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forensic science

Lorenzo Teodonio, Mauro Missori, Dominika Pawcenis, Joanna Łojewska, Francesco Valle
Mapping the morphological and nano-mechanical properties of cellulose fibers within paper sheets or textile products at the nano-scale level by using atomic force microscopy is a challenging task due to the huge surface level variation of these materials. However this task is fundamental for applications in forensic or cultural heritage sciences and for the industrial characterization of materials. In order to correlate between nano-mechanical properties and local nanometer scale morphology of different layers of cellulose fibers, a new strategy to prepare samples of isolated cellulose fibers was designed...
October 5, 2016: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Diana W Williams, Greg Gibson
A potential application of microbial genetics in forensic science is detection of transfer of the pubic hair microbiome between individuals during sexual intercourse using high-throughput sequencing. In addition to the primary need to show whether the pubic hair microbiome is individualizing, one aspect that must be addressed before using the microbiome in criminal casework involves the impact of storage on the microbiome of samples recovered for forensic testing. To test the effects of short-term storage, pubic hair samples were collected from volunteers and stored at room temperature (∼20°C), refrigerated (4°C), and frozen (-20°C) for 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks along with a baseline sample...
October 7, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Tao Sun, Haitao Zhao, Lingxiang Wang, Wenjuan Wu, Wenhai Hu
PURPOSE: Our aim was to identify the incidence and distribution of sesamoid bones plantar to the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints in adults, and to evaluate patterns of coincidence among these sesamoid bones. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 7949 plain radiographs obtained from patients evaluated for foot trauma or symptomology. Associations between the distributions of MTP sesamoid bones as well as the association of age, sex, and laterality with identified prevalence, distribution, and coincidence were evaluated using Spearman's correlation coefficient...
October 14, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Patricia E J Wiltshire
Palynology (including mycology) is widely used in palaeoecological and bioarchaeological studies. Lake and mire sediments, soils, and the deposits accumulating in archaeological features, invariably contain plant and fungal remains, particularly pollen and spores. These serve as proxy indicators of ancient environmental conditions and events. Forensic palynology has been successfully employed in criminal investigations for more than two decades. In recent years, it has included fungal palynomorphs in profiling samples from crime scenes, and from exhibits obtained from suspects and victims...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
Steven E Massey
Forensic science concerns the application of scientific techniques to questions of a legal nature and may also be used to address questions of historical importance. Forensic techniques are often used in legal cases that involve crimes against persons or property, and they increasingly may involve cases of bioterrorism, crimes against nature, medical negligence, or tracing the origin of food- and crop-borne disease. Given the rapid advance of genome sequencing and comparative genomics techniques, we ask how these might be used to address cases of a forensic nature, focusing on the use of microbial genome sequence analysis...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Barry K Lavine, Collin G White, Matthew D Allen, Andrew Weakley
Multilayered automotive paint fragments, which are one of the most complex materials encountered in the forensic science laboratory, provide crucial links in criminal investigations and prosecutions. To determine the origin of these paint fragments, forensic automotive paint examiners have turned to the paint data query (PDQ) database, which allows the forensic examiner to compare the layer sequence and color, texture, and composition of the sample to paint systems of the original equipment manufacturer (OEM)...
October 5, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
Ardo van den Hout, Ivo Alberink
Evaluation of evidence in forensic science is discussed using posterior distributions for likelihood ratios. Instead of eliminating the uncertainty by integrating (Bayes factor) or by conditioning on parameter values, uncertainty in the likelihood ratio is retained by parameter uncertainty derived from posterior distributions. A posterior distribution for a likelihood ratio can be summarised by the median and credible intervals. Using the posterior mean of the distribution is not recommended. An analysis of forensic data for body height estimation is undertaken...
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Danica M Ommen, Christopher P Saunders, Cedric Neumann
In the various forensic science disciplines, recent analytical developments paired with modern statistical computational tools have led to the proliferation of adhoc techniques for quantifying the probative value of forensic evidence. Many legal and scientific scholars agree that the value of evidence should be reported as a likelihood ratio or a Bayes Factor. Quantifying the probative value of forensic evidence is subjected to many sources of variability and uncertainty. There is currently a debate on how to characterize the reliability of the value of evidence...
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Geoffrey Stewart Morrison
The present paper introduces the Science & Justice virtual special issue on measuring and reporting the precision of forensic likelihood ratios - whether this should be done, and if so how. The focus is on precision (aka reliability) as opposed to accuracy (aka validity). The topic is controversial and different authors are expected to express a range of nuanced opinions. The present paper frames the debate, explaining the underlying problem and referencing classes of solutions proposed in the existing literature...
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Raymond Marquis, Alex Biedermann, Liv Cadola, Christophe Champod, Line Gueissaz, Geneviève Massonnet, Williams David Mazzella, Franco Taroni, Tacha Hicks
In a recently published guideline for evaluative reporting in forensic science, the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) recommended the use of the likelihood ratio for the measurement of the value of forensic results. As a device to communicate the probative value of the results, the ENFSI guideline mentions the possibility to define and use a verbal scale, which should be unified within a forensic institution. This paper summarizes discussions held between scientists of our institution to develop and implement such a verbal scale...
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Frederick Li, Joseph Tice, Brian D Musselman, Adam B Hall
Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are often used by terrorists and criminals to create public panic and destruction, necessitating rapid investigative information. However, backlogs in many forensic laboratories resulting in part from time-consuming GC-MS and LC-MS techniques prevent prompt analytical information. Direct analysis in real time - mass spectrometry (DART-MS) is a promising analytical technique that can address this challenge in the forensic science community by permitting rapid trace analysis of energetic materials...
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Caroline Fournet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Dorian E Ramírez, Charles C Branas, Therese S Richmond, Kent Bream, Dawei Xie, Magda Velásquez-Tohom, Douglas J Wiebe
OBJECTIVE: To assess if violent deaths were associated with pay days in Guatemala. DESIGN: Interrupted time series analysis. SETTING: Guatemalan national autopsy databases. PARTICIPANTS: Daily violence-related autopsy data for 22 418 decedents from 2009 to 2012. Data were provided by the Guatemalan National Institute of Forensic Sciences. Multiple pay-day lags and other important days such as holidays were tested. OUTCOME MEASURES: Absolute and relative estimates of excess violent deaths on pay days and holidays...
October 3, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
S Prati, M Milosevic, G Sciutto, I Bonacini, S G Kazarian, R Mazzeo
The identification of organic dyes is a challenging task in all the fields such as the forensic and conservation sciences, especially in cases where the amount of sample is extremely small. In this paper we propose a new enhanced FTIR method (MU-ATR metal underlayer ATR spectroscopy), which we believe is the first of its kind, for the analysis of a few ng of dyes. With this method, dyed fiber micro-extracts can be analyzed using a commercial FTIR microscope with a fixed incident angle, obtaining the same separation between the different classes of dyes investigated as we obtained analyzing pure dyes in transmission mode...
October 19, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
António Amorim, Manuel Crespillo, Juan A Luque, Lourdes Prieto, Oscar Garcia, Leonor Gusmão, Mercedes Aler, Pedro A Barrio, Victor G Saragoni, Nadia Pinto
Communicating and interpreting genetic evidence in the administration of justice is currently a matter of great concern, due to the theoretical and technical complexity of the evaluative reporting and large difference in expertise between forensic experts and law professionals. A large number of initiatives have been taken trying to bridge this gap, contributing to the education of both parties. Results however have not been very encouraging, as most of these initiatives try to cope globally with the problem, addressing simultaneously theoretical and technical approaches which are in a quite heterogeneous state of development and validation...
September 7, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Juuso S Nissilä, Satu K Mänttäri, Terttu T Särkioja, Hannu J Tuominen, Timo E Takala, Vesa J Kiviniemi, Raija T Sormunen, Seppo Y O Saarela, Markku J Timonen
Until now, melanopsin (OPN4) - a specialized photopigment being responsive especially to blue light wavelengths - has not been found in the human brain at protein level outside the retina. More specifically, OPN4 has only been found in about 2% of retinal ganglion cells (i.e. in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells), and in a subtype of retinal cone-cells. Given that Allen Institute for Brain Science has described a wide distribution of OPN4 mRNA in two human brains, we aimed to investigate whether OPN4 is present in the human brain also at protein level...
September 30, 2016: Chronobiology International
Jiachang Li, Xingjun Zhu, Meng Xue, Wei Feng, Rongliang Ma, Fuyou Li
Lanthanide upconversion nanophosphors (Ln-UCNPs) have attracted great attention in a variety of fields, benefiting from low background fluorescence interference and a high signal-to-noise ratio of upconversion luminescence. However, the establishment of Ln-UCNPs with dual near-infrared (NIR) emission channels still remains challenging. Herein, we report the design and synthesis of Nd(3+)-sensitized NaYbF4:Tm@NaYF4:Yb@NaNdF4:Yb hierarchical-structured nanoparticles that emit NIR luminescence at 696 and 980 nm under excitation at 808 nm...
October 17, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
M H Pereira de Paiva, L Pinheiro Lages, Z Cavalcanti de Medeiros
AIM: To identify and synthesize the national and international literature on forensic nursing in Brazil. BACKGROUND: Forensic nursing is a new specialty to the nursing practice in Brazil, being recognized by the Federal Nursing Council of Brazil in 2011. In 2016, the first forensic nursing specialization programme was authorized in the country. INTRODUCTION: The implementation of forensic nursing specialty in Brazil marks new possibilities for the nursing practice, making it possible for nurses to develop additional skills to intervene in various situations under the Brazilian Unified Healthcare System...
September 29, 2016: International Nursing Review
Jennifer M Lang, Racheal Erb, Jennifer L Pechal, John R Wallace, Ryan W McEwan, Mark Eric Benbow
Biofilms are a ubiquitous formation of microbial communities found on surfaces in aqueous environments. These structures have been investigated as biomonitoring indicators for stream heath, and here were used for the potential use in forensic sciences. Biofilm successional development has been proposed as a method to determine the postmortem submersion interval (PMSI) of remains because there are no standard methods for estimating the PMSI and biofilms are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats. We sought to compare the development of epinecrotic (biofilms on Sus scrofa domesticus carcasses) and epilithic (biofilms on unglazed ceramic tiles) communities in two small streams using bacterial automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis...
January 4, 2016: Microorganisms
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Nature
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