of-negative-symptoms-in-first-episode-psychosis-a-qualitative-secondary-analysis
#2
Brioney Gee, Jo Hodgekins, Anna Lavis, Caitlin Notley, Max Birchwood, Linda Everard, Nick Freemantle, Peter B Jones, Swaran P Singh, Tim Amos, Max Marshall, Vimal Sharma, Jo Smith, David Fowler
AIM: Exploring how negative symptoms are experienced and understood by individuals with lived experience of psychosis has the potential to offer insights into the complex psychosocial processes underlying negative symptom presentations. The aim of the current study was to investigate lived experiences of negative symptoms through secondary analysis of interviews conducted with individuals recovering from first-episode psychosis. METHOD: Transcripts of in-depth interviews with participants (n = 24) recruited from Early Intervention in Psychosis services were analysed thematically with a focus on participants' experiences and personal understandings of features corresponding to the negative symptoms construct...
March 24, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540067/the-synthetic-cathinone-%C3%AE-pyrrolidinovalerophenone-%C3%AE-pvp-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-clinical-and-forensic-aspects
#3
Leandro Nóbrega, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
New psychoactive substances (NPS), often referred as 'legal highs' or 'designer drugs', are derivatives and analogs of existing psychoactive drugs that are introduced in the recreational market to circumvent existing legislation on drugs of abuse. This work aims to review the state-of-the-art regarding chemical, molecular pharmacology, and in vitro and in vivo data on toxicokinetics of the potent synthetic cathinone α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP or flakka or zombie drug). Chemical, pharmacological, toxicological, and clinical effects of α-PVP were searched in PubMed (U...
March 14, 2018: Drug Metabolism Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498591/the-metaphorical-zombie-a-review-of-zombie-theory-a-reader-edited-by-sarah-juliet-lauro
#4
Paul Daugherty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2018: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422623/identification-of-novel-cell-impermeant-fluorescent-substrates-for-testing-the-function-and-drug-interaction-of-organic-anion-transporting-polypeptides-oatp1b1-1b3-and-2b1
#5
Izabel Patik, Virág Székely, Orsolya Német, Áron Szepesi, Nóra Kucsma, György Várady, Gergely Szakács, Éva Bakos, Csilla Özvegy-Laczka
Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptides are multispecific membrane proteins that regulate the passage of crucial endobiotics and drugs across pharmacological barriers. OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 have been described to play a major role in the hepatic uptake of statins, antivirals and various chemotherapeutics; whereas the pharmacological role of the ubiquitously expressed OATP2B1 is less well characterized. According to current industry standards, in vitro testing for susceptibility to OATP1B1 and 1B3 mediated transport is recommended for drug candidates that are eliminated in part via the liver...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362862/the-development-of-an-in-vitro-pig-a-assay-in-l5178y-cells
#6
Rhiannon David, Emily Talbot, Bethany Allen, Amy Wilson, Usman Arshad, Ann Doherty
A recent flow cytometry-based in vivo mutagenicity assay involves the hemizygous phosphatidylinositol class A (Pig-a) gene. Pig-a forms the catalytic subunit of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase required for glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor biosynthesis. Mutations in Pig-a prevent GPI-anchor synthesis resulting in loss of cell-surface GPI-linked proteins. The aim of the current study was to develop and validate an in vitro Pig-a assay in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-treated cells (186...
April 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331683/appropriate-fossil-calibrations-and-tree-constraints-uphold-the-mesozoic-divergence-of-solenodons-from-other-extant-mammals
#7
Mark S Springer, William J Murphy, Alfred L Roca
The mammalian order Eulipotyphla includes four extant families of insectivorans: Solenodontidae (solenodons); Talpidae (moles); Soricidae (shrews); and Erinaceidae (hedgehogs). Of these, Solenodontidae includes only two extant species, which are endemic to the largest islands of the Greater Antilles: Cuba and Hispaniola. Most molecular studies suggest that eulipotyphlan families diverged from each other across several million years, with the basal split between Solenodontidae and other families occurring in the Late Cretaceous...
April 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193640/rise-of-the-zombie-institution-the-failure-of-mental-health-nursing-leadership-and-mental-health-nursing-as-a-zombie-category
#8
Richard Lakeman, Luke Molloy
In this paper, we propose that mental health nursing has become a zombie category, at least in the Australian context. Mental health nursing is a concept that has lost any real explanatory or conceptual power, yet nevertheless persists in public discourse and the collective imagination. In recent decades, powerful forces have contributed to the zombification of the mental health nursing workforce and the academy. An increase in medical hegemony, the ascendancy of allied health in mental health service provision, the need for uncritical and servile workers, protocol-driven work practices, and a failure of leadership to mobilize any substantial resistance to these trends have enabled the infection to spread...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144213/timely-trigger-of-caterpillar-zombie-behaviour-temporal-requirements-for-light-in-baculovirus-induced-tree-top-disease
#9
Yue Han, Stineke van Houte, Monique M van Oers, Vera I D Ros
Host behavioural manipulation is a common strategy used by parasites to enhance their survival and/or transmission. Baculoviruses induce hyperactivity and tree-top disease (pre-death climbing behaviour) in their caterpillar hosts. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this behavioural manipulation. A previous study showed that the baculovirus Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) induced tree-top disease at 3 days post infection in third instar S. exigua larvae and that light plays a key role in triggering this behaviour...
November 16, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094960/overconfidence-among-beginners-is-a-little-learning-a-dangerous-thing
#10
Carmen Sanchez, David Dunning
Across 6 studies we investigated the development of overconfidence among beginners. In 4 of the studies, participants completed multicue probabilistic learning tasks (e.g., learning to diagnose "zombie diseases" from physical symptoms). Although beginners did not start out overconfident in their judgments, they rapidly surged to a "beginner's bubble" of overconfidence. This bubble was traced to exuberant and error-filled theorizing about how to approach the task formed after just a few learning experiences...
January 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078408/reply-to-gatesy-and-springer-claims-of-homology-errors-and-zombie-lineages-do-not-compromise-the-dating-of-placental-diversification
#11
Liang Liu, Jin Zhang, Frank E Rheindt, Fumin Lei, Yanhua Qu, Yu Wang, Yu Zhang, Corwin Sullivan, Wenhui Nie, Jinhuan Wang, Fengtang Yang, Jinping Chen, Scott V Edwards, Jin Meng, Shaoyuan Wu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072283/to-stay-young-kill-zombie-cells
#12
Megan Scudellari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043944/courting-apocalypse-creating-a-zombie-themed-evidence-based-medicine-game
#13
Amy E Blevins, Elizabeth Kiscaden, Jason Bengtson
In 2015, two librarians at the Hardin Library for the Health Sciences at the University of Iowa turned their dreams into a reality and secured funding to build a zombie-themed evidence-based medicine game. The game features a "choose your own adventure" style that takes students through a scenario where a disease outbreak is taking place and a resident is asked to use evidence-based medicine skills to select a screening and diagnostic tool to use on potentially infected patients. Feedback on the game has been positive, and future plans include building additional modules on therapy, harm, and prognosis...
October 2017: Medical Reference Services Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031310/in-a-bad-place-carers-of-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer-experiences-of-travelling-for-cancer-treatment
#14
Myles Balfe, Kieran Keohane, Katie O' Brien, Rachael Gooberman-Hill, Rebecca Maguire, Paul Hanly, Eleanor O' Sullivan, Linda Sharp
PURPOSE: To explore the effect that treatment-related commuting has on carers of patients with head and neck cancer. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews, thematically analysed, with 31 carers. RESULTS: Treatment-related commuting had a considerable impact on carers of patients with head and neck cancer, both in practical terms (economic costs, disruption) and also in psychological terms. Many carers of patients with head and neck cancer described becoming distressed by their commute...
October 2017: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021246/zombie-reviews-taking-over-the-prospero-systematic-review-registry-it-s-time-to-fight-back
#15
EDITORIAL
Renato Andrade, Rogério Pereira, Adam Weir, Clare L Ardern, João Espregueira-Mendes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991606/zombie-issues-in-ophthalmology
#16
EDITORIAL
Nick Mamalis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610553/zombie-projects-negative-networks-and-multigenerational-science-the-temporality-of-the-international-map-of-the-world
#17
William Rankin
The International Map of the World was a hugely ambitious scheme to create standardized maps of the entire world. It was first proposed in 1891 and remained a going concern until 1986. Over the course of the project's official life, nearly every country in the world took part, and map sheets were published showing all but a few areas of the planet. But the project ended quite unceremoniously, repudiated by cartographers and mapping institutions alike, and it is now remembered as a 'sad story' of network failure...
June 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606127/augmentation-of-the-anticancer-activity-of-cyt997-in-human-prostate-cancer-by-inhibiting-src-activity
#18
Yong Teng, Yafei Cai, Wenhu Pi, Lixia Gao, Chloe Shay
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities of tubulin polymerization and microtubule assembly are often seen in cancer, which make them very suitable targets for the development of therapeutic approach against rapidly dividing and aggressive cancer cells. CYT997 is a novel microtubule-disrupting agent with anticancer activity in multiple cancer types including prostate cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of action of CYT997 in prostate cancer have not been well characterized. METHODS: Src knockdown cells were achieved by lentiviral-mediated interference...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539682/the-human-body-as-an-energetic-hybrid-new-perspectives-for-chronic-disease-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Michał Gajewski, Przemysław Rzodkiewicz, Sławomir Maśliński
Inflammatory response is accompanied by changes in cellular energy metabolism. Proinflammatory mediators like plasma C-reactive protein, IL-6, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, TNF-α or monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 released in the site of inflammation activates immune cells and increase energy consumption. Increased demand for energy creates local hypoxia and lead in consequence to mitochondrial dysfunction. Metabolism of cells is switched to anaerobic glycolysis. Mitochondria continuously generate free radicals that what result in imbalance that causes oxidative stress, which results in oxidative damage...
2017: Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535871/zombie-soldier-beetles-epizootics-in-the-goldenrod-soldier-beetle-chauliognathus-pensylvanicus-coleoptera-cantharidae-caused-by-eryniopsis-lampyridarum-entomophthoromycotina-entomophthoraceae
#20
Donald C Steinkraus, Ann E Hajek, Jim K Liebherr
Adult goldenrod soldier beetles, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus, were found infected by the fungus Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina) in Arkansas during September - October (1996, 2001, 2015 and 2016). Living and dead infected beetles were found on flowering frost aster, Symphyotrichum pilosum, common boneset, Eupatorium perfoliatum, and Canada goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Live and dead beetles (n=446) were collected in 1996 from S. pilosum flowers and held individually in the laboratory for determination of fungal prevalence...
September 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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