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Seyed Mohsen Dehghani, Hazhir Javaherizadeh, Masoomeh Heidary, Naser Honar, Maryam Ataollahi, Homa Ilkanipour, Hossein Moravej
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional status in children without prior hospital admission or evidence of chronic disease. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The current study is a cross-sectional and observational study which was conducted for assessing the nutritional status of children. In this study, consecutive sampling was used, with a sample size about 400 children aged 6 months to 18 years at first hospital admission. All subjects were hospitalized consecutively in the Pediatric Emergency Department of the Nemazee Teaching Hospital of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Shiraz, Islamic Republic of Iran)...
January 10, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Megan Huang, Christopher Sudfeld, Abbas Ismail, Said Vuai, Julius Ntwenya, Mary Mwanyika-Sando, Wafaie Fawzi
OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of maternal dietary diversity in rural Dodoma, Tanzania and assess its association with child growth outcomes. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 361 mothers with children under 24 months of age was conducted in 5 villages in rural Dodoma, Tanzania. Maternal diets were assessed using food frequency questionnaires, and dietary diversity was categorized using Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women (MDD-W) guidelines. Child anthropometric measures were taken to calculate height-for-age z-score (HAZ), weight-for-height z-score (WHZ), and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ)...
January 1, 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Ruth Pearson, Madhura Killedar, Janka Petravic, Jakub J Kakietek, Nick Scott, Kelsey L Grantham, Robyn M Stuart, David J Kedziora, Cliff C Kerr, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Meera Shekhar, David P Wilson
BACKGROUND: Child stunting due to chronic malnutrition is a major problem in low- and middle-income countries due, in part, to inadequate nutrition-related practices and insufficient access to services. Limited budgets for nutritional interventions mean that available resources must be targeted in the most cost-effective manner to have the greatest impact. Quantitative tools can help guide budget allocation decisions. METHODS: The Optima approach is an established framework to conduct resource allocation optimization analyses...
March 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
Belén Irarrázaval, Salesa Barja, Edson Bustos, Romel Doirsaint, Gloria Senethmm, María Paz Guzmán, Ricardo Uauy
Infant malnutrition remains an important cause of death and disability, and Haiti has the highest prevalence in the Americas. Therefore, preventive strategies are needed. Our aims were (1) To assess the prevalence of malnutrition among young children seen at a health center in Haiti; (2) Examine adherence to infant feeding practices recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the association to nutritional status. This cross-sectional study recruited children from the Saint Espri Health Center in Port Au Prince in 2014...
March 20, 2018: Nutrients
Enju Liu, Laura Pimpin, Masha Shulkin, Sarah Kranz, Christopher P Duggan, Dariush Mozaffarian, Wafaie W Fawzi
(1) Background: The effects of zinc supplementation on child growth, and prior reviews of these studies, have shown mixed results. We aim to systematically review and meta-analyze randomized controlled trials evaluating effects of preventive zinc supplementation for 3 months or longer during pregnancy or in children up to age 5 years on pregnancy outcomes and child growth; (2) Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and trial registries for eligible trials up to October 10, 2017...
March 20, 2018: Nutrients
Seema Jayachandran, Rohini Pandi
Child stunting in India exceeds that in poorer regions like sub-Saharan Africa. Data on over 168,000 children show that, relative to Africa, India's height disadvantage increases sharply with birth order. We posit that India’s steep birth order gradient is due to favoritism toward eldest sons, which affects parents' fertility decisions and resource allocation across children. We show that, within India, the gradient is steeper for high-son-preference regions and religions. The gradient also varies with sibling gender as predicted...
September 2017: American Economic Review
Hugo Legge, Amira Shaheen, Ghassan Shakhshir, Ai Milojevic
BACKGROUND: Water insecurity is an important risk factor for disease. In recent years, Palestinians have seen access to drinking water increasingly restricted. The aim of this study was to describe such changes over time and examine the association between drinking water sources and the health of children younger than 5 years in the occupied Palestinian territory in 2000-14. METHODS: For this repeated cross-sectional study we used data from five Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2000 and 2014...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Nandita Perumal, Diego G Bassani, Daniel E Roth
The term "stunting" has become pervasive in international nutrition and child health research, program, and policy circles. Although originally intended as a population-level statistical indicator of children's social and economic deprivation, the conventional anthropometric definition of stunting (height-for-age z scores <-2 SD) is now widely used to define chronic malnutrition. Epidemiologists often portray it as a disease, making inferences about the causes of growth faltering based on comparisons between stunted (i...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Jef L Leroy, Deanna Olney, Marie Ruel
Background: Food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition (FA-MCHN) programs are widely used to address undernutrition, but little is known about their effectiveness in improving child linear growth. Objective: We assessed the impact of Burundi's Tubaramure FA-MCHN program on linear growth. The program targeted women and their children during the first 1000 d and included 1) food rations, 2) strengthening of health services and promotion of their use, and 3) behavior change communication (BCC)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Chen Chen, Nicole J Mitchell, Jean Gratz, Eric R Houpt, Yunyun Gong, Patricia A Egner, John D Groopman, Ronald T Riley, Jency L Showker, Erling Svensen, Estomih R Mduma, Crystal L Patil, Felicia Wu
Growth impairment is a major public health issue for children in Tanzania. The question remains as to whether dietary mycotoxins play a role in compromising children's growth. We examined children's exposures to dietary aflatoxin and fumonisin and potential impacts on growth in 114 children under 36 months of age in Haydom, Tanzania. Plasma samples collected from the children at 24 months of age (N = 60) were analyzed for aflatoxin B1 -lysine (AFB1 -lys) adducts, and urine samples collected between 24 and 36 months of age (N = 94) were analyzed for urinary fumonisin B1 (UFB1 )...
March 12, 2018: Environment International
Anne Munck, Rym Boulkedid, Laurence Weiss, Pierre Foucaud, Nathalie Wizla-Derambure, Philippe Reix, François Bremont, Jocelyne Derelle, Julien Schroedt, Corinne Alberti
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate nutritional status and associated factors in a cystic fibrosis (CF) cohort diagnosed by newborn screening and followed up to month 24. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal multicenter study assessing nutritional status according to pancreatic status, feeding modalities, prescriptions, pulmonary outcome and biological nutritional parameters. RESULTS: One-hundred-and-five infants were recruited and 99 completed the study...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Ana Henriques, Vânia Teixeira, Hugo Fv Cardoso, Ana Azevedo
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively investigate the association between short stature and increased sitting height ratio (SHR) - indicators of stunting - and obesity markers in adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional evaluation of the EPIPorto cohort. Weight, height, sitting height and waist circumference were measured. Obesity was assessed for men and women through BMI and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Short stature (women, <152 cm; men, <164 cm) and high SHR (women, ≥54·05 %; men, ≥53·25 %) were taken as stunting measures...
March 15, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
A Phillips, E R Kulendra, R Lam, N J Kulendra, D J Brockman
A 9-month-old domestic short-haired cat presented with stunted growth and chronic gastrointestinal signs. Tachypnoea, a heart murmur and cranial abdominal bruit were detected on physical examination. Echocardiography revealed volume overload in all heart chambers. CT angiography identified an abnormal communication between the hepatic arterial circulation and the portal vein, along with multiple acquired shunts. The abnormal vascular communication was surgically ligated. Echocardiography documented improvement in cardiac parameters following surgery and the cat continues to have no clinical signs 39 months after surgery...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Katharina Moser, Stefanie Mitze, Erik Teske, Wolf von Bomhard, Christian Stockhaus
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to correlate clinical signs and diagnostic parameters with duodenal inflammatory and architectural changes in dogs with lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteropathy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a retrospective study dogs presented between 2003 and 2014 with chronic gastrointestinal signs (duration > 3 weeks) and histologic evidence of intestinal lymphocytic-plasmacytic inflammation were evaluated. Clinical signs, serum albumin, cobalamin and folic acid concentrations were recorded and a sonographic, endoscopic, histologic and cytological inflammatory score was determined...
February 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Katharine L Cary, Jarmila Pittermann
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The pygmy forest, a plant community of severely stunted conifers and ericaceous angiosperms, occurs on patches of highly acidic, nutrient-poor soils along the coast of Northern California, USA. This system is an excellent opportunity to study the effect of severe nutrient deficiency on leaf physiology in a naturally-occurring ecosystem. In this study, we seek to understand the physiological mechanisms stunting the plants' growth and their implications for whole plant function...
January 2018: American Journal of Botany
Hoyce Amini Mshida, Neema Kassim, Emmanuel Mpolya, Martin Kimanya
Undernutrition among under-five children is a public health concern in developing countries and has been linked with poor water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices. This study aimed at assessing WASH practices and its association with nutritional status of under-five children in semi-pastoral communities of Arusha. The study was cross-sectional in design. Mother-child pairs from 310 households in four villages of Monduli and Longido were involved. Weight and height of children were measured using weighing scale and length/height board, respectively...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Istiyaq Ahmad, Najam Khalique, Salman Khalil, Urfi, Mohd Maroof
Context: Child undernutrition is a public health problem in a developing country like India. Dietary diversity is an important immediate determinant of undernutrition. Aims: The aim of this study is to find the prevalence of stunting among infants and young children aged 6-23 months and its association with dietary diversity. Settings and Design: This study was community-based cross-sectional study. It was carried out in the registered families of the Urban Health Training Centre and Rural Health Training Centre, Department of Community Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, AMU, Aligarh...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
M Hermanussen, B Bogin, C Scheffler
AIM: To scrutinize to what extent modern ideas about nutrition effects on growth are supported by historic observations in European populations. METHOD: We reviewed 19th and early 20th century paediatric journals in the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, the third largest European library with an almost complete collection of the German medical literature. During a three-day visit, we inspected 15 bookshelf meters of literature not available in electronic format. RESULTS: Late 19th and early 20th century breastfed European infants and children, independent of social strata, grew far below World Health Organisation (WHO) standards and 15-30% of adequately-fed children would be classified as stunted by the WHO standards...
March 11, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Rong Wang, Jiali Dong, Zhen Wang, Tao Zhou, Yong Li, Wanlong Ding
A new virus causing a serious stunt disease of chrysanthemum was identified in China by high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and named chrysanthemum virus R (CVR). The complete sequence of CVR was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The genomic RNA of CVR consists of 8,874 nucleotides (nt), excluding the poly(A) tail, contains six putative open reading frames (ORFs), and has a genomic organization typical of members of the genus Carlavirus...
March 10, 2018: Archives of Virology
Ricardo A Orbegozo-Medina, Victoria Martínez-Sernández, Marta González-Warleta, José Antonio Castro-Hermida, Mercedes Mezo, Florencio M Ubeira
Fasciolosis continues to be a major cause of economic losses in the livestock industry and a growing threat to humans. The limited spectrum of effective anthelmintics and the appearance of resistances urge the need for developing an effective vaccine. Most studies have been focused on the use of TH1 -polarizing adjuvants and the use of recombinant Fasciola critical molecules and, despite the efforts, no reproducible protections have been achieved. The F. hepatica MF6p/FhHDM-1 protein is a heme-binding protein also reported to have immunomodulatory properties, constituting a promising target for vaccination and/or as target for the development of new flukicides...
March 8, 2018: Vaccine
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