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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341226/molecular-details-of-spontaneous-insertion-and-interaction-of-hcv-non-structure-3-protease-protein-domain-with-pip2-containing-membrane
#1
Huynh Minh Hung, Tran Dieu Hang, Minh Tho Nguyen
Hepatitis C virus (HCV), known as the leading cause of liver cirrhosis, viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma, has been affecting more than 150 million people globally. The HCV non-structure 3 (NS3) protease protein domain plays a key role in HCV replication and pathogenesis; and is currently a primary target for HCV antiviral therapy. Through unbiased molecular dynamics simulations which take advantage of the novel highly mobile membrane mimetic model, we constructed the membrane-bound state of the protein domain at the atomic level...
January 17, 2018: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340469/sofosbuvir-and-daclatasvir-combination-therapy-for-current-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-4-achieves-svr-a-case-report-of-hcv-genotype-4-from-the-amazon
#2
Andréa Monteiro Tarragô, Grenda Leite Pereira, Flamir da Silva Victória, Adriana Malheiro Alle Marie, Marilú Barbieri Victória
Hepatitis C is a worldwide endemic disease. However, hepatitis C virus genotype 4 (HCV GT-4) has rarely been reported in Brazil. HCV GT-4 demonstrates high sustained virological response (SVR). Here, we report the case of a 62-year-old HCV GT-4 positive woman complaining of a headache, nausea, and arthralgia. The patient was treated according to the protocol for genotype 4 (12 weeks administration of 400mg sofosbuvir and 60mg daclatasvir daily) and achieved SVR. Although this is not an Amazonas autochthonous case, the presence of genotype 4 is rarely reported in the region...
November 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339209/extratumoral-pd-1-blockade-does-not-perpetuate-obesity-associated-inflammation-in-esophageal-adenocarcinoma
#3
Karen C Galvin, Melissa J Conroy, Suzanne L Doyle, Margaret R Dunne, Ronan Fahey, Emma Foley, Katie E O'Sullivan, Derek G Doherty, Justin G Geoghegan, Narayanasamy Ravi, Cliona O'Farrelly, John V Reynolds, Joanne Lysaght
Checkpoint inhibitors, such as anti-PD-1 (Programmed death-1), are transforming cancer treatment for inoperable or advanced disease. As the incidence of obesity-associated malignancies, including esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) continue to increase and treatment with checkpoint inhibitors are being FDA approved for a broader range of cancers, it is important to assess how anti-PD-1 treatment might exacerbate pre-existing inflammatory processes at other sites. Outside the EAC tumor, the omentum and liver were found to be enriched with substantial populations of PD-1 expressing T cells...
January 12, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338160/higher-activities-of-hepatic-versus-splenic-cd8-t-cells-in-responses-to-adoptive-t-cell-therapy-and-vaccination-of-b6-mice-with-mhc-class-1-binding-antigen
#4
Mohamed Labib Salem, Randa E El Naggar, Sabry A El Naggar, Maysa A Mobasher, Mohamed H Mahmoud, Gamal Badr
The liver has unique microenvironment which is known to induce tolerance of cytolytic CD8+ T cells to hepatic and extra hepatic antigens, resulting in persistence of infection of the liver by the hepatitis B and C viruses. However, under some conditions, functional immune responses can be elicited in the liver in particular to show preferential retention of activated CD8+ T cells. It is not clear whether this retention depends on the type of the exogenous immunostimulatory or the endogenous innate immune cells...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337702/changing-concepts-of-hiv-infection-and-renal-disease
#5
Jean Hou, Cynthia C Nast
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) was identified as the major renal manifestation of HIV infection early in the HIV epidemic. However, HIV infection now is associated with a different spectrum of renal lesions leading to chronic kidney disease. This review examines the changes in kidney injury occurring in the current HIV era and the factors involved in this transformation of disease expression. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of HIVAN and opportunistic infections in HIV-infected individuals has declined in concert with the use of effective combination antiretroviral agents...
January 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337457/-pharmacovigilance-update
#6
Françoise Livio
The main pharmacovigilance updates in 2017 are reviewed. Denosumab : rebound-associated multiple vertebral fractures after discontinuation. Canagliflozine: increased risk of foot/leg amputations. Biologic and targeted cancer therapies, direct-acting antivirals for chronic hepatitis C: risk of hepatitis B reactivation. Checkpoint inhibitors : immune-related adverse events and graft rejection. Fingolimod : rebound-associated reactivation of MS following withdrawal. Daclizumab: risk of severe liver injury leading to restricted use in MS patients...
January 10, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337426/prospective-randomized-study-of-conversion-from-tacrolimus-to-cyclosporine-a-to-improve-glucose-metabolism-in-patients-with-posttransplant-diabetes-mellitus-after-renal-transplantation
#7
Karl M Wissing, Daniel Abramowicz, Laurent Weekers, Klemens Budde, Thomas Rath, Oliver Witzke, Nilufer Broeders, Mireille Kianda, Dirk Rj Kuypers
Tacrolimus (TAC) increases the risk of posttransplant diabetes (PTDM) as compared to cyclosporine A (CYC). The present 12-months, multi-center, investigator-driven, prospective, randomized study was designed to assess whether conversion from tacrolimus to cyclosporine A can reverse PTDM after renal transplantation. Predominantly Caucasian patients with PTDM according to the 2005 ADA criteria were randomized to either replacement of tacrolimus with cyclosporine or continuation of their tacrolimus-based regimen after stratification for type of glucose-lowering therapy, steroid therapy and hepatitis C status...
January 16, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334550/chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-subsequent-hiv-viral-load-among-women-with-hiv-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy
#8
Sarah J Willis, Stephen R Cole, Daniel Westreich, Andrew Edmonds, Christopher B Hurt, Svenja Albrecht, Kathryn Anastos, Michael Augenbraun, Margaret Fischl, Audrey L French, Aley G Kalapila, Roksana Karim, Marion G Peters, Michael Plankey, Eric C Seaberg, Phyllis C Tien, Adaora A Adimora
OBJECTIVE(S): One in four persons living with HIV is coinfected with HCV. Biological and behavioral mechanisms may increase HIV viral load among coinfected persons. Therefore, we estimated the longitudinal effect of chronic HCV on HIV suppression after ART initiation among women with HIV (WWH). DESIGN: HIV RNA was measured every six months among 441 WWH in the Women's Interagency HIV Study who initiated ART from 2000-2015. METHODS: Log-binomial regression models were used to compare the proportion of study visits with detectable HIV RNA between women with and without chronic HCV...
January 13, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334197/increased-non-aids-mortality-among-persons-with-aids-defining-events-after-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation
#9
April C Pettit, Mark J Giganti, Suzanne M Ingle, Margaret T May, Bryan E Shepherd, Michael J Gill, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Sophie Abgrall, Michael S Saag, Julia Del Amo, Amy C Justice, Jose M Miro, Matthias Cavasinni, François Dabis, Antonella D Monforte, Peter Reiss, Jodie Guest, David Moore, Leah Shepherd, Niels Obel, Heidi M Crane, Colette Smith, Ramon Teira, Robert Zangerle, Jonathan Ac Sterne, Timothy R Sterling
INTRODUCTION: HIV-1 infection leads to chronic inflammation and to an increased risk of non-AIDS mortality. Our objective was to determine whether AIDS-defining events (ADEs) were associated with increased overall and cause-specific non-AIDS related mortality after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. METHODS: We included HIV treatment-naïve adults from the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) who initiated ART from 1996 to 2014. Causes of death were assigned using the Coding Causes of Death in HIV (CoDe) protocol...
January 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330673/vacuum-assisted-closure-therapy-of-paradoxical-reaction-in-tuberculous-lymphadenopathy-caused-by-mycobacterium-africanum
#10
H F Geerdes-Fenge, P Pongratz, J Liese, E C Reisinger
A 26-year-old HIV-negative male from Ghana was treated for cervical, intrathoracic and abdominal lymph node tuberculosis (TB) and tuberculous hepatitis. Penetration of the thoracic trachea by a mediastinal lymph node had caused bronchomucosal TB. Sputum culture grew M. africanum, sensitive to all first-line antituberculous drugs. Four weeks after the beginning of directly observed treatment with isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol, the right cervical lymph node increased in size, liquefied and caused a spontaneous fistula...
January 12, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329373/co-existing-hepatitis-c-and-alcoholic-liver-disease-a-diminishing-indication-for-liver-transplantation
#11
Amanda Wieland, Gregory T Everson
Aims: To provide an overview of published literature on the interaction of alcohol and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the accelerated progression of liver disease to cirrhosis as relates to decision-making for the management of the liver transplant candidate and recipient. Methods: General PubMed search was employed along with expert input to identify the relevant articles on the topic. The authors also utilized both backward and forward citation review of the relevant articles and reviews to identify articles on identified topic...
January 10, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328881/factors-affecting-the-virological-response-among-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-patients-in-yemen
#12
Zaid Mutahar Mohammed Alezzi, Ayman Yosry Abd El Rehim, Waleed Fouad Fathallah, Mansour Ali Alamrani, Fouad Hezam Othman
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasingly seen as a major public health problem, threat, and concern worldwide. In Yemen about 1.7% of the population is infected with chronic hepatitis C. This study aimed to detect the predictors for response to pegylated interferon and ribavirin (Peg-IFN/RBV) in chronic HCV Yemeni patients. The study was conducted on 100 patients with chronic HCV who received Peg-IFN/RBV in the 48th Military Hospital in Sana'a Yemen, from 2011 to 2013. All patients were subjected to complete history taking, thorough clinical examinations, routine laboratory investigation, and abdominal ultrasonography...
January 2018: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327957/unusual-outbreak-of-fatal-clostridiosis-in-a-group-of-captive-brown-pelicans-pelecanus-occidentalis
#13
Imke Lueders, Carsten Ludwig, Johanna Kasberg, Christoph Georg Baums, Kerstin Klimke, Martin B Dorner, Dana Ströse, Volker Schmidt
Fatal clostridial infections and clostridial toxicoses are common in birds. Most fatalities are associated with toxin production and progress rapidly, often within 24 hours of infection. We describe an unusual and protracted course of disease in 6 captive brown pelicans ( Pelecanus occidentalis), which was believed to result from toxicosis by toxovar A produced by a mixed infection with Clostridium sordellii and Clostridium perfringens. Although the first death in the group occurred 3 days after signs of illness were documented, the remaining birds died over a 38-day period despite aggressive antibiotic and supportive therapy...
December 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327780/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-effectiveness-and-tolerability-of-interferon-free-direct-acting-antiviral-regimens-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-genotype-1-in-routine-clinical-practice-in-asia
#14
REVIEW
F Ji, B Wei, Y H Yeo, E Ogawa, B Zou, C D Stave, Z Li, S Dang, N Furusyo, R C Cheung, M H Nguyen
BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens have shown high efficacy and tolerability for patients with HCV genotype 1/1b (GT1/1b) in clinical trials. However, robust real-world evidence of interferon (IFN)-free DAA treatment for HCV GT1-infected patients in Asia is still lacking. AIM: To systematically review and meta-analyse the effectiveness and tolerability of IFN-free DAA therapy for HCV GT1 infection in Asia. METHODS: We included studies that enrolled adult patients with HCV GT1 infection in routine clinical practice in Asia, using IFN-free DAA regimens, and reported sustained virological response (SVR) after 12/24 weeks end-of-treatment by 31 May 2017...
January 12, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325996/direct-acting-antiviral-therapy-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-the-kidney-transplant-recipient
#15
REVIEW
Donald F Chute, Raymond T Chung, Meghan E Sise
Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) is a common comorbidity in patients who have undergone kidney transplantation and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality compared with recipients who do not have chronic HCV infection. Because interferon-α-based therapies can precipitate acute rejection, they are relatively contraindicated after kidney transplantation. Thus, the majority of kidney transplant recipients with HCV remain untreated. There are now all-oral, interferon-free direct-acting antiviral therapies for HCV infection that are extremely effective and well tolerated in the general population...
January 9, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325299/-hepatitis-c-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-the-treatment-with-direct-acting-antiviral-agents
#16
X Liu, Y H Gao, J Q Niu
With the wide use of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs), more and more patients with chronic hepatitis C achieve sustained virological response; however, no consensus has been reached on the application of DAAs in the treatment of hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This article summarizes and evaluates related issues in this field, including whether antiviral therapy with DAAs in patients with hepatitis C can increase the incidence or recurrence rate of HCC, as well as whether DAAs can be used for hepatitis C in HCC patients after antitumor treatment and the efficacy of DAAs in such patients...
December 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325280/-clinical-value-of-anti-liver-kidney-microsomal-1-antibody-in-patients-with-liver-disease
#17
Y Han, H P Yan, H Y Liao, L M Sun, Y L Huang, C Y Huang, H P Zhang, X D Zhang, X Q Bian, M X Ren, X F Du, Y M Liu
Objective: To investigate the clinical and laboratory features of patients with liver disease and positive anti-liver/kidney microsomal-1 (anti-LKM-1) antibody, and to provide a reference for clinical diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Methods: The clinical data of patients with positive anti-LKM-1 antibody who were treated in our hospital from 2006 to 2016 were collected, and clinical and laboratory features were analyzed and compared. An analysis was also performed for special cases. Results: The measurement of related autoantibodies was performed for about 100 thousand case-times, and 15 patients were found to have positive anti-LKM-1 antibody...
November 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325276/-a-clinical-study-of-antiviral-therapy-for-patients-with-compensated-hepatitis-c-cirrhosis
#18
Z W Xie, J P Li, Y J Guan, X Y Zhang, F X Guo, B B Chen, Calvin Q Pan
Objective: To investigate the effect of antiviral therapy on the progression of liver cirrhosis and related predictive factors through a retrospective analysis of patients with compensated hepatitis C cirrhosis. Methods: The patients with compensated hepatitis C cirrhosis who were treated in our hospital from 2004 to 2015 were divided into sustained virologic response (SVR) group, non-SVR (NSVR) group, and untreated group. The baseline features of patients with or without liver cirrhosis were compared to identify the predictive factors for the progression of liver cirrhosis...
November 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325275/-qualitative-pathological-assessment-of-liver-fibrosis-regression-after-antiviral-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#19
Y M Sun, J L Zhou, L Wang, X N Wu, Y P Chen, H X Piao, L G Lu, W Jiang, Y Q Xu, B Feng, Y M Nan, W Xie, G F Chen, H W Zheng, H Li, H G Ding, H Liu, F D Lyu, C Shao, T L Wang, X J Ou, B Q Wang, S Y Chen, H You, J D Jia
Objective: To investigate the methods for qualitative pathological assessment of dynamic changes in liver fibrosis/cirrhosis after antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), since antiviral therapy can partially reverse liver fibrosis and cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B and semi-quantitative, rather than qualitative, pathological assessment is often used for the research on liver fibrosis regression. Methods: Previously untreated CHB patients with liver fibrosis and cirrhosis were enrolled, and liver biopsy was performed before treatment and at 78 weeks after the antiviral therapy based on entecavir...
November 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325084/metformin-use-reverses-the-increased-mortality-associated-with-diabetes-mellitus-during-tuberculosis-treatment
#20
Nicholas R Degner, Jann-Yuan Wang, Jonathan E Golub, Petros C Karakousis
Background: The global type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) epidemic threatens progress made in reducing tuberculosis (TB)-related mortality worldwide. Previous clinical studies have not fully evaluated potential confounding variables in addressing the impact of DM on TB treatment outcomes. The antidiabetic agent metformin regulates autophagy and may play a role as a host-directed therapeutic adjuvant to antitubercular treatment. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study comprising patients aged ≥13 years undergoing treatment for culture-confirmed, drug-susceptible pulmonary TB...
January 6, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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