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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539007/videolaryngoscopy-versus-direct-laryngoscopy-for-tracheal-intubation-in-children-excluding-neonates
#1
REVIEW
Ibtihal S Abdelgadir, Robert S Phillips, Davinder Singh, Michael P Moncreiff, Joanne L Lumsden
BACKGROUND: Direct laryngoscopy is the method currently used for tracheal intubation in children. It occasionally offers unexpectedly poor laryngeal views. Indirect laryngoscopy involves visualizing the vocal cords by means other than obtaining a direct sight, with the potential to improve outcomes. We reviewed the current available literature and performed a meta-analysis to compare direct versus indirect laryngoscopy, or videolaryngoscopy, with regards to efficacy and adverse effects...
May 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538981/association-of-streptococcal-throat-infection-with-mental-disorders-testing-key-aspects-of-the-pandas-hypothesis-in-a-nationwide-study
#2
Sonja Orlovska, Claus Høstrup Vestergaard, Bodil Hammer Bech, Merete Nordentoft, Mogens Vestergaard, Michael Eriksen Benros
Importance: Streptococcal infection has been linked with the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and tic disorders, a concept termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS). However, previous studies of this association have been small, and the results have been conflicting. Objective: To investigate the risk of mental disorders, specifically OCD and tic disorders, after a streptococcal throat infection...
May 24, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538980/downregulation-of-lysyl-oxidase-protects-retinal-endothelial-cells-from-high-glucose-induced-apoptosis
#3
Dongjoon Kim, Robert P Mecham, Philip C Trackman, Sayon Roy
Purpose: To investigate the effect of reducing high glucose (HG)-induced lysyl oxidase (LOX) overexpression and increased activity on retinal endothelial cell apoptosis. Methods: Rat retinal endothelial cells (RRECs) were grown in normal (N) or HG (30 mM glucose) medium for 7 days. In parallel, RRECs were grown in HG medium and transfected with LOX small interfering RNA (siRNA), scrambled siRNA as control, or exposed to β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), a LOX inhibitor...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538979/stanniocalcin-1-is-an-ocular-hypotensive-agent-and-a-downstream-effector-molecule-that-is-necessary-for-the-intraocular-pressure-lowering-effects-of-latanoprost
#4
Gavin W Roddy, Kimberly B Viker, Nelson S Winkler, Cindy K Bahler, Bradley H Holman, David Sheikh-Hamad, Uttio Roy Chowdhury, W Daniel Stamer, Michael P Fautsch
Purpose: To identify downstream signaling molecules through which intraocular pressure (IOP) is lowered following treatment with the prostaglandin analog latanoprost. Methods: Total RNA and protein isolated from primary human Schlemm's canal cells (n = 3) treated with latanoprost (free acid; 100 nM) were processed for quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis. IOP was evaluated in stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1-/-) and wild-type mice following treatment with latanoprost or Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538964/effect-of-a-modified-hospital-elder-life-program-on-delirium-and-length-of-hospital-stay-in-patients-undergoing-abdominal-surgery-a-cluster-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
Cheryl Chia-Hui Chen, Hsiu-Ching Li, Jin-Tung Liang, I-Rue Lai, Jerry Dwi Trijoyo Purnomo, Yi-Ting Yang, Been-Ren Lin, John Huang, Ching-Yao Yang, Yu-Wen Tien, Chiung-Nien Chen, Ming-Tsan Lin, Guan-Hua Huang, Sharon K Inouye
Importance: Older patients undergoing abdominal surgery commonly experience preventable delirium, which extends their hospital length of stay (LOS). Objective: To examine whether a modified Hospital Elder Life Program (mHELP) reduces incident delirium and LOS in older patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cluster randomized clinical trial of 577 eligible patients enrolled 377 older patients (≥65 years of age) undergoing gastrectomy, pancreaticoduodenectomy, and colectomy at a 2000-bed urban medical center in Taipei, Taiwan, from August 1, 2009, through October 31, 2012...
May 24, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538961/validation-of-the-intelligibility-in-context-scale-for-jamaican-creole-speaking-preschoolers
#6
Karla N Washington, Megan M McDonald, Sharynne McLeod, Kathryn Crowe, Hubert Devonish
Purpose: To describe validation of the Intelligibility in Context Scale (ICS; McLeod, Harrison, & McCormack, 2012a) and ICS-Jamaican Creole (ICS-JC; McLeod, Harrison, & McCormack, 2012b) in a sample of typically developing 3- to 6-year-old Jamaicans. Method: One-hundred and forty-five preschooler-parent dyads participated in the study. Parents completed the 7-item ICS (n = 145) and ICS-JC (n = 98) to rate children's speech intelligibility (5-point scale) across communication partners (parents, immediate family, extended family, friends, acquaintances, strangers)...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538869/potential-mechanisms-linking-probiotics-to-diabetes-a-narrative-review-of-the-literature
#7
Maryam Miraghajani, Somayeh Shahraki Dehsoukhteh, Nahid Rafie, Sahar Golpour Hamedani, Sima Sabihi, Reza Ghiasvand
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Some studies have suggested a wide range of possible mechanisms through which probiotics may play a role in diabetes prevention and treatment. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We conducted this study to review the potential mechanisms suggested for the effect of probiotics in diabetes. DESIGN AND SETTING: Narrative review conducted at the Food Security Research Center of Isfahan. METHODS: A search in the electronic databases MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Google scholar was performed up to October 2016...
March 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538843/-measurement-of-physical-activity-by-triaxial-accelerometers-n-schoolchildren-from-three-peruvian-cities
#8
Katherine Alvis-Chirinos, Lucio Huamán-Espino, Jenny Pillaca, Juan Pablo Aparco
Objectives.: To determine the proportion of primary school students who fulfill the World Health Organization (WHO)recommendations on physical activity and the factors associated with less time of moderate-intense physical activity in urban areas of three cities in Peru. Materials and methods.: Cross-sectional study with a random selection of schoolchildren aged 6 to 13 from public educational institutions in urban areas of Chiclayo, Huaraz and Tarapoto. In order to measure the time and intensity of physical activity, schoolchildren were given an accelerometer for a week...
January 2017: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538835/ghrelin-plasma-levels-gastric-ghrelin-cell-density-and-bone-mineral-density-in-women-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#9
F A N Maksud, A M Kakehasi, M F B R Guimarães, C J Machado, A J A Barbosa
Generalized bone loss can be considered an extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that may lead to the occurrence of fractures, resulting in decreased quality of life and increased healthcare costs. The peptide ghrelin has demonstrated to positively affect osteoblasts in vitro and has anti-inflammatory actions, but the studies that correlate ghrelin plasma levels and RA have contradictory results. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between total ghrelin plasma levels, density of ghrelin-immunoreactive cells in the gastric mucosa, and bone mineral density (BMD) in twenty adult women with established RA with 6 months or more of symptoms (mean age of 52...
May 18, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538804/transitional-metaplasia-in-intestinal-epithelium-of-rats-submitted-to-intestinal-cystoplasty-and-treatment-with-l-lysine
#10
Alessandra Marques Dos Santos, Joao Paulo Ferreira Coelho, Camila de Carvalho Juanes, Rafael Barbosa de Azevedo, Clara Araujo Diniz, Francisco Vagnaldo Fechine Jamacaru, Conceição Aparecida Dornelas
Purpose: To evaluated the effects of L-lysine on the intestinal and urothelial epithelia in cystoplasty in rats. Methods: Twenty-eight 9-week-old rats were assigned to 4 groups: Group A (n=8) cystoplasty followed by administration of L-lysine (150 mg/kg body weight by gavage) for 30 weeks; Group B (n=8) cystoplasty + water for 30 weeks; Group C (n=6) L-lysine for 30 weeks; Group D (n=6) water for 30 weeks. Results: On histopathology with hematoxylin and eosin, mild to moderate hyperplasia transitional was observed in at the site of anastomosis in all animals submitted to cystoplasty (Groups A and B), but "transitional metaplasia" of the intestinal glandular epithelium was more accentuated in Group A (p=0...
April 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538781/effects-that-passive-cycling-exercise-have-on-muscle-strength-duration-of-mechanical-ventilation-and-length-of-hospital-stay-in-critically-ill-patients-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#11
Aline Dos Santos Machado, Ruy Camargo Pires-Neto, Maurício Tatsch Ximenes Carvalho, Janice Cristina Soares, Dannuey Machado Cardoso, Isabella Martins de Albuquerque
Objective: To evaluate the effects that passive cycling exercise, in combination with conventional physical therapy, have on peripheral muscle strength, duration of mechanical ventilation, and length of hospital stay in critically ill patients admitted to the ICU of a tertiary care university hospital. Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial involving 38 patients (≥ 18 years of age) on mechanical ventilation who were randomly divided into two groups: control (n = 16), receiving conventional physical therapy; and intervention (n = 22), receiving conventional physical therapy and engaging in passive cycling exercise five days per week...
March 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538780/anatomic-pulmonary-resection-via-video-assisted-thoracic-surgery-analysis-of-117-cases-at-a-referral-center-in-brazil
#12
Stephan Adamour Soder, Frederico Barth, Fabiola Adelia Perin, José Carlos Felicetti, José de Jesus Peixoto Camargo, Spencer Marcantônio Camargo
Objective: To describe our experience with video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) for anatomic pulmonary resection at a referral center for thoracic surgery in Brazil. Methods: All patients who underwent anatomic pulmonary resection by VATS between 2010 and 2015 were included. Clinical and pathological data, as well as postoperative complications, were analyzed. Results: A total of 117 pulmonary resections by VATS were performed, of which 98 were lobectomies and 19 were anatomic segmentectomies...
March 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538734/zika-virus-evolution-and-spread-in-the-americas
#13
Hayden C Metsky, Christian B Matranga, Shirlee Wohl, Stephen F Schaffner, Catherine A Freije, Sarah M Winnicki, Kendra West, James Qu, Mary Lynn Baniecki, Adrianne Gladden-Young, Aaron E Lin, Christopher H Tomkins-Tinch, Simon H Ye, Daniel J Park, Cynthia Y Luo, Kayla G Barnes, Rickey R Shah, Bridget Chak, Giselle Barbosa-Lima, Edson Delatorre, Yasmine R Vieira, Lauren M Paul, Amanda L Tan, Carolyn M Barcellona, Mario C Porcelli, Chalmers Vasquez, Andrew C Cannons, Marshall R Cone, Kelly N Hogan, Edgar W Kopp, Joshua J Anzinger, Kimberly F Garcia, Leda A Parham, Rosa M Gélvez Ramírez, Maria C Miranda Montoya, Diana P Rojas, Catherine M Brown, Scott Hennigan, Brandon Sabina, Sarah Scotland, Karthik Gangavarapu, Nathan D Grubaugh, Glenn Oliveira, Refugio Robles-Sikisaka, Andrew Rambaut, Lee Gehrke, Sandra Smole, M Elizabeth Halloran, Luis Villar, Salim Mattar, Ivette Lorenzana, Jose Cerbino-Neto, Clarissa Valim, Wim Degrave, Patricia T Bozza, Andreas Gnirke, Kristian G Andersen, Sharon Isern, Scott F Michael, Fernando A Bozza, Thiago M L Souza, Irene Bosch, Nathan L Yozwiak, Bronwyn L MacInnis, Pardis C Sabeti
Although the recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas and its link to birth defects have attracted a great deal of attention, much remains unknown about ZIKV disease epidemiology and ZIKV evolution, in part owing to a lack of genomic data. Here we address this gap in knowledge by using multiple sequencing approaches to generate 110 ZIKV genomes from clinical and mosquito samples from 10 countries and territories, greatly expanding the observed viral genetic diversity from this outbreak. We analysed the timing and patterns of introductions into distinct geographic regions; our phylogenetic evidence suggests rapid expansion of the outbreak in Brazil and multiple introductions of outbreak strains into Puerto Rico, Honduras, Colombia, other Caribbean islands, and the continental United States...
May 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538729/cryo-em-structure-of-the-activated-glp-1-receptor-in-complex-with-a-g-protein
#14
Yan Zhang, Bingfa Sun, Dan Feng, Hongli Hu, Matthew Chu, Qianhui Qu, Jeffrey T Tarrasch, Shane Li, Tong Sun Kobilka, Brian K Kobilka, Georgios Skiniotis
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a hormone with essential roles in regulating insulin secretion, carbohydrate metabolism and appetite. GLP-1 effects are mediated through binding to the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), a class B G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that signals primarily through the stimulatory G protein Gs. Class B GPCRs are important therapeutic targets; however, our understanding of their mechanism of action is limited by the lack of structural information on activated and full-length receptors. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of the peptide-activated GLP-1R-Gs complex at near atomic resolution...
May 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538727/establishment-and-cryptic-transmission-of-zika-virus-in-brazil-and-the-americas
#15
N R Faria, J Quick, I M Claro, J Thézé, J G de Jesus, M Giovanetti, M U G Kraemer, S C Hill, A Black, A C da Costa, L C Franco, S P Silva, C-H Wu, J Raghwani, S Cauchemez, L du Plessis, M P Verotti, W K de Oliveira, E H Carmo, G E Coelho, A C F S Santelli, L C Vinhal, C M Henriques, J T Simpson, M Loose, K G Andersen, N D Grubaugh, S Somasekar, C Y Chiu, J E Muñoz-Medina, C R Gonzalez-Bonilla, C F Arias, L L Lewis-Ximenez, S A Baylis, A O Chieppe, S F Aguiar, C A Fernandes, P S Lemos, B L S Nascimento, H A O Monteiro, I C Siqueira, M G de Queiroz, T R de Souza, J F Bezerra, M R Lemos, G F Pereira, D Loudal, L C Moura, R Dhalia, R F França, T Magalhães, E T Marques, T Jaenisch, G L Wallau, M C de Lima, V Nascimento, E M de Cerqueira, M M de Lima, D L Mascarenhas, J P Moura Neto, A S Levin, T R Tozetto-Mendoza, S N Fonseca, M C Mendes-Correa, F P Milagres, A Segurado, E C Holmes, A Rambaut, T Bedford, M R T Nunes, E C Sabino, L C J Alcantara, N J Loman, O G Pybus
Transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas was first confirmed in May 2015 in northeast Brazil. Brazil has had the highest number of reported ZIKV cases worldwide (more than 200,000 by 24 December 2016) and the most cases associated with microcephaly and other birth defects (2,366 confirmed by 31 December 2016). Since the initial detection of ZIKV in Brazil, more than 45 countries in the Americas have reported local ZIKV transmission, with 24 of these reporting severe ZIKV-associated disease. However, the origin and epidemic history of ZIKV in Brazil and the Americas remain poorly understood, despite the value of this information for interpreting observed trends in reported microcephaly...
May 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538723/genomic-epidemiology-reveals-multiple-introductions-of-zika-virus-into-the-united-states
#16
Nathan D Grubaugh, Jason T Ladner, Moritz U G Kraemer, Gytis Dudas, Amanda L Tan, Karthik Gangavarapu, Michael R Wiley, Stephen White, Julien Thézé, Diogo M Magnani, Karla Prieto, Daniel Reyes, Andrea M Bingham, Lauren M Paul, Refugio Robles-Sikisaka, Glenn Oliveira, Darryl Pronty, Carolyn M Barcellona, Hayden C Metsky, Mary Lynn Baniecki, Kayla G Barnes, Bridget Chak, Catherine A Freije, Adrianne Gladden-Young, Andreas Gnirke, Cynthia Luo, Bronwyn MacInnis, Christian B Matranga, Daniel J Park, James Qu, Stephen F Schaffner, Christopher Tomkins-Tinch, Kendra L West, Sarah M Winnicki, Shirlee Wohl, Nathan L Yozwiak, Joshua Quick, Joseph R Fauver, Kamran Khan, Shannon E Brent, Robert C Reiner, Paola N Lichtenberger, Michael J Ricciardi, Varian K Bailey, David I Watkins, Marshall R Cone, Edgar W Kopp, Kelly N Hogan, Andrew C Cannons, Reynald Jean, Andrew J Monaghan, Robert F Garry, Nicholas J Loman, Nuno R Faria, Mario C Porcelli, Chalmers Vasquez, Elyse R Nagle, Derek A T Cummings, Danielle Stanek, Andrew Rambaut, Mariano Sanchez-Lockhart, Pardis C Sabeti, Leah D Gillis, Scott F Michael, Trevor Bedford, Oliver G Pybus, Sharon Isern, Gustavo Palacios, Kristian G Andersen
Zika virus (ZIKV) is causing an unprecedented epidemic linked to severe congenital abnormalities. In July 2016, mosquito-borne ZIKV transmission was reported in the continental United States; since then, hundreds of locally acquired infections have been reported in Florida. To gain insights into the timing, source, and likely route(s) of ZIKV introduction, we tracked the virus from its first detection in Florida by sequencing ZIKV genomes from infected patients and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. We show that at least 4 introductions, but potentially as many as 40, contributed to the outbreak in Florida and that local transmission is likely to have started in the spring of 2016-several months before its initial detection...
May 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538675/secondary-sulfonamides-as-effective-lactoperoxidase-inhibitors
#17
Zeynep Köksal, Ramazan Kalin, Yasemin Camadan, Hande Usanmaz, Züleyha Almaz, İlhami Gülçin, Taner Gokcen, Ahmet Ceyhan Gören, Hasan Ozdemir
Secondary sulfonamides (4a-8h) incorporating acetoxybenzamide, triacetoxybenzamide, hydroxybenzamide, and trihydroxybenzamide and possessing thiazole, pyrimidine, pyridine, isoxazole and thiadiazole groups were synthesized. Lactoperoxidase (LPO, E.C.1.11.1.7), as a natural antibacterial agent, is a peroxidase enzyme secreted from salivary, mammary, and other mucosal glands. In the present study, the in vitro inhibitory effects of some secondary sulfonamide derivatives (4a-8h) were examined against LPO. The obtained results reveal that secondary sulfonamide derivatives (4a-8h) are effective LPO inhibitors...
May 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538672/the-influence-of-neighbourhoods-and-the-social-environment-on-sedentary-behaviour-in-older-adults-in-three-prospective-cohorts
#18
Richard J Shaw, Iva Čukić, Ian J Deary, Catharine R Gale, Sebastien F M Chastin, Philippa M Dall, Manon L Dontje, Dawn A Skelton, Laura Macdonald, Geoff Der
Sedentary behaviour is an emerging risk factor for poor health. This study aimed to identify ecological determinants of sedentary behaviour, for which evidence is currently scarce. The study participants were community dwelling adults from, respectively, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (n = 271, mean age 79) and the 1930s (n = 119, mean age 83) and 1950s (n = 310, mean age 64) cohorts of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study. The outcome measure, percentage of waking time spent sedentary (sedentary time), was measured using an activPAL activity monitor worn continuously for seven days...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538656/recent-advances-in-c-c-and-c-n-bond-forming-reactions-catalysed-by-polystyrene-supported-copper-complexes
#19
REVIEW
Pavel Drabina, Jan Svoboda, Miloš Sedlák
This present mini-review covers recently published results on Cu(I) and Cu(II) complexes immobilized on polystyrene carriers, which are used as heterogeneous, eco-friendly reusable catalysts applied for carbon-carbon and carbon-nitrogen forming reactions. Recent advances and trends in this area are demonstrated in the examples of oxidative homocoupling of terminal alkynes, the synthesis of propargylamines, nitroaldolization reactions, azide alkyne cycloaddition, N-arylation of nitrogen containing compounds, aza-Michael additions, asymmetric Friedel-Crafts reactions, asymmetric Mukaiyama aldol reactions, and asymmetric 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides...
May 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538650/consequences-of-pediatric-undertriage-and-overtriage-in-a-statewide-trauma-system
#20
Hilary A Hewes, Mathew Christensen, Peter P Taillac, N Clay Mann, Kammy K Jacobsen, Stephen J Fenton
BACKGROUND: With increasing attention to the quality of health care delivery, evaluating trauma triage decisions in a large system of emergency care can help decision makers reduce mortality, morbidity, unnecessary transfers, and healthcare costs. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the magnitude of pediatric traumatic injury undertriage (hospital mortality risk) and overtriage (early trauma center discharge after transfer) in a statewide trauma system. METHODS: A statewide population-based evaluation of pediatric trauma outcomes and secondary triage (interfacility transfers) patterns from 2001-2013 among 45 hospitals in Utah's statewide trauma system...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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