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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778926/a-computational-approach-to-estimate-postmortem-interval-using-opacity-development-of-eye-for-human-subjects
#1
İsmail Cantürk, Lale Özyılmaz
This paper presents an approach to postmortem interval (PMI) estimation, which is a very debated and complicated area of forensic science. Most of the reported methods to determine PMI in the literature are not practical because of the need for skilled persons and significant amounts of time, and give unsatisfactory results. Additionally, the error margin of PMI estimation increases proportionally with elapsed time after death. It is crucial to develop practical PMI estimation methods for forensic science. In this study, a computational system is developed to determine the PMI of human subjects by investigating postmortem opacity development of the eye...
May 17, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772600/an-accurate-bacterial-dna-quantification-assay-for-hts-library-preparation-of-human-biological-samples
#2
Sarah Seashols-Williams, Raquel Green, Denise Wohlfahrt, Angela Brand, Antonio Limjuco Tan-Torres, Francy Nogales, J Paul Brooks, Baneshwar Singh
Sequencing and classification of microbial taxa within forensically relevant biological fluids has the potential for applications in the forensic science and biomedical fields. The quantity of bacterial DNA from human samples is currently estimated based on quantity of total DNA isolated. This method can miscalculate bacterial DNA quantity due to the mixed nature of the sample, and consequently library preparation is often unreliable. We developed an assay that can accurately and specifically quantify bacterial DNA within a mixed sample for reliable 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA) library preparation and high throughput sequencing (HTS)...
May 17, 2018: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771841/integrating-a-profile-of-frontal-face-with-its-mirror-image-for-facial-reconstruction
#3
Paramjit Kaur, Kewal Krishan, Suresh K Sharma, Tanuj Kanchan
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Face recognition plays an important role in the field of biometrics, bioinformatics, and forensic identification. Human faces appear bilaterally symmetric. However, asymmetry is a norm in the human body and careful morphological and metric examination of the human face gives an exact idea of the asymmetry present in the face of an individual. Most of the studies on asymmetry of human face have been carried out with regard to evaluation of expressions in psychology, anthropology, and biometrics...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771707/electrolytes-and-biochemical-changes-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-drowning-experimental-rabbit-model
#4
Melad G Paulis, Eman I Hasan
The diagnosis of drowning is still a difficult task in forensic science. Biochemical changes in different body fluids have been examined for the identification of drowning. However, none of them alone gives accurate results in the diagnosis of drowning and differentiation of saltwater and freshwater drowning. This study aimed to examine cerebrospinal fluid changes in drowned rabbits. Six groups of rabbits were used including immersed dead rabbits in freshwater or saltwater (as control groups), alive fully conscious rabbits drowned in freshwater and saltwater, and anesthetized rabbits drowned in freshwater and saltwater...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754881/appraising-forensic-anthropology-in-the-philippines-current-status-and-future-directions
#5
Matthew C Go
The increasing significance of forensic anthropology in the 21st century, yet unequitable worldwide distribution of expertise, necessitates a stocktaking of the discipline on a local scale. The purpose of this work is to appraise the current state of forensic anthropology in the Philippines and provide the rationale for its further development within the country. Recent efforts in research, education, and legislation that seek to boost Philippine forensic anthropology specifically and forensic sciences generally are highlighted...
April 24, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751222/development-of-forensic-medicine-in-post-reform-indonesia
#6
Yoni Fuadah Syukriani, Nita Novita, Deni K Sunjaya
Forensic medicine practice in Indonesia was introduced through the Dutch colonial criminal justice system in the early twentieth century. After more than 70 years of national independence, the development of forensic medicine still faces fundamental challenges, including confusion in the distribution of responsibility with law enforcement agencies, difficulties in managing conflicts of interest, and impediments in scientific practice and professional development. Despite of the golden opportunity from the Indonesian Reform movement in the late 1990s, the impact on forensic medicine development has been less than expected...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750476/evaluation-of-massively-parallel-sequencing-for-forensic-dna-methylation-profiling
#7
REVIEW
Rebecca Richards, Jayshree Patel, Kate Stevenson, SallyAnn Harbison
Epigenetics is an emerging area of interest in forensic science. DNA methylation, a type of epigenetic modification, can be applied to chronological age estimation, identical twin differentiation and body fluid identification. However, there is not yet an agreed, established methodology for targeted detection and analysis of DNA methylation markers in forensic research. Recently a massively parallel sequencing-based approach has been suggested. The use of massively parallel sequencing is well established in clinical epigenetics and is emerging as a new technology in the forensic field...
May 11, 2018: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743506/self-reference-and-random-sampling-approach-for-label-free-identification-of-dna-composition-using-plasmonic-nanomaterials
#8
Lindsay M Freeman, Lin Pang, Yeshaiahu Fainman
The analysis of DNA has led to revolutionary advancements in the fields of medical diagnostics, genomics, prenatal screening, and forensic science, with the global DNA testing market expected to reach revenues of USD 10.04 billion per year by 2020. However, the current methods for DNA analysis remain dependent on the necessity for fluorophores or conjugated proteins, leading to high costs associated with consumable materials and manual labor. Here, we demonstrate a potential label-free DNA composition detection method using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in which we identify the composition of cytosine and adenine within single strands of DNA...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742572/development-of-human-face-literature-database-using-text-mining-approach-phase-i
#9
Paramjit Kaur, Kewal Krishan, Suresh K Sharma
The face is an important part of the human body by which an individual communicates in the society. Its importance can be highlighted by the fact that a person deprived of face cannot sustain in the living world. The amount of experiments being performed and the number of research papers being published under the domain of human face have surged in the past few decades. Several scientific disciplines, which are conducting research on human face include: Medical Science, Anthropology, Information Technology (Biometrics, Robotics, and Artificial Intelligence, etc...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734052/critical-analysis-of-forensic-cut-offs-and-legal-thresholds-a-coherent-approach-to-inference-and-decision
#10
A Biedermann, F Taroni, S Bozza, M Augsburger, C G G Aitken
In this paper we critically discuss the definition and use of cut-off values by forensic scientists, for example in forensic toxicology, and point out when and why such values - and ensuing categorical conclusions - are inappropriate concepts for helping recipients of expert information with their questions of interest. Broadly speaking, a cut-off is a particular value of results of analyses of a target substance (e.g., a toxic substance or one of its metabolites in biological sample from a person of interest), defined in a way such as to enable scientists to suggest conclusions regarding the condition of the person of interest...
April 25, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721810/aspartic-acid-racemization-of-root-dentin-used-for-dental-age-estimation-in-a-polish-population-sample
#11
Katarzyna Wochna, Radosław Bonikowski, Janusz Śmigielski, Jarosław Berent
Precise age determination of unidentified bodies and human remains is one of the essential tasks of forensic science. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of using the enantiomeric composition of aspartic acid racemization in root and crown dentin for dental age estimation using a Polish population sample. Coronal and root dentin from four teeth groups from the mandible were studied using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. The results demonstrated a very high correlation between the chronological age and enantiomeric composition in both of the dentin samples...
May 2, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717465/animal-models-in-forensic-science-research-justified-use-or-ethical-exploitation
#12
Calvin Gerald Mole, Marise Heyns
A moral dilemma exists in biomedical research relating to the use of animal or human tissue when conducting scientific research. In human ethics, researchers need to justify why the use of humans is necessary should suitable models exist. Conversely, in animal ethics, a researcher must justify why research cannot be carried out on suitable alternatives. In the case of medical procedures or therapeutics testing, the use of animal models is often justified. However, in forensic research, the justification may be less evident, particularly when research involves the infliction of trauma on living animals...
May 1, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715622/comparison-of-forensic-photo-documentation-to-a-photogrammetric-solution-using-the-multi-camera-system-botscan
#13
Ramona Michienzi, Seraina Meier, Lars C Ebert, Rosa Maria Martinez, Till Sieberth
As forensic science technologies progress, digital photography has become outdated for certain documentations that require exact measurements. Recording three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional photograph leads to a potential loss of relevant information. Photogrammetry has been utilized to record persons, objects or crime scenes and prevents this loss. Photogrammetry enables accurate documentation and visualization of events or matching of injuries and injury-causing instruments. To reduce inaccuracies during photogrammetric recording, a multi camera device, Botscan by Botspot, can be used to record living persons in three-dimensional space (3D)...
April 14, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713334/bayesian-hierarchical-random-effects-models-in-forensic-science
#14
REVIEW
Colin G G Aitken
Statistical modeling of the evaluation of evidence with the use of the likelihood ratio has a long history. It dates from the Dreyfus case at the end of the nineteenth century through the work at Bletchley Park in the Second World War to the present day. The development received a significant boost in 1977 with a seminal work by Dennis Lindley which introduced a Bayesian hierarchical random effects model for the evaluation of evidence with an example of refractive index measurements on fragments of glass. Many models have been developed since then...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705973/review-of-autopsy-reports-of-deaths-relating-to-fire-in-south-australia-2000-2015
#15
Claire J Sully, G Stewart Walker, Neil E I Langlois
It has been noted there are gaps and inconsistencies in data pertaining to fire related deaths in Australia, which poses difficulties for analysis of national statistics. A search of post-mortem examination reports at Forensic Science SA from 2000 to 2015 revealed 275 cases regarded as fire related in which the body had been involved in a fire. The autopsy reports were evaluated to determine parameters including the location of the fire event, age and sex of victim, as well as the presence of soot in the airways and cherry-red coloration to the blood and/or organs, in addtion to toxicological levels of carboxyhemoglobin and alcohol...
April 28, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705583/the-international-development-of-forensic-science-standards-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Linzi Wilson-Wilde
Standards establish specifications and procedures designed to ensure products, services and systems are safe, reliable and consistently perform as intended. Standards can be used in the accreditation of forensic laboratories or facilities and in the certification of products and services. In recent years there have been various international activities aiming at developing forensic science standards and guidelines. The most significant initiative currently underway within the global forensic community is the development of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards...
April 16, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703624/a-modern-documented-italian-identified-skeletal-collection-of-2127-skeletons-the-cal-milano-cemetery-skeletal-collection
#17
Cristina Cattaneo, Debora Mazzarelli, Annalisa Cappella, Elisa Castoldi, Mirko Mattia, Pasquale Poppa, Danilo De Angelis, Antonio Vitello, Lucie Biehler-Gomez
The CAL Milano Cemetery Skeletal Collection is a modern and continuously growing identified osteological collection of 2127 skeletons under study in the Laboratorio di Antropologia e Odontologia Forense (LABANOF) in the Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health of the University of Milan (Italy), and part of the Collezione Antropologica LABANOF (CAL). The collection presents individuals of both sexes and of all age groups with a high representation of the elderly and an interesting sample of infants. Each individual is associated with a documentation that includes sex, age-at-death, dates of birth and death, and a death certificate that specifies the exact cause of death and the chain of events that led to it (related pathological conditions or traumatic events)...
March 31, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698915/forensic-facial-comparison-in-south-africa-state-of-the-science
#18
M Steyn, M Pretorius, N Briers, N Bacci, A Johnson, T M R Houlton
Forensic facial comparison (FFC) is a scientific technique used to link suspects to a crime scene based on the analysis of photos or video recordings from that scene. While basic guidelines on practice and training are provided by the Facial Identification Scientific Working Group, details of how these are applied across the world are scarce. FFC is frequently used in South Africa, with more than 700 comparisons conducted in the last two years alone. In this paper the standards of practice are outlined, with new proposed levels of agreement/conclusions...
April 12, 2018: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685299/the-introduction-of-forensic-advisors-in-belgium-and-their-role-in-the-criminal-justice-system
#19
Sonja Bitzer, Laetitia Heudt, Aurélie Barret, Lore George, Karolien Van Dijk, Fabrice Gason, Bertrand Renard
Forensic advisors (FA) at the National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology (NICC), generalists in forensic science, act as an advising body to the magistrate to improve communication between the various parties involved in the investigation: magistrate, police and crime scene investigators, and forensic experts. Their role is manifold, but their main objectives are to optimise trace processing by selecting the most pertinent traces in the context of the case and by advising magistrates on the feasibility of forensic analyses in particular circumstances in regards to the latest technical advances...
May 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685298/the-suitability-of-visual-taphonomic-methods-for-digital-photographs-an-experimental-approach-with-pig-carcasses-in-a-tropical-climate
#20
Agathe Ribéreau-Gayon, Carolyn Rando, Ruth M Morgan, David O Carter
In the context of increased scrutiny of the methods in forensic sciences, it is essential to ensure that the approaches used in forensic taphonomy to measure decomposition and estimate the postmortem interval are underpinned by robust evidence-based data. Digital photographs are an important source of documentation in forensic taphonomic investigations but the suitability of the current approaches for photographs, rather than real-time remains, is poorly studied which can undermine accurate forensic conclusions...
May 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
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