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Linear growth

Michail Alevizakos, Marios Detsis, Christos A Grigoras, Jason T Machan, Eleftherios Mylonakis
BACKGROUND: Medication shortages are frequent and have clinical and financial ramifications; however, their effect on drug prices remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine price progression of medications affected by a shortage. METHODS: We collected prices of medications covered under Medicare Part B, reflective of general market prices, and data on clinically relevant shortages for the period 2005-16. We used linear mixed-effects models to examine the price growth of affected medications...
October 21, 2016: Drugs
Doris Franke, Rena Steffens, Lena Thomas, Leo Pavičić, Thurid Ahlenstiel, Lars Pape, Jutta Gellermann, Dominik Müller, Uwe Querfeld, Dieter Haffner, Miroslav Živičnjak
BACKGROUND: Children with chronic kidney disease are frequently born small for gestational age (SGA) and prone to disproportionately short stature. It is unclear how SGA affects growth after kidney transplantation (KTx). METHODS: Linear growth (height, sitting height, and leg length) was prospectively investigated in a cohort of 322 pediatric KTx recipients, with a mean follow-up of 4.9 years. Sitting height index (ratio of sitting height to total body height) was used to assess body proportions...
October 21, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Alexandra Asaro, Gregory Ziegler, Cathrine Ziyomo, Owen Hoekenga, Brian Dilkes, Ivan Baxter
Plants obtain soil-resident elements that support growth and metabolism from the water- flow facilitated by transpiration and active transport processes. The availability of elements in the environment interacts with the genetic capacity of organisms to modulate element uptake through plastic adaptive responses, such as homeostasis. These interactions should cause the elemental contents of plants to vary such that the effects of genetic polymorphisms will be dramatically dependent on the environment in which the plant is grown...
October 21, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Yadvinder Malhi, Cécile A J Girardin, Gregory R Goldsmith, Christopher E Doughty, Norma Salinas, Daniel B Metcalfe, Walter Huaraca Huasco, Javier E Silva-Espejo, Jhon Del Aguilla-Pasquell, Filio Farfán Amézquita, Luiz E O C Aragão, Rossella Guerrieri, Françoise Yoko Ishida, Nur H A Bahar, William Farfan-Rios, Oliver L Phillips, Patrick Meir, Miles Silman
Why do forest productivity and biomass decline with elevation? To address this question, research to date generally has focused on correlative approaches describing changes in woody growth and biomass with elevation. We present a novel, mechanistic approach to this question by quantifying the autotrophic carbon budget in 16 forest plots along a 3300 m elevation transect in Peru. Low growth rates at high elevations appear primarily driven by low gross primary productivity (GPP), with little shift in either carbon use efficiency (CUE) or allocation of net primary productivity (NPP) between wood, fine roots and canopy...
October 21, 2016: New Phytologist
Hung-Wei Yang, Rung-Ywan Tsai, Jung-Po Chen, Shin-Pon Ju, Jing-Fong Liao, KuoChen Wei, Wei-Lun Zou, Mu-Yi Hua
A simple and accurate device for early detection of malignancies is paramount for prompt treatment and prevention of metastases. In this study, we describe a novel fabrication method for producing an ordered nano-gold-dot array with strong localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and narrow bandwidth. The array was used as an optical bio-sensing chip for the detection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human serum. The biochip was constructed by conjugating an anti-VEGF antibody, a specific bio-recognition element for VEGF, onto the array via the fragment crystallizable (Fc) region of the antibody, ultimately increasing the efficiency of VEGF detection...
October 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kristian Jensen, Rikke Krusenstjerna-Hafstrøm, Jesper Lohse, Kenneth H Petersen, Helene Derand
In clinical routine pathology today, detection of protein in intact formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue is limited to immunohistochemistry, which is semi-quantitative. This study presents a new and reliable quantitative immunohistochemistry method, qIHC, based on a novel amplification system that enables quantification of protein directly in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue by counting of dots. The qIHC technology can be combined with standard immunohistochemistry, and assessed using standard bright-field microscopy or image analysis...
October 21, 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Yoonki Hong, You-Sun Kim, Seok-Ho Hong, Yeon-Mok Oh
There is no therapy currently available that influences the natural history of disease progression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although stem cell therapy is considered a potential therapeutic option in COPD, there are no clinical trials proving definitive therapeutic effects in patients with COPD. Recently, it was reported that pioglitazone might potentiate the therapeutic effects of stem cells in patients with heart or liver disease. To test the capacity of pioglitazone pretreatment of stem cells for emphysema repair, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of pioglitazone-pretreated human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) on elastase-induced or cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in mice...
October 21, 2016: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
P D Austin, K S Hand, M Elia
BACKGROUND: As lipid in parenteral nutrition (PN) purportedly enhances microbial growth, recommendations limit infusion of lipid PN (or lipid emulsion) from a single container to 24h (48h for lipid-free PN). However, the associated evidence base is ambiguous. AIM: To examine factors affecting microbial growth in PN. METHODS: A systematic review with meta-analyses examined effects of nutrients on microbial growth in PN infusates over a 48-h period using the growth ratio {GR=log10[colony-forming units (cfu)/mL at 48h/cfu/mL at time zero]}...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Fen Tang, Yixi Xie, Hui Cao, Hua Yang, Xiaoqing Chen, Jianbo Xiao
Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is a universal growth supplement of cell and tissue culture media. Herein, the influences of FBS on the stability and antioxidant activity of 21 resveratrol analogues were investigated using a polyphenol-protein interaction approach. The structure-stability relationships of resveratrol analogues in FBS showed a clear decrease in the stability of hydroxylated resveratrol analogues in the order: resorcinol-type>pyrogallol-type>catechol-type. The glycosylation and methoxylation of resveratrol analogues enhanced their stability...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Mingyong Gao, Paul Lu, Dan Lynam, Bridget Bednark, W Marie Campana, Jeff Sakamoto, Mark Tuszynski
OBJECTIVE: We combined implantation of multi-channel templated agarose scaffolds with growth factor gene delivery to examine whether this combinatorial treatment can enhance peripheral axonal regeneration through long sciatic nerve gaps. APPROACH: 15 mm long scaffolds were templated into highly organized, strictly linear channels, mimicking the linear organization of natural nerves into fascicles of related function. Scaffolds were filled with syngeneic bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) secreting the growth factor brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and lentiviral vectors expressing BDNF were injected into the sciatic nerve segment distal to the scaffold implantation site...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
A L Wilkinson, S H Pedersen, M Urassa, D Michael, A Andreasen, J Todd, S M Kinung'hi, J Changalucha, J M McDermid
OBJECTIVES: HIV infection is associated with chronic systemic inflammation, with or without antiretroviral therapy. Consequences for fetal growth are not understood, particularly in settings where multiple maternal infections and malnutrition are common. The study was designed to examine maternal systemic circulating and umbilical cord blood cytokine concentrations in relation to birth anthropometry in a Tanzanian prospective cohort. METHODS: A 9-plex panel of maternal plasma cytokines in HIV-positive (n=44) and HIV-negative (n=70) mothers and the same cytokines in umbilical cord blood collected at delivery was assayed...
October 20, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Mariya Ptashnyk, Brian Seguin
The microscopic structure and anisotropy of plant cell walls greatly influence the mechanical properties, morphogenesis, and growth of plant cells and tissues. The microscopic structure and properties of cell walls are determined by the orientation and mechanical properties of the cellulose microfibrils and the mechanical properties of the cell wall matrix. Viewing the shape of a plant cell as a square prism with the axis aligning with the primary direction of expansion and growth, the orientation of the microfibrils within the side walls, i...
October 19, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Haifang Zhang, Yunxia Zhu, Xiaofang Xie, Min Wang, Hong Du, Shungao Xu, Ying Zhang, Mingyu Gong, Bin Ni, Huaxi Xu, Xinxiang Huang
The linear plasmid pBSSB1 mediates the flagellar phase variation in H:z66 positive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). The gene named stp17 (S. Typhi plasmid number 17 gene) is located on pBSSB1 and encodes the protein STP17. The expression pattern at the protein-level and function of STP17 remains unknown. In this study, the recombinant protein STP17His6 was expressed, purified and used to prepare the polyclonal anti-STP17 antibody. We detected protein-level expression of stp17 in S. Typhi and further investigated the protein expression characteristics of stp17 in different growth phases by western blot analysis...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Jason Gien, Nancy Tseng, Gregory J Seedorf, Katherine Kuhn, Steven H Abman
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the chronic lung disease associated with premature birth, characterized by impaired vascular and alveolar growth. In neonatal rats bleomycin decreases lung growth and causes pulmonary hypertension (PH), which is poorly responsive to nitric oxide. In the developing lung, through rho-kinase (ROCK) activation, ET-1 impairs endothelial cell function, however, whether ET-1-ROCK interactions contribute to impaired vascular and alveolar growth in experimental BPD is unknown. Neonatal rats were treated daily with intra-peritoneal bleomycin with and without selective ETA (BQ123/BQ610) and ETB (BQ788) receptor blockers, non-selective ET receptor blocker (ETRB) (bosentan) or fasudil (ROCK inhibitor)...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Chandrakumar Balaratnasingam, Lawrence A Yannuzzi, Christine A Curcio, William H Morgan, Giuseppe Querques, Vittorio Capuano, Eric Souied, Jesse Jung, K Bailey Freund
Purpose: Drusenoid pigment epithelial detachments (PEDs) are a defined path to atrophy in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We analyzed the relationships between retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and drusen volume changes during the PED lifecycle, using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: Twenty-one cases of drusenoid PED tracked using SD-OCT through periods of growth and collapse were evaluated. Volumetric calculations and piece-wise linear regression analysis were used to determine the breakpoint between growth and collapse...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Stanzi M le Roux, Jennifer Jao, Kirsty Brittain, Tamsin K Phillips, Seun Olatunbosun, Agnes Ronan, Allison Zerbe, Elaine J Abrams, Landon Myer
OBJECTIVE: Tenofovir (TDF) affects bone health and is widely used in pregnancy but data are limited on the effects of TDF exposure in utero. We examined the association between duration of in utero TDF exposure and linear growth in HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants. DESIGN: A prospective cohort of pregnant women initiating TDF-containing regimens at primary care services in Cape Town, South Africa were enrolled and followed with their breastfeeding infants through 12 months postpartum...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Jolynn Pek, R Philip Chalmers, Georges Monette
When statistical models are employed to provide a parsimonious description of empirical relationships, the extent to which strong conclusions can be drawn rests on quantifying the uncertainty in parameter estimates. In multiple linear regression (MLR), regression weights carry two kinds of uncertainty represented by confidence sets (CSs) and exchangeable weights (EWs). Confidence sets quantify uncertainty in estimation whereas the set of EWs quantify uncertainty in the substantive interpretation of regression weights...
October 18, 2016: Multivariate Behavioral Research
Saijie Pan, Niels Boon, Monica Olvera de la Cruz
Epitaxial growth of DNA functionalized nanoparticles is used to grow extended superlattices with a preferred orientation for optimizing the physical properties of meta-materials for real applications. Like any solid in nature, superlattices can contain different kinds of structural defects, which significantly alter their physical properties. Further development of these materials requires a deeper understanding of, as well as precise control over, structural defect formation. Here we use Monte Carlo simulations to conduct a systematic study of the equilibrium structures of the adsorbed nanoparticle monolayers by changing the binding energies of different attachment sites...
October 18, 2016: ACS Nano
Benjamin T Kopp, Juan Antonio Ortega-García, S Christy Sadreameli, Jack Wellmerling, Estelle Cormet-Boyaka, Rohan Thompson, Sharon McGrath-Morrow, Judith A Groner
Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) has multiple adverse effects on lung function and growth, nutrition, and immune function in children; it is increasingly being recognized as an important modifier of disease severity for children with chronic diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). This review examines what is known regarding the prevalence of SHSe in CF, with the majority of reviewed studies utilizing parental-reporting of SHSe without an objective biomarker of exposure. A wide range of SHSe is reported in children with CF, but under-reporting is common in studies involving both reported and measured SHSe...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
James Scholey
The classical view of the RAS is a linear signaling pathway beginning with the conversion of angiotensinogen to ANG I by renin, an enzyme secreted by the kidney. ANG I is converted to ANG II by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) ANG II binds to the G-protein coupled angiotensin II receptor type 1. The RAS is a circulating system but we now know that the RAS is also locally expressed in a number of tissues, including the kidneys and the heart. ANG II exerts adverse hemodynamic and non-hemodynamic effects on renal cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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