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forensic science

Connor D Carlton, Samantha Mitchell, Patrick Lewis
Over the past decade, Structure from Motion (SfM) has increasingly been used as a means of digital preservation and for documenting archaeological excavations, architecture, and cultural material. However, few studies have tapped the potential of using SfM to document and analyze taphonomic processes affecting burials for forensic sciences purposes. This project utilizes SfM models to elucidate specific post-depositional events that affected a series of three human cadavers deposited at the South East Texas Applied Forensic Science Facility (STAFS)...
November 2, 2017: Forensic Science International
I Szelecz, N Feddern, C V W Seppey, J Amendt, E A D Mitchell
In forensic science, the use of entomological evidence to estimate the minimum post-mortem interval can be crucial. However, not all cadaver-visiting insects are equally useful. Our focus is on the histerid beetle Saprinus semistriatus (Scriba 1790) (Histeridae; Coleoptera). Histeridae are common predators that feed mainly on dipteran larvae on carrion and dung. We review 23 publications mentioning this species and provide new experimental data on its temporal pattern beneath and on hanging pig cadavers. In a field experiment near Neuchâtel, Switzerland, we recorded the abundance of S...
November 10, 2017: Legal Medicine
Dave Holmes, Marilou Gagnon
Based on our respective research programs (psychiatry, forensic psychiatry, public health, HIV/AIDS, harm reduction) this article aims to use purposely non-conventional means to present the substantial contribution of poststructuralist perspectives to knowledge development in nursing science in general and in our current research in particular. More specifically, we call on the work of Michel Foucault and Deleuze & Guattari to politicize nursing science using examples from our empirical research programs with marginal and often highly marginalized populations...
November 15, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
Rajapandiyan Panneerselvam, Guo-Kun Liu, Yao-Hui Wang, Jun-Yang Liu, Song-Yuan Ding, Jian-Feng Li, De-Yin Wu, Zhong-Qun Tian
In this feature article, we discuss in detail developmental bottleneck issues in Raman spectroscopy in its early stages and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in the past four decades. We divide SERS research into two different directions with different targets. Fundamental research is extending the limits of SERS to single-molecule, sub-nanometer resolution and femtosecond processes. In contrast, practical research is expanding the range of applications with the aim of providing versatile analytical tools for surface, materials, life, environmental, forensic and food sciences and also commercial instruments for use in daily life...
November 15, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Vishakha Sharma, Hoi Yan Chow, Donald Siegel, Elisa Wurmbach
Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) is a powerful tool transforming DNA analysis in multiple fields ranging from medicine, to environmental science, to evolutionary biology. In forensic applications, MPS offers the ability to significantly increase the discriminatory power of human identification as well as aid in mixture deconvolution. However, before the benefits of any new technology can be employed, a thorough evaluation of its quality, consistency, sensitivity, and specificity must be rigorously evaluated in order to gain a detailed understanding of the technique including sources of error, error rates, and other restrictions/limitations...
2017: PloS One
Mikkel M Andersen, David J Balding
The introduction of forensic autosomal DNA profiles was controversial, but the problems were successfully addressed, and DNA profiling has gone on to revolutionise forensic science. Y-chromosome profiles are valuable when there is a mixture of male-source and female-source DNA, and interest centres on the identity of the male source(s) of the DNA. The problem of evaluating evidential weight is even more challenging for Y profiles than for autosomal profiles. Numerous approaches have been proposed, but they fail to deal adequately with the fact that men with matching Y-profiles are related in extended patrilineal clans, many of which may not be represented in available databases...
November 2017: PLoS Genetics
Alberto Giordano, M Katherine Spradley
Geographic Information Science (GIScience) technology has been used to document, investigate, and predict patterns that may be of utility in both forensic academic research and applied practice. In examining spatial and temporal trends of the mass disaster that is occurring along the U.S.-Mexico border, other researchers have highlighted predictive patterns for search and recovery efforts as well as water station placement. The purpose of this paper is to use previously collected spatial data of migrant deaths from Arizona to address issues of data uncertainty and data accuracy that affect our understanding of this phenomenon, including local and federal policies that impact the U...
August 12, 2017: Forensic Science International
Katie E Faillace, Jonathan D Bethard, Murray K Marks
OBJECTIVES: Though applied in bioarchaeology, dental wear is an underexplored age indicator in the biological anthropology of contemporary populations, although research has been conducted on dental attrition in forensic contexts (Kim et al., , Journal of Forensic Sciences, 45, 303; Prince et al., , Journal of Forensic Sciences, 53, 588; Yun et al., , Journal of Forensic Sciences, 52, 678). The purpose of this study is to apply and adapt existing techniques for age estimation based on dental wear to a modern American population, with the aim of producing accurate age range estimates for individuals from an industrialized context...
October 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
F W DelRio, R F Cook
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to assess the indentation modulus Ms and pull-off force Fpo in four case studies of distinct evidence types, namely hair, questioned documents, fingerprints, and explosive particle-surface interactions. In the hair study, Ms decreased and Fpo increased after adding conditioner and bleach to the hair. For the questioned documents, Ms and Fpo of two inks were markedly different; ballpoint pen ink exhibited smaller variations relative to the mean value than printer ink. The fingerprint case study revealed that both maximum height and Fpo decreased over a three-day period...
September 2017: Experimental Mechanics
Claire E Lenehan, Shanan S Tobe, Renee J Smith, Rachel S Popelka-Filcoff
Many archaeological science studies use the concept of "provenance", where the origins of cultural material can be determined through physical or chemical properties that relate back to the origins of the material. Recent studies using DNA profiling of bacteria have been used for the forensic determination of soils, towards determination of geographic origin. This manuscript presents a novel approach to the provenance of archaeological minerals and related materials through the use of 16S rRNA sequencing analysis of microbial DNA...
2017: PloS One
Cédric Parisien, Gitanjali Kolhatkar, Frank Crispino, André Lajeunesse, Andreas Ruediger
In forensic sciences, there is an increasing demand for nondestructive and reliable methods to retrieve obliterated information in polymers. This study demonstrates a case study for the potential of Raman spectroscopy to reconstruct abraded serial numbers. Residual strain and local variations in the structural arrangement are nondestructively imaged through peak shifts and variations of the full width at half-maximum of specific Raman lines, respectively. We qualitatively validate our approach by successfully recovering an obliterated letter stamped with a pressure of ∼170 MPa in a polycarbonate sample, with a subsequent quantitative statistical analysis...
November 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Marta Gładysz, Małgorzata Król, Paweł Kościelniak
The main challenge for the identification and differentiation of lipsticks for forensic purposes is the fact that they have a similar chemical composition - in particular, samples of the same hue. The objective of the presented research was to solve this problem using a nondestructive analytical technique - attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (ATR). 38 red lipsticks produced by 20 different manufacturers were examined in optimized experimental conditions. To facilitate discrimination and provide more extensive analyses of the obtained data, two chemometric techniques: principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used...
October 6, 2017: Forensic Science International
Carl N Stephan
The tallied facial soft tissue thicknesses (or T-Tables) represent grand means of published facial soft tissue thickness sample means. These sample means have been drawn from across the full-breadth of the facial soft tissue thickness (FSTT) literature, including forensic science, anthropology and odontology. The report of new summary statistics for >1290 new sub-adults and >2200 new adults since the last T-Table calculation, in 2008 for sub-adults and 2013 for adults respectively, makes their update timely...
September 29, 2017: Forensic Science International
E R Rossinskaya
The author considers the main landmarks in the formation and development of the science of forensic expertise and related activities. Special attention is given to the necessity of increasing knowledge and skills in judicial proceedings, further elaboration and perfection of the theory and practice of forensic expertise to meet the requirements put forward by the XXIth century. It is emphasized that this work is needed to lay the foundation for the creation of the self-consistent science - forensic expertology, based on the interdisciplinary general theory of forensic expertise...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Maria Jesus Alvarez-Cubero, Maria Saiz, Belén Martínez-García, Sara M Sayalero, Carmen Entrala, Jose Antonio Lorente, Luis Javier Martinez-Gonzalez
CONTEXT: Over the last few decades, advances in sequencing have improved greatly. One of the most important achievements of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is to produce millions of sequence reads in a short period of time, and to produce large sequences of DNA in fragments of any size. Libraries can be generated from whole genomes or any DNA or RNA region of interest without the need to know its sequence beforehand. This allows for looking for variations and facilitating genetic identification...
September 26, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
A Mattei, J Fish, M Hilgert, T Lövby, M Svensson, J Vaughan, F Zampa
As early as 2004, the Fingerprint Working Group (EFP-WG) of the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) has organised proficiency tests (PT's), as well as collaborative exercises (CE's), as a way of raising standards within the fingerprint profession. This article provides an overview of the three collaborative exercises carried out in 2015. The characteristics of the testing programme are summarised, followed by an overview of the knowledge that has been gained, including depicting what lessons have been learnt...
September 22, 2017: Forensic Science International
Ute Hofmeister, Susana Navarro
Forensic humanitarian action is aimed at alleviating suffering and maintaining human dignity, with the victims and their families at the core. International recommendations emphasize the importance of psychological support and psychosocial work as an integral part of forensic investigations into missing persons. Psychosocial action does not simply refer to emotional support but is based on the idea of the individual being the holder of rights, encouraging decision taking, affirming actions, and elaborating personal and collective histories...
September 1, 2017: Forensic Science International
Ragaa T Darwish, Manal H Abdel-Aziz, Abdel-Aziz M El Nekiedy, Zahraa K Sobh
BACKGROUND: In forensic sciences to determine one's sex is quite important during the identity defining stage. The reliability of sex determination depends on the completeness of the remains and the degree of sexual dimorphism inherent in the population. Computed Tomography is the imaging modality of choice for two- and three-dimensional documentation and analysis of many autopsy findings. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present work was to assess the reliability of Three-dimensional Multislice Computed Tomography (3D MSCT) to determine sexual dimorphism from certain chest measurements; sternum and fourth rib using the 3D MSCT and to develop equations for sex determination from these bones among adult Egyptians sample...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Vagner Gonçalves, Nicolle Queiroz Hazarbassanov, Adriana de Siqueira, Jorge Camilo Florio, Claudia Helena Pastor Ciscato, Paulo Cesar Maiorka, André Rinaldi Fukushima, Helenice de Souza Spinosa
Agricultural pesticides used with the criminal intent to intoxicate domestic and wild animals are a serious concern in Veterinary Medicine. In order to identify the pesticide carbofuran and its metabolite 3- hydroxycarbofuran in animals suspected of exogenous intoxication a high pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed and validated in stomach contents, liver, vitreous humor and blood. The method was evaluated using biological samples from seven different animal species...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
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