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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337544/complete-genome-sequences-of-cowpea-polerovirus-1-and-cowpea-polerovirus-2-infecting-cowpea-plants-in-burkina-faso
#1
Essowè Palanga, Darren P Martin, Serge Galzi, Jean Zabré, Zakaria Bouda, James Bouma Neya, Mahamadou Sawadogo, Oumar Traore, Michel Peterschmitt, Philippe Roumagnac, Denis Filloux
The full-length genome sequences of two novel poleroviruses found infecting cowpea plants, cowpea polerovirus 1 (CPPV1) and cowpea polerovirus 2 (CPPV2), were determined using overlapping RT-PCR and RACE-PCR. Whereas the 5845-nt CPPV1 genome was most similar to chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (73% identity), the 5945-nt CPPV2 genome was most similar to phasey bean mild yellow virus (86% identity). The CPPV1 and CPPV2 genomes both have a typical polerovirus genome organization. Phylogenetic analysis of the inferred P1-P2 and P3 amino acid sequences confirmed that CPPV1 and CPPV2 are indeed poleroviruses...
March 23, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335490/monitoring-of-selected-health-indicators-in-children-living-in-a-copper-mine-development-area-in-northwestern-zambia
#2
Astrid M Knoblauch, Mark J Divall, Milka Owuor, Colleen Archer, Kennedy Nduna, Harrison Ng'uni, Gertrude Musunka, Anna Pascall, Jürg Utzinger, Mirko S Winkler
The epidemiology of malaria, anaemia and malnutrition in children is potentially altered in mining development areas. In a copper extraction project in northwestern Zambia, a health impact assessment (HIA) was commissioned to predict, manage and monitor health impacts. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted: at baseline prior to project development (2011) and at four years into development (2015). Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, anaemia and stunting were assessed in under-five-year-old children, while hookworm infection was assessed in children aged 9-14 years in communities impacted and comparison communities not impacted by the project...
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331353/undernutrition-and-associated-factors-among-24-36-month-old-children-in-slum-areas-of-bahir-dar-city-ethiopia
#3
Yeshalem Mulugeta Demilew, Dagninet Derebe Abie
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess undernutrition and associated factors among 24-36-month-old children in the slum areas of Bahir Dar city. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 480 children from May 1 to 26, 2015. The simple random sampling technique was used to select respondents. Data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20 was used for analysis...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330630/the-prevalence-of-undernutrition-upon-hospitalization-in-children-in-a-developing-country-a-single-hospital-study-from-malaysia
#4
Way-Seah Lee, Zulfadly Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Undernourished children who require hospital care have a longer duration of hospitalization and respond poorly to modern medical therapy. The objective of the present study was to ascertain the nutritional status of children admitted to a pediatric tertiary center in Malaysia and the risk factors leading to undernutrition upon admission. METHODS: In this cross-sectional, hospital-based study, anthropometric measurements [weight, length/height, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps skinfold thickness were performed in 285 children aged from 3 months to 15 years who were admitted to University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur in November 2013...
February 17, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330309/molecular-characterization-of-phytoplasmas-of-clover-proliferation-group-associated-with-three-ornamental-plant-species-in-india
#5
Ekta Khasa, Gopala, Aido Taloh, T Prabha, Madhupriya, G P Rao
Suspected phytoplasma symptoms of little leaf, yellowing, chlorosis, phyllody, witches' broom, and stunting were observed on ten different ornamental plant species at New Delhi, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Bengaluru, and Pune, India, during March to July 2016. To investigate the possibility of phytoplasma etiology, PCR assays were performed using universal primer pairs (P1/P7 followed by 3Far/3Rev) specific to the phytoplasma 16Sr RNA gene. First round PCR amplification with primer pair P1/P7 did not yield expected 1...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330293/effect-of-reduced-plant-height-on-drought-tolerance-in-rice
#6
Asadollah Ahmadikhah, Amir Marufinia
Drought stress due to water deficit is a major problem of rice cultivation as a most drought-sensitive crop plant. A rice mutant line (MT58) was developed after mutagenesis of cv. Neda by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and selected for dwarfism (18 cm shorter than Neda). The extent of its molecular changes relative to parental cultivar was assessed by SSR and ISSR markers, and the response of the line along with parental cultivar and another mutant line (MTA) to mild and severe water deficit, was evaluated in a field experiment...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327104/characterizing-early-child-growth-patterns-of-height-for-age-in-an-urban-slum-cohort-of-bangladesh-with-functional-principal-component-analysis
#7
Yin Zhang, Jianhui Zhou, Feiyang Niu, Jeffrey R Donowitz, Rashidul Haque, William A Petri, Jennie Z Ma
BACKGROUND: Early childhood is a critical stage of physical and cognitive growth that forms the foundation of future wellbeing. Stunted growth is presented in one of every 4 children worldwide and contributes to developmental impairment and under-five mortality. Better understanding of early growth patterns should allow for early detection and intervention in malnutrition. We aimed to characterize early child growth patterns and quantify the change of growth curves from the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards...
March 21, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324820/the-relationship-between-motorcycle-rider-behaviour-questionnaire-scores-and-crashes-for-riders-in-australia
#8
A N Stephens, J Brown, L de Rome, M R J Baldock, R Fernandes, M Fitzharris
Motorcycle riders are over-represented in road fatalities in Australia. While riders represent 18% of the road users killed each year, motorcycle registrations constitute only 4.5% of the registered vehicle fleet. The Motorcycle Rider Behaviour Questionnaire (MRBQ) was developed with a view toward understanding behaviours likely to be associated with crash risk. These include behaviours that are either intentional (such as violations of road and speed regulations and stunts) or unintentional (such as errors relating to traffic or control of the motorcycle), as well as protective behaviours related to use of safety equipment...
March 18, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319154/effectiveness-of-community-based-complementary-food-supplement-yingyangbao-distribution-in-children-aged-6-23-months-in-poor-areas-in-china
#9
Jie Wang, Suying Chang, Liyun Zhao, Wentao Yu, Jian Zhang, Qingqing Man, Li He, Yifan Duan, Hui Wang, Robert Scherpbier, Shi-An Yin
BACKGROUND: Poor growth and micronutrient deficiency mainly attack older infants and young children. Some countries have adopted clinically effective measures to combat malnutrition, but the compliance and improvement in efficacy of intervention vehicles in national programs require evaluation. METHODS: Baseline and follow-up cross-sectional surveys were conducted before and after a nutrition intervention program in 3 national poverty counties in China. Soybean-based complementary food supplements called Yingyangbao (YYB) in Chinese and training materials on child feeding were distributed to households with children aged 6-23 months for 18 months...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318121/high-performance-doped-silver-films-overcoming-fundamental-material-limits-for-nanophotonic-applications
#10
Cheng Zhang, Nathaniel Kinsey, Long Chen, Chengang Ji, Mingjie Xu, Marcello Ferrera, Xiaoqing Pan, Vladimir M Shalaev, Alexandra Boltasseva, L Jay Guo
The field of nanophotonics has ushered in a new paradigm of light manipulation by enabling deep subdiffraction confinement assisted by metallic nanostructures. However, a key limitation which has stunted a full development of high-performance nanophotonic devices is the typical large losses associated with the constituent metals. Although silver has long been known as the highest quality plasmonic material for visible and near infrared applications, its usage has been limited due to practical issues of continuous thin film formation, stability, adhesion, and surface roughness...
March 20, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316981/growth-profile-and-its-association-with-nutrient-intake-and-dietary-patterns-among-children-and-adolescents-in-hail-region-of-saudi-arabia
#11
Eyad Alshammari, Epuru Suneetha, Mohd Adnan, Saif Khan, Awfa Alazzeh
Hail region of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has the highest adult obesity rates in the entire kingdom and limited information is available about the prevalence and patterns of growth markers. Therefore, it is important to monitor the growth trends to implement effective public health preventive strategies for the region. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of growth profile patterns (stunting, wasting, underweight, and overweight) and its associations with nutrient intake and dietary patterns among children and adolescents...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315896/responsive-feeding-strategies-to-promote-healthy-mealtime-interactions
#12
Maureen M Black, Kristen M Hurley
Responsive feeding is a derivative of responsive parenting that has been applied to infant and young child feeding. With a theoretical basis in the reciprocal interactions between parents and children, responsive feeding is particularly relevant during complementary feeding as young children progress from an exclusively milk-based liquid diet to the family diet and self-feeding. The period of complementary feeding includes multiple developmental changes that may threaten a successful transition and lead to growth and feeding problems...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315891/results-with-complementary-food-using-local-food-ingredients
#13
Tahmeed Ahmed, Munirul Islam, Nuzhat Choudhury, Iqbal Hossain, Sayeeda Huq, Mustafa Mahfuz, Shafiqul Alam Sarker
Appropriate complementary food is a must for optimum growth of infants and children. The food should be diverse and be given in sufficient quantities 2-4 times a day depending upon age. Poverty, food insecurity, and lack of awareness regarding the choice of nutritious food ingredients are deterrents to optimum complementary feeding. In Bangladesh, 77% of children do not receive appropriate complementary food and, hence, the high prevalence of childhood malnutrition. We developed ready-to-use complementary foods (RUCFs) using locally available food ingredients, rice/lentil and chickpea, which conform to standard specifications...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315889/patterns-of-growth-in-early-childhood-and-infectious-disease-and-nutritional-determinants
#14
Robert E Black
The physical growth of young children in low- and middle-income countries is reduced compared to international standards. The deviations in growth in both weight and height are greatest in the first 2 years of life and this has serious consequences for child mortality, development, adult stature, and health. The determinants of these patterns of growth faltering include intergenerational factors, such as maternal height, short birth interval, and conditions in pregnancy, including maternal underweight and anemia...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306140/dietary-and-nutritional-change-in-india-implications-for-strategies-policies-and-interventions
#15
Bhavani Shankar, Sutapa Agrawal, Amy R Beaudreault, Laxmaiah Avula, Reynaldo Martorell, Saskia Osendarp, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Mireille Seneclauze Mclean
Despite the global transition to overnutrition, stunting affected approximately 159 million children worldwide in 2014, while an estimated 50 million children were wasted. India is an important front in the fight against malnutrition and is grappling with the coexistence of undernutrition, overnutrition, and micronutrient deficiencies. This report summarizes discussions on trends in malnutrition in India, its evolution in the context of economic growth, intrahousehold aspects, infant and young child feeding practices, women's status, maternal nutrition, and nutrition policymaking...
March 17, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302673/pneumococcal-vaccine-response-after-exposure-to-parasites-in-utero-in-infancy-or-mid-childhood
#16
Monica Nayakwadi Singer, Claire Heath, Jackson Muinde, Virginia Gildengorin, Francis M Mutuku, David Vu, Dunstan Mukoko, Christopher L King, Indu J Malhotra, Charles H King, A Desirée LaBeaud
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of mortality before age 5, but few studies examine details of childhood response to pneumococcal vaccine in less-developed settings. Although malnutrition, HIV, and concurrent infections can impair response, evidence suggests that chronic parasitic infections can also contribute to poor vaccination results. The objective of this study was to determine whether response to pneumococcal vaccine varied among children either exposed to parasitic infections in utero, previously infected in infancy, or infected at the time of immunization...
March 16, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301845/dietary-intakes-of-arachidonic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-in-early-life-with-a-special-focus-on-complementary-feeding-in-developing-countries
#17
Stewart Forsyth, Sheila Gautier, Norman Salem
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, dietary intakes of arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in early life are lower than current recommended levels. This review specifically focusses on the contribution that complementary feeding makes to ARA and DHA intakes in medium- to low-income countries. The aims of the review are (1) to determine the availability of ARA and DHA food sources in developing countries, (2) to estimate the contribution of complementary feeding to dietary intakes of ARA and DHA in infants aged 6-36 months, and (3) to relate the dietary ARA and DHA intake data to key socioeconomic and health indicators...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301710/aflatoxin-contamination-of-groundnut-and-maize-in-zambia-observed-and-potential-concentrations
#18
Paul W Kachapulula, Juliet Akello, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay, Peter J Cotty
AIMS: Quantify aflatoxins, the potent carcinogens associated with stunting and immune suppression, in maize and groundnut across Zambia's three agroecologies and determine vulnerability to aflatoxin increases after purchase. METHODS AND RESULTS: Aflatoxin concentrations were determined for 334 maize and groundnut samples from 27 districts using lateral-flow immunochromatography. Seventeen percent of crops from markets contained aflatoxin concentrations above allowable levels in Zambia (10 μg kg(-1) )...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300606/one-step-multiplex-rt-qpcr-detects-three-citrus-viroids-from-different-genera-in-a-wide-range-of-hosts
#19
Fatima Osman, Tyler Dang, Sohrab Bodaghi, Georgios Vidalakis
A one-step multiplex reverse transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) based on species-specific minor groove binding (MGB) probes, was developed for the simultaneous detection, identification, and quantification of three citrus viroids belonging to different genera. Citrus exocortis viroid (Pospiviroid), Hop stunt viroid (Hostuviroid), and Citrus bark cracking viroid (Cocadviroid) cause a variety of maladies in agriculturally significant crops. Therefore, reliable assays for their detection are essential tools for various government and industry organizations implementing disease management programs...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298540/boys-are-more-stunted-than-girls-from-early-infancy-to-3-y-of-age-in-rural-senegal
#20
Kirsten A Bork, Aldiouma Diallo
Background: Girls tend to have a lower risk of stunting than boys do in low-income countries.Objective: We evaluated differences in height status and complementary food (CF) intake between sexes from ages 2 to 39 mo in Senegal.Methods: Length and weight measurements were taken at ages 2-3, 4-5, 6-8, and 9-10 mo (n = 7319). Qualitative 24-h and 7-d food recalls were conducted in a subgroup (n = 2512). A smaller subsample was followed up to age 39 mo (n = 512). Height was measured, and intake of CF was noted...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
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