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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151253/a-two-week-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-course-in-pediatric-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#1
Katarzyna Karolewska-Bochenek, Pawel Grzesiowski, Aleksandra Banaszkiewicz, Agnieszka Gawronska, Maria Kotowska, Marcin Dziekiewicz, Piotr Albrecht, Andrzej Radzikowski, Izabella Lazowska-Przeorek
Dysbiosis plays a major role in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a new promising option for IBD treatment. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of a two-week FMT course in children with IBD. Ten patients, 10-17 years of age with moderate to severe IBD received a course of eight doses of freshly prepared FMT via a naso-duodenal tube or gastroscopy. All of the patients had pancolitis. There were eight cases of ulcerative colitis (UC) and two of Crohn's disease (CD)...
November 19, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150489/cumulative-burden-of-inflammation-predicts-colorectal-neoplasia-risk-in-ulcerative-colitis-a-large-single-centre-study
#2
Chang-Ho Ryan Choi, Ibrahim Al Bakir, Nik-Sheng John Ding, Gui-Han Lee, Alan Askari, Janindra Warusavitarne, Morgan Moorghen, Adam Humphries, Ana Ignjatovic-Wilson, Siwan Thomas-Gibson, Brian P Saunders, Matthew D Rutter, Trevor A Graham, Ailsa L Hart
OBJECTIVE: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a dynamic disease with its severity continuously changing over time. We hypothesised that the risk of colorectal neoplasia (CRN) in UC closely follows an actuarial accumulative inflammatory burden, which is inadequately represented by current risk stratification strategies. DESIGN: This was a retrospective single-centre study. Patients with extensive UC who were under colonoscopic surveillance between 2003 and 2012 were studied...
November 17, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150304/are-the-estrogenic-hormonal-effects-of-environmental-toxins-affecting-small-intestinal-bacterial-and-microfilaria-overgrowth
#3
Edward Lichten
The important role of microfilaria (worms) in human and animal disease remains an area of key disagreement between the naturopathic and allopathic physicians. While microfilaria infections are rampart in undeveloped countries, they rarely rise to identification as a cause of disease in Western countries. New research studies in the diagnosis and treatment of SIBO (Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth) and (IBD) Inflammatory Bowel Diseases of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's Disease and microcytic colitis may make both sides equally correct...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149731/purinergic-drug-targets-for-gastrointestinal-disorders
#4
REVIEW
Geoffrey Burnstock, Kenneth A Jacobson, Fievos L Christofi
Purinergic receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal disorders and are being explored as potential therapeutic targets. Gut inflammation releases ATP that acts on neuronal, glial, epithelial and immune cells. Purinergic signalling in glia and neurons is implicated in enteric neuropathies. Inflammation activates glia to increase ATP release and alter purinergic signalling. ATP release causes neuron death and gut motor dysfunction in colitis via a P2X7-dependent neural-glial pathway and a glial purinergic-connexin-43 pathway...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148959/effect-of-measuring-%C3%AE-glutamyl-transpeptidase-and-using-smoflipid-in-a-parenteral-nutrition-infusion-in-a-patient-with-severe-malabsorption-and-overlapping-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-and-ulcerative-colitis
#5
Merin Kinikini
Studies discussing inflammation and oxidative stress state that these conditions are known contributors in the pathogenesis of cholestatic diseases and ulcerative colitis, and studies examining patients with liver disease have found decreased antioxidant status and significant elevation of lipid peroxides as compared with healthy subjects. One hypothesis in liver disease is that deficient antioxidant defense mechanisms may lead to excess oxygen free radical formation, which promotes deleterious processes in the liver...
November 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148173/metformin-protects-against-intestinal-barrier-dysfunction-via-ampk%C3%AE-1-dependent-inhibition-of-jnk-signalling-activation
#6
Jun Deng, Lishan Zeng, Xueying Lai, Jing Li, Le Liu, Qianyun Lin, Ye Chen
Disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier, that involves the activation of C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), contributes to initiate and accelerate inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease. Metformin has unexpected beneficial effects other than glucose-lowering effects. Here, we provided evidence that metformin can protect against intestinal barrier dysfunction in colitis. We showed that metformin alleviated dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced decreases in transepithelial electrical resistance, FITC-dextran hyperpermeability, loss of the tight junction (TJ) proteins occludin and ZO-1 and bacterial translocation in Caco-2 cell monolayers or in colitis mice models...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147700/brown-rice-and-retrograded-brown-rice-alleviate-inflammatory-response-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-dss-induced-colitis-mice
#7
Kemika Praengam, Yuraporn Sahasakul, Piengchai Kupradinun, Siriwan Sakarin, Wanwisa Sanitchua, Anudep Rungsipipat, Kasem Rattanapinyopituk, Pornpimon Angkasekwinai, Khaimuk Changsri, Wuttichai Mhuantong, Sithichoke Tangphatsornruang, Siriporn Tuntipopipat
The present study was aimed to investigate the impacts of brown rice (BR) and retrograded brown rice (R-BR) consumption on colonic health and gut microbiota in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis mice. Thirty two female C57Bl/6Mlac mice were fed with modified AIN 93G diets by replacing cornstarch in the original composition with white rice (WR), BR and R-BR powder. The mice were divided into 4 groups and fed with the following experimental diets for 4 weeks: (1) negative control (WR: diet with WR), (2) positive control (DSS_WR: DSS and diet with WR), (3) DSS_BR: DSS and diet with BR, and (4) DSS_R-BR: DSS and diet with R-BR...
November 17, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146967/splenic-glucocorticoid-resistance-following-psychosocial-stress-requires-physical-injury
#8
Sandra Foertsch, Andrea M Füchsl, Sandra D Faller, Hannah Hölzer, Dominik Langgartner, Joanna Messmann, Gudrun Strauß, Stefan O Reber
Mice exposed to chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC) stress show glucocorticoid (GC) resistance of in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated splenocytes, increased anxiety and colitis. Similar effects were reported in wounded mice exposed to social disruption (SDR). Here we show that CSC exposure induced GC resistance in isolated and in vitro LPS-stimulated, but not unstimulated, splenocytes, and these effects were absent when CD11b(+) splenocytes were depleted. Moreover, re-active coping behaviour during CSC correlated with the attacks and bites received by the resident, which in turn highly correlated with the dimension of splenic GC resistance, as with basal and LPS-induced in vitro splenocyte viability...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146677/functional-role-and-therapeutic-targeting-of-micrornas-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
Artin Soroosh, Marina Koutsioumpa, Charalabos Pothoulakis, Dimitrios Iliopoulos
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) are chronic inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases, primarily consisting of Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and Crohn's Disease (CD). The complex nature of the disease, as well as the limited therapeutic options characterized by low efficiency and major side effects, shows the importance of developing novel strategies of therapeutic intervention in IBD. Susceptibility loci related to IBD are present only in a small percentage of IBD patients, implying that epigenetic modifications could influence the pathogenesis of the disease...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146084/picasso-a-predictive-score-for-endoscopic-findings-in%C3%A2-ulcerative-colitis-that-sounds-like-art-but-is-all-science
#10
EDITORIAL
Michael F Picco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145572/difference-in-clinical-course-genetics-and-the-microbiome-between-familial-and-sporadic-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#11
Nienke Z Borren, Grace Conway, John J Garber, Hamed Khalili, Shrish Budree, Himel Mallick, Vijay Yajnik, Ramnik J Xavier, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
Objective: Family history is the strongest risk factor for developing Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). We investigated whether the proximity of relationship with the affected relative and concordance for type of IBD modifies the effect of family history on phenotype and disease severity. Design: This cross-sectional study included patients with a confirmed diagnosis of IBD in a clinical registry. Family history of IBD was assessed by a questionnaire ascertaining presence of disease in a 1 st degree, 2 nd degree or a distant relative...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145562/ulcerative-colitis-endoscopic-index-of-severity-is-feasible-and-useful-for-endoscopic-activity-evaluation-in-ulcerative-colitis-patients-in-real-life-setting
#12
Cristiano Pagnini, Benedetta Maria Mariani, Roberto Lorenzetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145543/association-of-ipilimumab-with-safety-and-antitumor-activity-in-women-with-metastatic-or-recurrent-human-papillomavirus-related-cervical-carcinoma
#13
Stephanie Lheureux, Marcus O Butler, Blaise Clarke, Mihaela C Cristea, Lainie P Martin, Katia Tonkin, Gini F Fleming, Anna V Tinker, Hal W Hirte, Daliah Tsoref, Helen Mackay, Neesha C Dhani, Prafull Ghatage, Johanne Weberpals, Stephen Welch, Nhu-An Pham, Vinicius Motta, Valentin Sotov, Lisa Wang, Katherine Karakasis, Smitha Udagani, Suzanne Kamel-Reid, Howard Z Streicher, Patricia Shaw, Amit M Oza
Importance: Based on evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced immune evasion, immunotherapy may be an attractive strategy in cervical cancer. Ipilimumab is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), which acts to downregulate the T-cell immune response. Objective: To assess the safety and antitumor activity of ipilimumab in recurrent cervical cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter trial was designed for patients with metastatic cervical cancer (squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma) with measurable disease and progression after at least 1 line of platinum chemotherapy...
November 16, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145246/case-report-pentoxifylline-treatment-in-microscopic-colitis
#14
Thomas G Cotter, Amrit K Kamboj, Stephen Bradley Hicks, William J Tremaine, Edward V Loftus, Darrell S Pardi
RATIONALE: Microscopic colitis is a common cause of diarrhea. Pentoxifylline, a xanthine derivative with anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha properties, is prescribed for intermittent claudication and other disorders. Our goal was to evaluate the outcomes of patients with microscopic colitis treated with pentoxifylline. PATIENT CONCERNS: Nine patients with microscopic colitis (8 collagenous colitis and 1 lymphocytic colitis) seen at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, between January 1, 1997 and November 30, 2016, were included...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143108/immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-colitis-the-flip-side-of-the-wonder-drugs
#15
Naziheh Assarzadegan, Elizabeth Montgomery, Robert A Anders
Immune checkpoint inhibitors block the co-inhibitory receptors on T cells to activate their cytotoxic immune function and are rapidly being explored for the treatment of various advanced-stage malignancies. These novel drugs have already significantly increased survival rates. The first available immune checkpoint inhibitors were cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitors (such as ipilimumab), followed by programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death protein ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors (such as pembrolizumab and nivolumab)...
November 15, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142782/massive-left-sided-congestive-colitis-due-to-idiopathic-inferior-mesenteric-arteriovenous-malformation
#16
Laura Martí Gelonch, Jose Maria Enríquez-Navascués, Tania Pastor Bonel, Yolanda Saralegui Ansorena
Arteriovenous malformations (AVM) of the inferior mesenteric artery are rare. They may be primary (congenital or idiopathic) or secondary (acquired) after trauma or of iatrogenic origin. Of the abdominal AVM, the inferior mesenteric trunk is the least commonly involved. Most reported cases are of iatrogenic origin, resulting from colon surgery. Only 17 cases have been described and published in the literature. The objective of this work is to make known a case treated in our center. We present a case of 73-year old male, who came to the emergency service with symptoms of abdominal distension, pain lasting 48 hours along with months of diarrhoea...
2017: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142525/irritable-bowel-syndrome-like-symptoms-associated-with-endoscopic-activity-predict-ulcerative-colitis-relapse-in-patients-with-clinical-remission
#17
Nobuhiko Fukuba, Shunji Ishihara, Kousaku Kawashima, Yoshiyuki Mishima, Naoki Oshima, Yoshikazu Kinoshita
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142523/steroid-refractory-extensive-enteritis-complicated-by-ulcerative-colitis-successfully-treated-with-adalimumab
#18
Shinji Okabayashi, Taku Kobayashi, Tomohisa Sujino, Ryo Ozaki, Satoko Umeda, Takahiko Toyonaga, Eiko Saito, Masaru Nakano, Maria Carla Tablante, Shojiroh Morinaga, Toshifumi Hibi
Extracolonic involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is extremely uncommon in ulcerative colitis (UC) and rarely found in the upper gastrointestinal tract or in postoperative cases since it typically responds to steroids. Here we report a case of UC complicated by extensive ileal inflammation that was refractory to steroids. A 20-year-old man was diagnosed with UC of typical pancolitis without ileal involvement and started treatment with pH-dependent mesalazine and oral prednisolone. Although his symptoms transiently resolved, the condition flared when the steroid dose was tapered down...
October 2017: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142473/genetic-associations-with-adverse-events-from-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-therapy-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients
#19
Daniel Lew, Soon Man Yoon, Xiaofei Yan, Lori Robbins, Talin Haritunians, Zhenqiu Liu, Dalin Li, Dermot Pb McGovern
AIM: To study the type and frequency of adverse events associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy and evaluate for any serologic and genetic associations. METHODS: This study was a retrospective review of patients attending the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) centers at Cedars-Sinai IBD Center from 2005-2016. Adverse events were identified via chart review. IBD serologies were measured by ELISA. DNA samples were genotyped at Cedars-Sinai using Illumina Infinium Immunochipv1 array per manufacturer's protocol...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141885/a-role-for-bacterial-urease-in-gut-dysbiosis-and-crohn-s-disease
#20
Josephine Ni, Ting-Chin David Shen, Eric Z Chen, Kyle Bittinger, Aubrey Bailey, Manuela Roggiani, Alexandra Sirota-Madi, Elliot S Friedman, Lillian Chau, Andrew Lin, Ilana Nissim, Justin Scott, Abigail Lauder, Christopher Hoffmann, Gloriany Rivas, Lindsey Albenberg, Robert N Baldassano, Jonathan Braun, Ramnik J Xavier, Clary B Clish, Marc Yudkoff, Hongzhe Li, Mark Goulian, Frederic D Bushman, James D Lewis, Gary D Wu
Gut dysbiosis during inflammatory bowel disease involves alterations in the gut microbiota associated with inflammation of the host gut. We used a combination of shotgun metagenomic sequencing and metabolomics to analyze fecal samples from pediatric patients with Crohn's disease and found an association between disease severity, gut dysbiosis, and bacterial production of free amino acids. Nitrogen flux studies using (15)N in mice showed that activity of bacterial urease, an enzyme that releases ammonia by hydrolysis of host urea, led to the transfer of murine host-derived nitrogen to the gut microbiota where it was used for amino acid synthesis...
November 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
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