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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527099/molecular-diversity-among-viroids-infecting-chrysanthemum-in-india
#1
C R Adkar-Purushothama, G Chennappa, K Poornachandra Rao, M Y Sreenivasa, P K Maheshwar, M N Nagendra Prasad, T Sano
Association of Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) and Chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid (CChMVd) with the Chrysanthemum plants exhibiting severe stunting, distinct yellow leaf mottling, and chlorosis was detected in the main chrysanthemum-growing regions of India. Sequence analysis of 90 cDNA clones obtained for CSVd and CChMVd, representing the chrysanthemum-growing regions of India, revealed the high degree of sequence variation throughout the genome under natural conditions. Additionally, all the analyzed CChMVd clones revealed the presence of UUUC in the tetraloop, a signature of symptomatic variants in susceptible cultivars...
May 19, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520899/increased-urinary-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-following-cryptosporidium-infection-and-protein-malnutrition-independent-of-microbiome-effects
#2
D T Bolick, J Mayneris-Perxachs, G L Medlock, G L Kolling, J Papin, J R Swann, R L Guerrant
Cryptosporidium infections have been associated with growth stunting even in the absence of diarrhea. Having previously detailed the effects of protein deficiency on both microbiome and metabolome in this model, we now describe the specific gut microbial and biochemical effects of Cryptosporidium infection. Protein deficient mice were infected with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts for 6-13 days and compared to uninfected controls. Following infection there was an increase in the urinary excretion of choline- and amino acid-derived metabolites...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516065/mir-142-5p-disrupts-neuronal-morphogenesis-underlying-porcine-hemagglutinating-encephalomyelitis-virus-infection-by-targeting-ulk1
#3
Zi Li, Yungang Lan, Kui Zhao, Xiaoling Lv, Ning Ding, Huijun Lu, Jing Zhang, Huiqing Yue, Junchao Shi, Deguang Song, Feng Gao, Wenqi He
Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) invades the central nervous system (CNS) and causes neurodegenerative disease in suckling piglets, but the understanding of its neuropathogenicity for neurological dysfunction remains limited. Here, we report that miR-142-5p is localized to neurons and negatively regulates neuronal morphogenesis in porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis (PHE). This phenotype was mediated by miR-142-5p inhibition of an mRNA encoding unc-51-like-kinase1 (Ulk1), which controls axon outgrowth and dendrite formation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512383/effects-of-cover-crops-on-pratylenchus-penetrans-and-the-nematode-community-in-carrot-production
#4
Zane J Grabau, Zin Thu Zar Maung, D Corey Noyes, Dean G Baas, Benjamin P Werling, Daniel C Brainard, Haddish Melakeberhan
Cover cropping is a common practice in U.S. Midwest carrot production for soil conservation, and may affect soil ecology and plant-parasitic nematodes-to which carrots are very susceptible. This study assessed the impact of cover crops-oats (Avena sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus) cv. Defender, rape (Brassica napus) cv. Dwarf Essex, and a mixture of oats and radish-on plant-parasitic nematodes and soil ecology based on the nematode community in Michigan carrot production systems. Research was conducted at two field sites where cover crops were grown in Fall 2014 preceding Summer 2015 carrot production...
March 2017: Journal of Nematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511375/impact-of-nutritional-status-on-cognition-in-institutionalized-orphans-a-pilot-study
#5
Sanjana M Kamath, Kavana G Venkatappa, Ergod Manjunath Sparshadeep
INTRODUCTION: Proper nutrition is critical for maximizing brain function and enhancing learning. There is accumulating evidence that early malnutrition, marked by stunting, is associated with long-term deficits in cognitive and academic performance, even when social and psychological differences are controlled. All over the world, children living without permanent parental care are at a heightened risk for under-nutrition, putting their health and development in great jeopardy. AIM: To assess the nutritional and cognitive status in institutionalized orphans which might help to formulate effective interventions for improving the nutritional status of vulnerable children in future...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499715/infant-nutritional-status-and-markers-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-are-associated-with-midchildhood-anthropometry-and-blood-pressure-in-tanzania
#6
Lindsey M Locks, Ramadhani S Mwiru, Expeditho Mtisi, Karim P Manji, Christine M McDonald, Enju Liu, Roland Kupka, Rodrick Kisenge, Said Aboud, Kerri Gosselin, Matthew Gillman, Andrew T Gewirtz, Wafaie W Fawzi, Christopher P Duggan
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether growth and biomarkers of environmental enteric dysfunction in infancy are related to health outcomes in midchildhood in Tanzania. STUDY DESIGN: Children who participated in 2 randomized trials of micronutrient supplements in infancy were followed up in midchildhood (4.6-9.8 years of age). Anthropometry was measured at age 6 and 52 weeks in both trials, and blood samples were available from children at 6 weeks and 6 months from 1 trial...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498315/factors-associated-with-stunting-among-children-aged-0-to-59-months-from-the-central-region-of-mozambique
#7
Loida M García Cruz, Gloria González Azpeitia, Desiderio Reyes Súarez, Alfredo Santana Rodríguez, Juan Francisco Loro Ferrer, Lluis Serra-Majem
The objective of this study was to identify the major socio-demographic, health, and environmental determinants of stunting among children aged 0-59 months from the Tete province (Mozambique) and offering useful information for future healthcare strategies and interventions. A case-control study was conducted among 282 (162 boys; 120 girls) children under five years of age from the central region of Mozambique between 1 May and 3 June 2014. Children with stunting (HAZ < -2 SD according to the WHO Child Growth Standards in 2006) were considered as cases and those who had a Z-score < -2 SD were considered as controls...
May 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494007/child-malnutrition-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-meta-analysis-of-demographic-and-health-surveys-2006-2016
#8
Blessing J Akombi, Kingsley E Agho, Dafna Merom, Andre M Renzaho, John J Hall
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa has one of the highest levels of child malnutrition globally. Therefore, a critical look at the distribution of malnutrition within its sub-regions is required to identify the worst affected areas. This study provides a meta-analysis of the prevalence of malnutrition indicators (stunting, wasting and underweight) within four sub-regions of sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (2006-2016) of 32 countries in sub-Saharan Africa were used...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489043/underweight-stunting-and-wasting-among-children-in-kilimanjaro-region-tanzania-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study
#9
Melina Mgongo, Nikolas A S Chotta, Tamara H Hashim, Jacqueline G Uriyo, Damian J Damian, Babill Stray-Pedersen, Sia E Msuya, Margareta Wandel, Siri Vangen
This study assessed the prevalence and risk factors associated with underweight, stunting and wasting among children aged 0-24 months in six districts of Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. A cross-sectional population-based study using a multistage, proportionate to size sampling was conducted from June 2010 to March 2011. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic, economic, feeding and child information. Anthropometric data were collected by trained field workers, and the data were used to assess child nutritional status...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486222/biomarkers-to-stratify-risk-groups-among-children-with-malnutrition-in-resource-limited-settings-and-to-monitor-response-to-intervention
#10
Christine J McGrath, Michael B Arndt, Judd L Walson
Despite global efforts to reduce childhood undernutrition, current interventions have had little impact on stunting and wasting, and the mechanisms underlying growth faltering are poorly understood. There is a clear need to distinguish populations of children most likely to benefit from any given intervention and to develop tools to monitor response to therapy prior to the development of morbid sequelae. In resource-limited settings, environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is common among children, contributing to malnutrition and increasing childhood morbidity and mortality risk...
May 9, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483026/influencing-factors-of-stunting-in-children-under-5-years-old-in-jilin-province-2013
#11
Ying Wang, Yonghuan He, Qijun Zhang, Qiuyan Wang, Xinglin Feng
Objective To analyze the influencing factors of stunting in children under 5 years old in Jilin province in 2013,with an attempt to further improve the nutrition status among children. Methods Data on stunting in children under 5 years old in Jilin province were extracted from the National Health Services Survey 2013 in Jilin province. The influencing factors of stunting were analyzed by using univariate analysis and Logistic regression analysis.. Results The stunting prevalence in children under 5 years old was 23...
April 20, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481890/associations-between-selective-attention-and-soil-transmitted-helminth-infections-socioeconomic-status-and-physical-fitness-in-disadvantaged-children-in-port-elizabeth-south-africa-an-observational-study
#12
Stefanie Gall, Ivan Müller, Cheryl Walter, Harald Seelig, Liana Steenkamp, Uwe Pühse, Rosa du Randt, Danielle Smith, Larissa Adams, Siphesihle Nqweniso, Peiling Yap, Sebastian Ludyga, Peter Steinmann, Jürg Utzinger, Markus Gerber
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomically deprived children are at increased risk of ill-health associated with sedentary behavior, malnutrition, and helminth infection. The resulting reduced physical fitness, growth retardation, and impaired cognitive abilities may impede children's capacity to pay attention. The present study examines how socioeconomic status (SES), parasitic worm infections, stunting, food insecurity, and physical fitness are associated with selective attention and academic achievement in school-aged children...
May 8, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480514/maternal-care-mediates-the-effects-of-nutrition-and-responsive-stimulation-interventions-on-young-children-s-growth
#13
N Brown, J E Finch, J Obradović, A K Yousafzai
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition contributes to at least half the estimated six million annual childhood deaths worldwide. Furthermore, one in three children fails to meet their developmental potential because of risks including stunting, illness, under-stimulation, poor responsive interactions and maternal depressive symptoms. Our study investigates the role of caregiving processes on children's height-for-age at 2 and 4 years. METHODS: The Pakistan Early Child Development Scale-up study assessed the longitudinal effectiveness of early nutrition and responsive stimulation interventions on growth and development at 4 years of age...
May 7, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480511/asq-3-scores-are-sensitive-to-small-differences-in-age-in-a-peruvian-infant-population
#14
K C Chong, V L Zhou, D Tarazona, H Tuesta, J E Velásquez-Hurtado, R Sadeghi, F Llanos
OBJECTIVE: The Ages and Stages Questionnaires Edition 3 (ASQ-3) are a well-validated international screen for developmental delays in young children. However, previous studies demonstrate variable scores between children eligible to take the same ASQ-3 interval. This study aimed to determine a relationship between age and ASQ-3 score for each screening interval. METHODS: This was a baseline exploratory cross-sectional study of infants under 2 years old evaluated for the Peruvian social programme Cuna Más...
May 7, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479879/nutritional-status-feeding-practices-and-state-of-other-related-indicators-at-onset-of-a-multi-model-community-nutrition-intervention-program-in-mpigi-district-uganda
#15
Nazarius Mbona Tumwesigye, Florence Basiimwa Tushemerirwe, Richard Kajjura, Victoria Nabunya, Ronald Andrew Naitala, Cissie Namanda
INTRODUCTION: In Uganda, malnutrition level has persistently remained high among the under-fives and this has led NGOs like World Vision, Uganda into finding innovative ways for intervention. This paper presents an assessment of nutrition status and values of related indicators at onset of a community intervention program in four sub-counties of Mpigi district in Central Uganda. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study to provide baseline information for a nutrition intervention...
December 2016: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472489/pathogen-specific-burden-of-outpatient-diarrhea-in-infants-in-nepal-a-multisite-prospective-case-control-study
#16
Cristina V Cardemil, Jeevan B Sherchand, Laxman Shrestha, Arun Sharma, Howard E Gary, Concepcion F Estivariz, Marta Diez-Valcarce, M Leanne Ward, Michael D Bowen, Jan Vinjé, Umesh Parashar, Susan Y Chu
Background.: Nonsevere diarrheal disease in Nepal represents a large burden of illness. Identification of the specific disease-causing pathogens will help target the appropriate control measures. Methods.: Infants aged 6 weeks to 12 months were recruited from 5 health facilities in eastern, central, and western Nepal between August 2012 and August 2013. The diarrhea arm included infants with mild or moderate diarrhea treatable in an outpatient setting; the nondiarrhea arm included healthy infants who presented for immunization visits or had a mild nondiarrheal illness...
May 4, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472277/malnutrition-and-birth-related-determinants-among-children-in-qazvin-iran
#17
Hassan Jahanihashemi, Mostafa Noroozi, Roza Zavoshy, Amir Afkhamrezaei, Shabnam Jalilolghadr, Neda Esmailzadehha
Little is known about the effect of birth weight, birth order and number of siblings on the nutritional status in children in Iran, especially in Qazvin province. The aim of this study was to provide the current data on malnutrition and birth related determinants among children in Qazvin, Iran. This study was conducted in six cities of Qazvin province (Iran), during December 2009-December 2010. Data on age, weight and height were taken and birth weight, number of children in family, birth order, parental career and educational state and family caretaker were collected by a questionnaire that a trained team filled in...
May 4, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470840/vitamin-d-deficiency-causes-rickets-in-an-urban-informal-settlement-in-kenya-and-is-associated-with-malnutrition
#18
Kelsey D J Jones, C Ulrich Hachmeister, Maureen Khasira, Lorna Cox, Inez Schoenmakers, Caroline Munyi, H Samira Nassir, Barbara Hünten-Kirsch, Ann Prentice, James A Berkley
The commonest cause of rickets worldwide is vitamin D deficiency, but studies from sub-Saharan Africa describe an endemic vitamin D-independent form that responds to dietary calcium enrichment. The extent to which calcium-deficiency rickets is the dominant form across sub-Saharan Africa and in other low-latitude areas is unknown. We aimed to characterise the clinical and biochemical features of young children with rickets in a densely populated urban informal settlement in Kenya. Because malnutrition may mask the clinical features of rickets, we also looked for biochemical indices of risk in children with varying degrees of acute malnutrition...
May 3, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470110/growth-pattern-in-ethiopian-infants-the-impact-of-exposure-to-maternal-hiv-infection-in-relation-to-socio-economic-factors
#19
John König Walles, Taye Tolera Balcha, Niclas Winqvist, Per Björkman
BACKGROUND: Infants exposed to maternal HIV infection who remain HIV-uninfected (HIV-exposed/uninfected; HIV-EU) may be at increased risk of growth retardation, which could be due both to directly HIV-related effects and to socio-economic factors overrepresented among HIV-positive women. OBJECTIVE: To investigate growth development at 9-12 months of age in HIV-EU infants participating in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) care compared to HIV unexposed (HIV-U) infants in relation to socio-economic conditions...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468870/evidence-based-approaches-to-childhood-stunting-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#20
Muttaquina Hossain, Nuzhat Choudhury, Khaleda Adib Binte Abdullah, Prasenjit Mondal, Alan A Jackson, Judd Walson, Tahmeed Ahmed
OBJECTIVE: We systematically evaluated health and nutrition programmes to identify context-specific interventional packages that might help to prioritise the implementation of programmes for reducing stunting in low and middle income countries (LMICs). METHODS: Electronic databases were used to systematically review the literature published between 1980 and 2015. Additional articles were identified from the reference lists and grey literature. Programmes were identified in which nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions had been implemented for children under 5 years of age in LMICs...
May 3, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
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