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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738791/anthropometric-indices-for-non-pregnant-women-of-childbearing-age-differ-widely-among-four-low-middle-income-populations
#1
K Michael Hambidge, Nancy F Krebs, Ana Garcés, Jamie E Westcott, Lester Figueroa, Shivaprasad S Goudar, Sangappa Dhaded, Omrana Pasha, Sumera Aziz Ali, Antoinette Tshefu, Adrien Lokangaka, Vanessa R Thorsten, Abhik Das, Kristen Stolka, Elizabeth M McClure, Rebecca L Lander, Carl L Bose, Richard J Derman, Robert L Goldenberg, Melissa Bauserman
BACKGROUND: Maternal stature and body mass indices (BMI) of non-pregnant women (NPW) of child bearing age are relevant to maternal and offspring health. The objective was to compare anthropometric indices of NPW in four rural communities in low- to low-middle income countries (LMIC). METHODS: Anthropometry and maternal characteristics/household wealth questionnaires were obtained for NPW enrolled in the Women First Preconception Maternal Nutrition Trial. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) was calculated...
July 24, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734515/the-global-state-of-helminth-control-and-elimination-in-children
#2
REVIEW
Jill E Weatherhead, Peter J Hotez, Rojelio Mejia
Helminth infections, including soil-transmitted helminths and schistosomiasis, remain one of the most common infections in the world with over 1 billion people infected. These infections cause significant morbidity, particularly in young children, that may last a lifetime, including growth and cognitive stunting. There is an urgent need for the control and elimination of helminth infections from areas of poverty to reduce morbidity in children. Mass drug administration programs were adopted by the World Health Assembly in 2001 and have evolved to provide coverage with multiple anthelmintic medications in a single rapid impact package and more extensive coverage within a community...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730929/development-of-a-screening-tool-to-predict-malnutrition-among-children-under-two-years-old-in-zambia
#3
Junko Hasegawa, Yoichi M Ito, Taro Yamauchi
BACKGROUND: Maternal and child undernutrition is an important issue, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Children at high risk of malnutrition should be prioritized to receive necessary interventions to minimize such risk. Several risk factors have been proposed; however, until now, there has been no appropriate evaluation method to identify these children. In sub-Saharan Africa, children commonly receive regular check-ups from community health workers. A simple and easy nutrition assessment method is therefore needed for use by semi-professional health workers...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727775/adolescent-health-in-rural-ghana-a-cross-sectional-study-on-the-co-occurrence-of-infectious-diseases-malnutrition-and-cardio-metabolic-risk-factors
#4
Marie Alicke, Justice K Boakye-Appiah, Inusah Abdul-Jalil, Andrea Henze, Markus van der Giet, Matthias B Schulze, Florian J Schweigert, Frank P Mockenhaupt, George Bedu-Addo, Ina Danquah
In sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diseases and malnutrition constitute the main health problems in children, while adolescents and adults are increasingly facing cardio-metabolic conditions. Among adolescents as the largest population group in this region, we investigated the co-occurrence of infectious diseases, malnutrition and cardio-metabolic risk factors (CRFs), and evaluated demographic, socio-economic and medical risk factors for these entities. In a cross-sectional study among 188 adolescents in rural Ghana, malarial infection, common infectious diseases and Body Mass Index were assessed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724425/using-the-uganda-national-panel-survey-to-analyze-the-effect-of-staple-food-consumption-on-undernourishment-in-ugandan-children
#5
Michelle M Amaral, William E Herrin, Grace Bulenzi Gulere
BACKGROUND: The United Nations' Millennium Development Goals Report, 2015, documents that, since 1990, the number of stunted children in sub-Saharan Africa has increased by 33% even though it has fallen in all other world regions. Recognizing this, in 2011 the Government of Uganda implemented a 5-year Nutrition Action Plan. One important tenet of the Plan is to lessen malnutrition in young children by discouraging over-consumption of nutritionally deficient, but plentiful, staple foods, which it defines as a type of food insecurity...
July 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723243/pathogenicity-of-nectriaceous-fungi-on-avocado-in-australia
#6
Louisamarie Parkinson, Roger Shivas, Elizabeth Dann
Black root rot is a severe disease of young avocado trees in Australia causing black necrotic roots, tree stunting, and leaf drop prior to tree death. Nectriaceous fungi (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales), are commonly isolated from symptomatic roots. This research tested the pathogenicity of 19 isolates from Calonectria, Cylindrocladiella, Dactylonectria, Gliocladiopsis and Ilyonectria, spp. collected from young avocado trees and other hosts. Glasshouse pathogenicity tests with avocado (Persea americana) cv. Reed seedlings confirmed that Calonectria ilicicola is a severe pathogen of avocado, causing stunting, wilting and seedling death within 5 weeks of inoculation...
July 19, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721957/nutritional-status-of-mid-day-meal-programme-beneficiaries-a-cross-sectional-study-among-primary-schoolchildren-in-kottayam-district-kerala-india
#7
Rajeev Jayalakshmi, Vinoda Thulaseedharan Jissa
BACKGROUND: The efficiency of Mid-Day Meal (MDM) Programme in India to ensure the optimum nutritional status of its beneficiaries is rarely studied. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the nutritional status of 6-10-year-old schoolchildren who were the beneficiaries of MDM and the child-related factors affecting their nutritional status. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among 322 children from 12 randomly selected primary schools in one block panchayat of Kerala state...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719331/factors-associated-with-the-duration-of-moderate-to-severe-diarrhea-among-children-in-rural-western-kenya-enrolled-in-the-global-enteric-multicenter-study-2008-2012
#8
Katharine A Schilling, Richard Omore, Gordana Derado, Tracy Ayers, John B Ochieng, Tamer H Farag, Dilruba Nasrin, Sandra Panchalingam, James P Nataro, Karen L Kotloff, Myron M Levine, Joseph Oundo, Michelle B Parsons, Cheryl Bopp, Kayla Laserson, Christine E Stauber, Richard Rothenberg, Robert F Breiman, Ciara E O'Reilly, Eric D Mintz
Diarrheal disease is a leading cause of death among young children worldwide. As rates of acute diarrhea (AD; 1-6 days duration) have decreased, persistent diarrhea (PD; > 14 days duration) accounts for a greater proportion of the diarrheal disease burden. We describe factors associated with the duration of moderate-to-severe diarrhea in Kenyan children < 5 years old enrolled in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study. We found 587 (58%) children experienced AD, 360 (35%) had prolonged acute diarrhea (ProAD; 7-13 days duration), and 73 (7%) had PD...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717921/female-headed-households-associated-with-lower-childhood-stunting-across-culturally-diverse-regions-of-pakistan-results-from-a-cross-sectional-household-survey
#9
Hina Khalid, Erika G Martin
Objectives Early childhood stunting adversely influences long-term cognitive and health outcomes. There is limited evidence on whether female empowerment within households could reduce its prevalence. We investigated this relationship in Punjab, Pakistan, which has high stunting rates and a sizeable proportion of female-headed households, and whether this relationship differed across three provincial regions with diverse cultural attitudes towards the role of women in society. Methods Using cross-sectional data from the 2011 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, we identified 13,412 children aged 1-4 from 8985 two-parent households in three culturally distinct regions in Punjab, Pakistan...
July 17, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712155/economic-activity-and-patterns-of-infant-growth-in-a-high-altitude-district-of-peru
#10
Morgan K Hoke
OBJECTIVES: Changing economic activities bring significant cultural, epidemiological, and nutritional transitions. Infancy represents a critical period when rapid growth and metabolic programming occur, making infants particularly vulnerable to long-lasting biological changes due to such transitions. This paper examines the relationship between residence in distinct economic production zones (urban, herding, and dairy) and early growth in a highland district of Peru. METHODS: The length, weight, body mass index, and triceps skinfold of 93 infants (55 boys and 38 girls, aged 2 to 24 months) from 3 economic zones were measured at two time points 6 months apart...
July 16, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712150/the-effect-of-young-children-s-faeces-disposal-practices-on-child-growth-evidence-from-34-countries
#11
Valerie Bauza, Jeremy S Guest
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the relationship between child faeces disposal and child growth in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: We analysed caregiver responses and anthropometric data from Demographic and Health Surveys (2005-2014) for 202,614 children under five and 82,949 children under two to examine the association between child faeces disposal and child growth. RESULTS: Child faeces disposal in an improved toilet was associated with reduced stunting for children under five [adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR)=0...
July 16, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708895/yeast-expressed-recombinant-as16-protects-mice-against-ascaris-suum-infection-through-induction-of-a-th2-skewed-immune-response
#12
Junfei Wei, Leroy Versteeg, Zhuyun Liu, Brian Keegan, Ana Clara Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Ricardo T Fujiwara, Neima Briggs, Kathryn M Jones, Ulrich Strych, Coreen M Beaumier, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J Hotez, Bin Zhan
BACKGROUND: Ascariasis remains the most common helminth infection in humans. As an alternative or complementary approach to global deworming, a pan-anthelminthic vaccine is under development targeting Ascaris, hookworm, and Trichuris infections. As16 and As14 have previously been described as two genetically related proteins from Ascaris suum that induced protective immunity in mice when formulated with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) as an adjuvant, but the exact protective mechanism was not well understood...
July 14, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703029/hop-stunt-viroid-effect-on-host-humulus-lupulus-transcriptome-and-its-interactions-with-hop-powdery-mildew-podospheara-macularis
#13
Madhu Kappagantu, Jeff M Bullock, Mark Elmer Nelson, Kenneth C Eastwell
Viroids are the smallest known plant pathogens that exploit host systems for their replication, and cause diseases in many hosts. In this study, the host response of hop plants to Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) infection was studied through transcriptome analysis. RNA sequence analysis of hop leaves infected with HSVd revealed dynamic changes in hop gene expression. Defense-related genes, genes involved in lipid and terpenoid metabolism are the major categories that showed differential expression due to HSVd infection...
July 13, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702866/association-of-the-familial-coexistence-of-child-stunting-and-maternal-overweight-with-indigenous-women-in-guatemala
#14
J Lee, R Houser, A Must, P Palma, O Bermudez
Objectives This study investigated the association of the familial coexistence of child stunting and maternal overweight with indigenous women in Guatemala. Methods We selected 2388 child-mother pairs from the data set of the Living Standards Measurement Study conducted in Guatemala in 2000. This study examined the association between maternal and household characteristics and the nutritional status of children aged 6-60 months and mothers aged 18-49 years by using multivariable logistic regression models. Results Compared with non-indigenous households, a significantly higher percentage of indigenous households exhibited stunted child and overweight mother (SCOM) pairs (15...
July 12, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701100/intervention-analysis-of-the-safety-effects-of-a-legislation-targeting-excessive-speeding-in-canada
#15
Suliman A Gargoum, Karim El-Basyouny
Excessive speeding is a major traffic safety concern consequently, numerous countermeasures have been considered to mitigate this problem. Excessive speeding, street racing and stunt driving activities subject all road users to extreme risk. To address this problem, three Canadian provinces introduced severe sanctions against drivers who exceed speed limits by high margins. Under the laws offenders were subject to immediate license suspension and vehicle impoundment. In this paper, intervention analysis of the collision data from the three provinces was conducted to identify the safety effects of the legislation...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688850/crop-associated-virus-reduces-the-rooting-depth-of-non-crop-perennial-native-grass-more-than-non-crop-associated-virus-with-known-viral-suppressor-of-rna-silencing-vsr
#16
Carolyn M Malmstrom, Patrick Bigelow, Piotr Trebicki, Anna K Busch, Colleen Friel, Ellen Cole, Heba Abdel-Azim, Colin Phillippo, Helen M Alexander
As agricultural acreage expanded and came to dominate landscapes across the world, viruses gained opportunities to move between crop and wild native plants. In the Midwestern USA, virus exchange currently occurs between widespread annual Poaceae crops and remnant native perennial prairie grasses now under consideration as bioenergy feedstocks. In this region, the common aphid species Rhopalosiphum padi L. (the bird cherry-oat aphid) transmits several virus species in the family Luteoviridae, including Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-PAV, genus Luteovirus) and Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV-RPV and -RPS, genus Polerovirus)...
July 5, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686964/relative-importance-of-13-correlates-of-child-stunting-in-south-asia-insights-from-nationally-representative-data-from-afghanistan-bangladesh-india-nepal-and-pakistan
#17
Rockli Kim, Iván Mejía-Guevara, Daniel J Corsi, Víctor M Aguayo, S V Subramanian
Optimal growth and development in early childhood is determined by a complex interplay of child, maternal, household, environmental, and socioeconomic factors that influence nutritional intake, but interventions to reduce child undernutrition sometimes target specific risk factors in isolation. In this analysis, we assess the relative importance of 13 correlates of child stunting selected based on a collective review of existing multi-factorial frameworks: complementary feeding, breastfeeding, feeding frequency, dietary diversity, maternal height, body mass index (BMI), education, age at marriage, child vaccination, access to improved drinking source and sanitation facilities, household indoor air quality, and household wealth...
June 16, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685828/food-and-nutrition-security-in-the-hindu-kush-himalayan-region
#18
Golam Rasul, Abid Hussain, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Narendra Dangol
The status of food and nutrition security and its underlying factors in the Hindu-Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is investigated. In this region, one-third to a half of children (<5 years of age) suffer from stunting, with wasting and underweight also being very high. The prevalence of stunting, wasting, and underweight in children is particularly high in some mountain areas such as Meghalaya state in India, the western mountains and far-western hills of Nepal, Balochistan province in Pakistan, eastern Afghanistan, and Chin state in Myanmar...
July 7, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680644/prevalence-of-anaemia-and-associated-risk-factors-among-children-in-north-western-uganda-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Ismail Dragon Legason, Alex Atiku, Ronald Ssenyonga, Peter Olupot-Olupot, John Banson Barugahare
BACKGROUND: Despite the public health significance of anaemia in African children, its broader and often preventable risk factors remain largely under described. This study investigated, for the first time, the prevalence of childhood anaemia and its risk factors in an urban setting in Uganda. METHODS: A total of 342 children were enrolled. Venous blood samples were collected in EDTA tubes and analyzed using Symex 500i (Symex Corp. Japan). Stool and urine samples were analyzed according to established standard methods...
2017: BMC Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678102/are-you-sure-you-want-to-do-that-fostering-the-responsible-conduct-of-medical-education-research
#20
Lauren A Maggio, Anthony R Artino, Katherine Picho, Erik W Driessen
Engaging in questionable research practices (QRPs) is a noted problem across many disciplines, including medical education. While QRPs are rarely discussed in the context of medical education, that does not mean that medical education researchers are immune. Therefore, the authors seek to raise medical educators' awareness of the responsible conduct of research (RCR) and call the community to action before QRPs negatively affect the field.The authors define QRPs and introduce examples that could easily happen in medical education research because of vulnerabilities particular to the field...
July 3, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
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