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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324489/monitoring-mitochondrial-changes-by-alteration-of-the-pink1-parkin-signaling-in-drosophila
#1
Tsuyoshi Inoshita, Kahori Shiba-Fukushima, Hongrui Meng, Nobutaka Hattori, Yuzuru Imai
Mitochondrial quality control is a key process in tissues with high energy demands, such as the brain and muscles. Recent studies using Drosophila have revealed that the genes responsible for familial forms of juvenile Parkinson's disease (PD), PINK1 and Parkin regulate mitochondrial function and motility. Cell biological analysis using mammalian cultured cells suggests that the dysregulation of mitophagy by PINK1 and Parkin leads to neurodegeneration in PD. In this chapter, we describe the methods to monitor mitochondrial morphology in the indirect flight muscles of adult Drosophila and Drosophila primary cultured neurons and the methods to analyze the motility of mitochondria in the axonal transport of living larval motor neurons...
March 22, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324303/subtypes-of-parkinson-s-disease-what-do-they-tell-us-about-disease-progression
#2
REVIEW
Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Ronald B Postuma
Parkinson's disease is a widely heterogeneous disorder with a broad list of motor and nonmotor manifestations. Identifying subtypes of Parkinson's disease is one of the top clinical and research priorities. This review aims to summarize the most valid conventional and recent subtyping solutions that have been introduced so far and to update our current knowledge with recent discoveries on the association between subtypes and disease progression. We also discuss the challenges of subtyping in the context of Parkinson's disease, stability of the subtypes over time, and potential clinical implications...
April 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324300/%C3%AE-synuclein-and-parkinsonism-updates-and-future-perspectives
#3
REVIEW
Kaie Rosborough, Neha Patel, Lorraine V Kalia
Mutations in the SNCA gene, which encodes the α-synuclein protein, were the first discovered genetic causes of familial parkinsonism with Lewy pathology. To date, six different SNCA missense mutations as well as multiplications are known to cause parkinsonism. For this review, we performed a literature search to identify all published cases of SNCA-related parkinsonism to provide an updated summary of the clinical and neuropathological features of parkinsonism due to SNCA mutations. Familial parkinsonism associated with SNCA is rare, but α-synuclein aggregation is a core feature of sporadic parkinsonism, including Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy...
April 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324169/roles-of-centromedian-parafascicular-nuclei-of-thalamus-and-cholinergic-interneurons-in-the-dorsal-striatum-in-associative-learning-of-environmental-events
#4
REVIEW
Ko Yamanaka, Yukiko Hori, Takafumi Minamimoto, Hiroshi Yamada, Naoyuki Matsumoto, Kazuki Enomoto, Toshihiko Aosaki, Ann M Graybiel, Minoru Kimura
The thalamus provides a massive input to the striatum, but despite accumulating evidence, the functions of this system remain unclear. It is known, however, that the centromedian (CM) and parafascicular (Pf) nuclei of the thalamus can strongly influence particular striatal neuron subtypes, notably including the cholinergic interneurons of the striatum (CINs), key regulators of striatal function. Here, we highlight the thalamostriatal system through the CM-Pf to striatal CINs. We consider how, by virtue of the direct synaptic connections of the CM and PF, their neural activity contributes to the activity of CINs and striatal projection neurons (SPNs)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323427/kinetin-riboside-and-its-protides-activate-the-parkinson-s-disease-associated-pten-induced-putative-kinase-1-pink1-independent-of-mitochondrial-depolarisation
#5
Laura Osgerby, Yu-Chiang Lai, Peter J Thornton, Joseph Amalfitano, Cécile S Le Duff, Iqra Jabeen, Hachemi Kadri, Ageo Miccoli, James H R Tucker, Miratul M K Muqit, Youcef Mehellou
Since loss of function mutations of PINK1 lead to early-onset Parkinson's disease, there has been growing interest in the discovery of small molecules that amplify the kinase activity of PINK1. We herein report the design, synthesis, serum stability and hydrolysis of four kinetin riboside ProTides. These ProTides, along with kinetin riboside, activated PINK1 in cells independent of mitochondrial depolarization. This highlights the potential of modified nucleosides and their phosphate prodrugs as treatments for neurodegenerative diseases...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320196/extended-timed-up-and-go-assessment-as-a-clinical-indicator-of-cognitive-state-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Tess Evans, Alexa Jefferson, Michelle Byrnes, Sue Walters, Soumya Ghosh, Frank L Mastaglia, Brian Power, Ryan S Anderton
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a modified extended Timed Up and Go (extended-TUG) assessment against a panel of validated clinical assessments, as an indicator of Parkinson's disease (PD) severity and cognitive impairment. METHODS: Eighty-seven participants with idiopathic PD were sequentially recruited from a Movement Disorders Clinic. An extended-TUG assessment was employed which required participants to stand from a seated position, walk in a straight line for 7m, turn 180° and then return to the start, in a seated position...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320195/combined-use-of-dopamine-transporter-imaging-dat-spect-and-123-i-metaiodobenzylguanidine-mibg-myocardial-scintigraphy-for-diagnosing-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Fumihito Yoshii, Masafuchi Ryo, Yasuhiko Baba, Takashi Koide, Jun Hashimoto
BACKGROUND: To examine whether combined use of (123)I-FP-CIT dopamine transporter single photon emission computed tomography (DAT-SPECT) and (123)I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy (MIBG) is superior to either modality alone for diagnosing Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: Patients with probable PD (n=120) who underwent both DAT-SPECT and MIBG myocardial scintigraphy within short intervals were enrolled. Specific binding ratio (SBR) of DAT-SPECT images and heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) ratio of MIBG images were used as quantitative measures...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320167/caffeine-creatine-grin2a-and-parkinson-s-disease-progression
#8
David K Simon, Cai Wu, Barbara C Tilley, Katja Lohmann, Christine Klein, Haydeh Payami, Anne-Marie Wills, Michael J Aminoff, Jacquelyn Bainbridge, Richard Dewey, Robert A Hauser, Susen Schaake, Jay S Schneider, Saloni Sharma, Carlos Singer, Caroline M Tanner, Daniel Truong, Peng Wei, Pei Shieen Wong, Tianzhong Yang
Caffeine is neuroprotective in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and caffeine intake is inversely associated with the risk of PD. This association may be influenced by the genotype of GRIN2A, which encodes an NMDA-glutamate-receptor subunit. In two placebo-controlled studies, we detected no association of caffeine intake with the rate of clinical progression of PD, except among subjects taking creatine, for whom higher caffeine intake was associated with more rapid progression. We now have analyzed data from 420 subjects for whom DNA samples and caffeine intake data were available from a placebo-controlled study of creatine in PD...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320164/impact-of-stn-dbs-on-mood-drive-anhedonia-and-risk-of-psychiatric-side-effects-in-the-population-of-pd-patients
#9
Anna Antosik-Wójcińska, Łukasz Święcicki, Monika Dominiak, Emilia Sołtan, Przemyslaw Bieńkowski, Tomasz Mandat
BACKGROUND: DBS is a surgical method of choice for various movement disorders, especially for Parkinson's disease (PD). Many publications showing improvement in motor symptoms and quality of life have been presented while there is little comprehensive research evaluation of the impact of DBS on mental state and psychiatric side-effects. OBJECT: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of DBS on mood, drive, anhedonia and psychotic symptoms in the group of PD patients...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320137/what-increases-the-risk-of-malnutrition-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Svetlana Tomic, Vlasta Pekic, Zeljka Popijac, Tomislav Pucic, Marta Petek, Tihana Gilman Kuric, Sanja Misevic, Ruzica Palic Kramaric
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are at a higher risk of malnutrition. The prevalence has been estimated to 0-24%, while 3%-60% of PD patients are reported to be at risk of malnutrition. To date, there is no clear explanation for malnutrition in these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and to analyze factors that influence its appearance. The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) was used to determine normal nutritional status; at risk of malnutrition; and already malnourished status...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320136/association-between-gene-polymorphism-and-depression-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-case-control-study
#11
Jinhua Zheng, Xinglong Yang, Quanzhen Zhao, Sijia Tian, Hongyan Huang, Yalan Chen, Yanming Xu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible associations of Parkinson's disease (PD) with polymorphism in depression-related genes and in the alpha-synuclein (SNCA) gene. METHODS: A consecutive series of patients with PD were divided into those with depression and those without it. Patients (330) were genotyped at four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four genes previously associated with depression, as well as four SNPs in the PD-associated SNCA gene. RESULTS: Of 330 patients, 125 (37...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320133/rest-tremor-in-parkinson-s-disease-body-distribution-and-time-of-appearance
#12
Angelo Fabio Gigante, Roberta Pellicciari, Giovanni Iliceto, Daniele Liuzzi, Paola Vincenza Mancino, Giacomo Emanuele Custodero, Marco Guido, Paolo Livrea, Giovanni Defazio
OBJECTIVE: To assess body distribution and timing of appearance of rest tremor in Parkinson's disease. METHODS: Information was obtained by a computerized database containing historical information collected at the first visit and data collected during the subsequent follow-up visits. Information on rest tremor developed during the follow-up could be therefore obtained by our own observation in a proportion of patients. RESULTS: Among 289 patients, rest tremor was reported at disease onset in 65...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319892/mitochondrial-hyperpolarization-in-ipsc-derived-neurons-from-patients-of-ftdp-17-with-10-16-mapt-mutation-leads-to-oxidative-stress-and-neurodegeneration
#13
Noemí Esteras, Jonathan D Rohrer, John Hardy, Selina Wray, Andrey Y Abramov
Tau protein inclusions are a frequent hallmark of a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. The 10+16 intronic mutation in MAPT gene, encoding tau, causes frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17), by altering the splicing of the gene and inducing an increase in the production of 4R tau isoforms, which are more prone to aggregation. However, the molecular mechanisms linking increased 4R tau to neurodegeneration are not well understood. Here, we have used iPSC-derived neurons from patients of FTDP-17 carrying the 10+16 mutation to study the molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration...
March 10, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319654/an-alpha-synuclein-mrm-assay-with-diagnostic-potential-for-parkinson-s-disease-and-monitoring-disease-progression
#14
Li Yang, Tessandra Stewart, Min Shi, Gwenael Pottiez, Romel Dator, Rui Wu, Patrick Aro, Robert J Schuster, Carmen Ginghina, Catherine Pan, Yuqian Gao, Weijun Qian, Cyrus P Zabetian, Shu-Ching Hu, Joseph F Quinn, Jing Zhang
AIM: The alpha-synuclein (α-syn) level in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as measured by immunoassays, is promising as a Parkinson's disease (PD) biomarker. However, the levels of total α-syn are inconsistent among studies with large cohorts and different measurement platforms. Total α-syn level also does not correlate with disease severity or progression. Here, we developed a highly sensitive Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) method to measure absolute CSF α-syn peptide concentrations without prior enrichment or fractionation, aiming to discover new candidate biomarkers...
March 20, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319282/stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-essential-tremor-retrospective-analysis-of-a-19-year-experience
#15
Ajay Niranjan, Sudesh S Raju, Ali Kooshkabadi, Edward Monaco, John C Flickinger, L Dade Lunsford
BACKGROUND: Essential Tremor (ET) is a common movement disorder that can be disabling. Initial treatment is in the form of medical therapies. Patients with medically refractory ET seek surgical intervention which include radiofrequency thalamotomy, deep brain stimulation, and radiosurgical thalamotomy. Radiosurgical thalamotomy is a minimally invasive surgical option which is especially valuable for elderly and high surgical risk patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze the outcomes of stereotactic radiosurgery for patients suffering from medically refractory essential tremor...
March 20, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319247/occupational-and-recreational-physical-activity-and-parkinson-s-disease-in-denmark
#16
I-Fan Shih, Charlotte Starhof, Christina Funch Lassen, Johnni Hansen, Zeyan Liew, Beate Ritz
Objectives This study aimed to examine whether occupational and physical activity (PA) at different ages contribute to Parkinson's disease (PD) risk in a large population-based case-control study in Denmark. Methods We identified 1828 PD patients from the Danish National Hospital Register and recruited 1909 gender and year of birth matched controls from the Danish Central Population Register. Occupational and leisure-time PA were determined from a job exposure matrix based on occupational history and self-reported leisure-time information...
March 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319195/serum-uric-acid-levels-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-meta-analysis
#17
Min Wen, Bo Zhou, Yun-Hua Chen, Zhao-Lei Ma, Yun Gou, Chun-Lin Zhang, Wen-Feng Yu, Ling Jiao
BACKGROUND: Lower serum uric acid (UA) levels have been reported as a risk factor in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the results have been inconsistent so far. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to clarify the potential relationship of uric acid with PD. METHODS: Comprehensive electronic search in pubmed, web of science, and the Cochrane Library database to find original articles about the association between PD and serum uric acid levels published before Dec 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318981/idiopathic-intradural-dorsal-thoracic-arachnoid-cysts-a-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Heath French, Arjuna Somasundaram, Michael Biggs, Jonathon Parkinson, Rodney Allan, Jonathon Ball, Nicholas Little
BACKGROUND: Spinal intradural arachnoid cysts (SIAC) are cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) filled sacs formed by arachnoid membranes and may be either idiopathic or acquired. Idiopathic cysts represent a separate entity and their aetiology remains uncertain. By far the most difficult differential diagnosis is distinguishing between idiopathic anterior spinal cord herniation (IASCH) and dorsal thoracic intradural arachnoid cysts (TIAC), due to their similarity in radiological appearance. Cine-mode (SSFP) is emerging as a novel technique in the diagnosis and operative planning of SIAC...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318827/measuring-the-benefits-of-using-market-based-approaches-to-provide-water-and-sanitation-in-humanitarian-contexts
#19
S Martin-Simpson, J Parkinson, E Katsou
The use of cash transfers and market based programming (CT/MBP) to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of emergency responses is gaining prominence in the humanitarian sector. However, there is a lack of existing indicators and methodologies to monitor activities designed to strengthen water and sanitation (WaSH) markets. Gender and vulnerability markers to measure the impact of such activities on different stakeholders is also missing. This study identifies parameters to monitor, evaluate and determine the added value of utilising CT/MBP to achieve WaSH objectives in humanitarian response...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318507/usefulness-of-diffusion-tensor-mri-in-the-diagnosis-of-parkinson-variant-of-multiple-system-atrophy-and-parkinson-s-disease-a-valuable-tool-to-differentiate-between-them
#20
B Chen, G Fan, W Sun, X Shang, S Shi, S Wang, G Lv, C Wu
AIM: To evaluate the differences between patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy (MSAp) at fractional anisotropy (FA) in the white matter when using the tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) algorithm to provide objective markers for a differential diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) data were acquired from 18 PD patients, 20 MSAp patients, and 24 healthy controls using a GE 3 T Signa HDx magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Radiology
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