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Adolescent nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332449/estimated-daily-intake-and-safety-of-fd-c-food-colour-additives-in-the-us-population
#1
Maria Bastaki, Thomas Farrell, Sachin Bhusari, Xiaoyu Bi, Carolyn Scrafford
A refined exposure assessment was undertaken to calculate the Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) of the seven FD&C straight colour additives and five FD&C colour lakes ("synthetic" food colours) approved in the United States (US). The EDIs were calculated for the US population as a whole and specific age groups, including children 2-5 y, children 6-12 y, adolescents 13-18 y, and adults 19+ y. Actual use data were collected from an industry survey of companies who are users of these colour additives in a variety of products, with additional input from food colour manufacturers...
March 23, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323913/accrual-of-bone-mass-in-children-and-adolescents-with-cystic-fibrosis
#2
Sonakshi Sharma, Mirjana Jaksic, Sheryl Fenwick, Catherine Byrnes, Tim Cundy
Context: Low bone density is a recognised complication of cystic fibrosis (CF). Hypothesis: Accrual of bone mass is most impaired in the sickest children, as judged by nutritional status and pulmonary function. Design: Retrospective analysis of correlation between lumbar spine BMD, BMI and FEV1 z-score in children and adolescents with CF. Setting: Specialist CF service at a pediatric hospital. Patients: 60 participants aged 5...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321702/association-between-level-of-urinary-trace-heavy-metals-and-obesity-among-children-aged-6-19%C3%A2-years-nhanes-1999-2011
#3
Wentao Shao, Qian Liu, Xiaowei He, Hui Liu, Aihua Gu, Zhaoyan Jiang
Global prevalence of obesity has been increasing dramatically in all ages. Although traditional causes for obesity development have been studied widely, it is unclear whether environmental exposure of substances such as trace heavy metals affects obesity development among children and adolescents so far. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2011) were retrieved, and 6602 US children were analyzed in this study. Urinary level of nine trace heavy metals, including barium, cadmium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, lead, antimony, thallium, and tungsten, was analyzed for their association with the prevalence of obesity among children aged 6-19 years...
March 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318306/physical-education-and-sport
#4
Paul D Loprinzi, Bradley J Cardinal, Marita K Cardinal, Charles B Corbin
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between physical education (PE) and sports involvement with physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and beliefs about PA among a national sample of adolescents. SETTING: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Youth Fitness Survey were used. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 459 adolescents aged 12 to 15 years. MEASURES: Adolescents self-reported engagement in the above parameters; muscular fitness objectively determined...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303707/assessment-of-nutritional-habits-and-preferences-among-secondary-school-students
#5
Paulina Duma-Kocan, Barbara Barud, Elżbieta Głodek, Marian Gil
Background: Appropriate nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting the proper development of man, nutritional status and maintaining good health. Adolescence is a period of development of skills of self-determination and self-realization, also in the case of nutrition. Children and school-age youth are the group most vulnerable to the effects of incorrect nutrition. The way of nutrition during this period determines psychophysical and emotional development, effectiveness in learning process and has influence on health in adulthood...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303690/greater-early-weight-gain-and-shorter-breastfeeding-are-associated-with-low-adolescent-adiponectin-levels
#6
M Reyes, R Burrows, E Blanco, B Lozoff, S Gahagan
BACKGROUND: Early life factors can programme future risk for cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVES: We explored associations between adolescent adiponectin levels and concomitant metabolic alteration and also looked at the association between early life factors and adolescent adiponectin levels. METHODS: We studied a longitudinal cohort of low-income to middle-income Chilean adolescents who were enroled in an infancy iron-deficiency anaemia preventive trial and follow-up studies at the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile...
March 16, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302355/effects-of-short-term-calcium-supplementation-in-children-and-adolescents-with-phenylketonuria
#7
Nancy Y Y Tanaka, Marlene F Turcato, Carolina F Nicoletti, Carla B Nonino, Luciana D Martins, Odilon Iannetta, Carlos Guerreiro, Gisele G Santos, Júlio S Marchini
Reduction of bone mineral density and the risk of osteopenia have been reported to occur in phenylketonuria (PKU) patients. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term effects of calcium supplementation in phenylketonuric children and adolescents. The study included 18 patients with PKU aged 5-18 yr (61% male) under clinical and nutritional treatment. Evaluation of food intake, anthropometry, and biochemical and phalangeal quantitative ultrasound were performed before (phase 1) and after (phase 2) calcium supplementation (1000 mg/d) for 34 d...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302101/preventing-diabetes-in-obese-latino-youth-with-prediabetes-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Erica G Soltero, Yolanda P Konopken, Micah L Olson, Colleen S Keller, Felipe G Castro, Allison N Williams, Donald L Patrick, Stephanie Ayers, Houchun H Hu, Matthew Sandoval, Janiel Pimentel, William C Knowler, Kevin D Frick, Gabriel Q Shaibi
BACKGROUND: Obese Latino adolescents are disproportionately impacted by insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes is an intermediate stage in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and represents a critical opportunity for intervention. However, to date, no diabetes prevention studies have been conducted in obese Latino youth with prediabetes, a highly vulnerable and underserved group. Therefore, we propose a randomized-controlled trial to test the short-term (6-month) and long-term (12-month) efficacy of a culturally-grounded, lifestyle intervention, as compared to usual care, for improving glucose tolerance and reducing diabetes risk in 120 obese Latino adolescents with prediabetes...
March 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299420/vegetarian-diets-in-children-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
S Schürmann, M Kersting, U Alexy
PURPOSE: While the prevalence of children on vegetarian diets is assumed to be on the rise in industrialized countries, there are hardly any representative data available. In general, vegetarian diets are presumed to be healthy; nevertheless, there are concerns as to whether the dietary specifications required during infancy, childhood, and adolescence can be met. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review was to evaluate studies on the dietary intake and the nutritional or health status of vegetarian infants, children, and adolescents...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292964/longitudinal-evaluation-of-growth-in-oesophageal-atresia-patients-up-to-12%C3%A2-years
#10
Floor W T Vergouwe, Marjolein Spoel, Nicole W G van Beelen, Saskia J Gischler, René M H Wijnen, Joost van Rosmalen, Hanneke IJsselstijn
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies reported diminished growth after oesophageal atresia (OA) repair. We evaluated long-term follow-up data on growth. METHODS: Longitudinal cohort study up to 12 years. Patients with OA, born 1999-2013, who participated in a longitudinal follow-up programme were included. Children with genetic syndromes associated with growth disorders were excluded. SD scores (SDS) for height-for-age (HFA), weight-for-height (WFH) and distance-to-target-height were calculated for routine visits (0...
March 14, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290360/children-and-adolescents-attitudes-towards-sugar-reduction-in-dairy-products
#11
Hye-Jong Yoo, Leandro Machín, Alejandra Arrúa, Lucía Antúnez, Leticia Vidal, Ana Giménez, María Rosa Curutchet, Gastón Ares
The development of strategies to reduce sugar intake of children and adolescents has been deemed necessary to cope with the global obesity epidemic. In this context, the aims of the present work were to study attitudes towards sugar reduction in three dairy products of children and adolescents of two income levels and to assess if these attitudes were modulated by the inclusion of the traffic light system on labels. A total of 646 children and adolescents from three primary/secondary schools in Montevideo (Uruguay) participated in the study...
April 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287630/overweight-and-obesity-in-mexican-children-and-adolescents-during-the-last-25-years
#12
S Hernández-Cordero, L Cuevas-Nasu, M C Morán-Ruán, I Méndez-Gómez Humarán, M A Ávila-Arcos, J A Rivera-Dommarco
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to provide current estimates of the prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity (OW+OB) in Mexican children and adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Body mass index objectively measured was analyzed for 37 147 children and adolescents aged 0-19 years obtained in 2012 as part of the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-2012), a nationally representative sample of the Mexican population. In addition, data from previous National Nutrition Surveys obtained in 1988, 1999 and 2006 were compared with analyze trends over a 24-year period (1988-2012) for children <5 years of age and adolescents and over a 13-year period (1999-2012) for school-age children...
March 13, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287410/usefulness-of-the-waist-circumference-to-height-ratio-in-screening-for-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-among-korean-children-and-adolescents-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2010-2014
#13
Dong-Hyun Choi, Yang-Im Hur, Jae-Heon Kang, Kyoungwoo Kim, Young Gyu Cho, Soo-Min Hong, Eun Byul Cho
The aims of this study were to assess the diagnostic value of the weight-to-height ratio (WHtR) for the detection of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Korean children and adolescents, and to determine the advantages of WHtR as a population-based screening tool in comparison with other obesity indicators, such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from 3057 children and adolescents (1625 boys, 1332 girls) aged 10-19 years who were included in the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2010-2012) up to the second year of the sixth KNHANES (2013-2014)...
March 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285655/correlation-of-metabolic-syndrome-severity-with-cardiovascular-health-markers-in-adolescents
#14
Arthur M Lee, Matthew J Gurka, Mark D DeBoer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in childhood is a significant risk factor for later cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent data showed temporal decreases in a sex- and race/ethnicity-specific MetS severity z-score among U.S. adolescents. Our goal was to characterize the relationship of this MetS z-score with other CVD risk indicators and assess their temporal trends and lifestyle influences. METHODS: We analyzed 4837 participants aged 12-20years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey by 2-year waves from 1999 to 2012...
April 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285312/world-perspective-on-the-epidemiology-of-stunting-between-1990-and-2015%C3%A2
#15
Susan C Campisi, Arlin Mary Cherian, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Stunting is the most prevalent form of child undernutrition with current worldwide estimates at 156 million. The majority of these children reside in low- and middle-income countries. When stunting prevails to adulthood, optimal growth potential and economic productivity are minimized. RESULTS: In 2015 there were 98.5 million fewer stunted children under 5 years of age than in 1990. In East Asia and Pacific and South Asia, the stunting prevalence decreased by 24...
March 10, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282852/developmental-origins-of-health-and-disease-a-lifecourse-approach-to-the-prevention-of-non-communicable-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Janis Baird, Chandni Jacob, Mary Barker, Caroline H D Fall, Mark Hanson, Nicholas C Harvey, Hazel M Inskip, Kalyanaraman Kumaran, Cyrus Cooper
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis, affect individuals in all countries worldwide. Given the very high worldwide prevalence of NCDs across a range of human pathology, it is clear that traditional approaches targeting those at most risk in older adulthood will not efficiently ameliorate this growing burden. It will thus be essential to robustly identify determinants of NCDs across the entire lifecourse and, subsequently, appropriate interventions at every stage to reduce an individual's risk of developing these conditions...
March 8, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282063/lower-urinary-cotinine-level-is-associated-with-a-trend-toward-more-myopic-refractive-errors-in-korean-adolescents
#17
G E Nam, B E Hwang, Y-C Lee, J-S Paik, S-W Yang, Y-H Chun, K Han, Y G Park, S H Park
PurposeTo investigate the association between urinary cotinine levels as an objective biological marker for exposure to nicotine and refractive status.Patients and methodsThis cross-sectional study analyzed data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2008 and 2011. A total of 1139 Korean adolescents aged 12-18 years were enrolled. Urinary cotinine concentrations and other potential risk factors for myopia were examined. Correlation analyses and multivariate regression analysis were performed to investigate the association between urinary cotinine level and refractive error...
March 10, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279844/practices-attitudes-towards-recovery-in-elite-asian-uk-adolescent-athletes
#18
Andrew M Murray, Anthony P Turner, John Sproule, Marco Cardinale
OBJECTIVES: Assess current practice and attitudes towards recovery in adolescent athletes. DESIGN: Questionnaires were administered either via print or online questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS: Athletes and coaches from within Asia were surveyed (n = 112 & 53), with a comparative sample in the UK (n = 53 & 8). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The approaches and attitudes to recovery in both training and competition. RESULTS: Adolescent athletes perceive a variety of recovery modalities as important, though prioritise active recovery, nutrition and sleep...
December 23, 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275861/the-effect-of-a-physical-activity-consultation-on-body-mass-index-z-score-of-overweight-adolescents-results-from-a-pediatric-outpatient-obesity-clinic
#19
A Videira-Silva, H Fonseca
Physical activity (PA) is recognized as having many health benefits. Despite of all the efforts, the majority of the overweight adolescents still present low levels of PA. PA consultation can be a cost-effective way of enhancing PA and improve weight status among overweight adolescents. The main aim of this study was to analyze whether adolescents attending a PA consultation in a clinical setting show more therapeutic success at 6 months, based on body mass index (BMI) z-score and waist circumference (WC), compared to those only followed by the pediatrician and nutritionist...
March 8, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273802/the%C3%A2-prevalence%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-micronutrient%C3%A2-deficiencies%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-inadequacies%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-middle%C3%A2-east%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-approaches%C3%A2-to%C3%A2-interventions
#20
REVIEW
Nahla Hwalla, Ayesha Salem Al Dhaheri, Hadia Radwan, Hanan Abdullah Alfawaz, Mona A Fouda, Nasser Mohammed Al-Daghri, Sahar Zaghloul, Jeffrey B Blumberg
Micronutrient deficiencies and inadequacies constitute a global health issue, particularly among countries in the Middle East. The objective of this review is to identify micronutrient deficits in the Middle East and to consider current and new approaches to address this problem. Based on the availability of more recent data, this review is primarily focused on countries that are in advanced nutrition transition. Prominent deficits in folate, iron, and vitamin D are noted among children/adolescents, women of childbearing age, pregnant women, and the elderly...
March 3, 2017: Nutrients
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