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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921297/self-identified-vampirism-and-risk-for-false-positives-a-case-example-of-team-homicide-and-implications-for-forensic-behavioral-science
#1
D J Williams
Historically, reported cases of self-identified vampirism typically have been associated with psychopathology and sometimes a propensity for violence. However, scholars recently have noted a wide range of diverse practices and meanings that all fall under the general description of self-identified vampirism. This brief report focuses on a homicide case (male and female partnered offenders), wherein a single victim was murdered and dismembered. Due to specific case evidence, there was controversy regarding whether or not the homicide was motivated by ritualistic self-identified vampirism...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914556/numerical-likelihood-ratios-outputted-by-lr-systems-are-often-based-on-extrapolation-when-to-stop-extrapolating
#2
Peter Vergeer, Andrew van Es, Arent de Jongh, Ivo Alberink, Reinoud Stoel
A recent trend in forensic science is the development of objective, automated systems for the comparison of trace and reference material that give as output numerical likelihood ratios (LRs). For well discriminating LR systems, often the probability of the evidence given one or the other hypothesis depends on the density from the tail of a probability distribution. The models for probability distributions are trained by data. Since there is no proof of the applicability of the models beyond the data range, LR systems are sensitive to extrapolation errors...
December 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905577/infrared-spectroscopy-and-spectroscopic-imaging-in-forensic-science
#3
REVIEW
Andrew V Ewing, Sergei G Kazarian
Infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging, are robust, label free and inherently non-destructive methods with a high chemical specificity and sensitivity that are frequently employed in forensic science research and practices. This review aims to discuss the applications and recent developments of these methodologies in this field. Furthermore, the use of recently emerged Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging in transmission, external reflection and Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) modes are summarised with relevance and potential for forensic science applications...
December 1, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896715/genome-sequencing
#4
Mansi Verma, Samarth Kulshrestha, Ayush Puri
Genome sequencing is an important step toward correlating genotypes with phenotypic characters. Sequencing technologies are important in many fields in the life sciences, including functional genomics, transcriptomics, oncology, evolutionary biology, forensic sciences, and many more. The era of sequencing has been divided into three generations. First generation sequencing involved sequencing by synthesis (Sanger sequencing) and sequencing by cleavage (Maxam-Gilbert sequencing). Sanger sequencing led to the completion of various genome sequences (including human) and provided the foundation for development of other sequencing technologies...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889442/current-perspectives-in-the-interpretation-of-gunshot-residues-in-forensic-science-a-review
#5
REVIEW
M Maitre, K P Kirkbride, M Horder, C Roux, A Beavis
The traces produced when a firearm is discharged can provide important information in cases when questions regarding a possible association of the firearm with a person of interest (POI), time since discharge or shooting distance are raised. With advances in technology, the forensic challenges presented by these traces, known as gunshot residues (GSR), are moving from the analytical domain to the interpretation of the analytical results. Different interpretation frameworks are currently competing. Formal classification of particles, using standards such as that produced by ASTM, focusses only on evaluation of evidence at the sub-source level...
September 22, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888923/determination-of-time-of-death-in-forensic-science-via-a-3-d-whole-body-heat-transfer-model
#6
Catherine Bartgis, Alexander M LeBrun, Ronghui Ma, Liang Zhu
This study is focused on developing a whole body heat transfer model to accurately simulate temperature decay in a body postmortem. The initial steady state temperature field is simulated first and the calculated weighted average body temperature is used to determine the overall heat transfer coefficient at the skin surface, based on thermal equilibrium before death. The transient temperature field postmortem is then simulated using the same boundary condition and the temperature decay curves at several body locations are generated for a time frame of 24h...
December 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885654/historical-trends-in-graduate-research-and-training-of-diplomates-of-the-american-board-of-forensic-anthropology
#7
Jonathan D Bethard
The history of forensic anthropology has been documented by numerous scholars. These contributions have described the work of early pioneers in the field and have described important milestones, such as the founding of the Physical Anthropology Section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) in 1972 and the American Board of Forensic Anthropology (ABFA) in 1977. This paper contributes to the growing literature on the history of forensic anthropology by documenting the academic training of all individuals who have been granted diplomate status by the ABFA (n = 115)...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885430/blood-species-discrimination-using-proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#8
Elina Zailer, Bernd W K Diehl, Yulia B Monakhova
Blood species identification is an important challenge in forensic science. Conventional methods used for blood species analysis are destructive and associated with time-consuming sample preparation steps. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is known for its nondestructive properties and fast results. This research study presents a proton ((1)H) NMR method to discriminate blood species including human, cat, dog, elephant, and bison. Characteristic signals acting as markers are observed for each species...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874190/the-value-of-outsourcing-selected-cases-in-a-medical-examiner-population-a-10-year-experience
#9
Brandi C McCleskey, Stephanie D Reilly, Dan Atherton
Due to increasing caseloads and inadequate staffing, the burden on Coroner/Medical Examiner Offices to comply with recommended autopsy limits for forensic pathologists (FPs) has been difficult. Since 2006, pathologists at the University of Alabama at Birmingham have performed select autopsies for the Alabama Department of Forensic Sciences. Each case was reviewed by a state FP and scene investigator to determine appropriateness for referral. All referred cases received full postmortem examination including microscopic examination and collection of toxicological samples, and toxicology was ordered by the referring FP as appropriate...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864934/recovery-of-trace-dna-on-clothing-a-comparison-of-mini-tape-lifting-and-three-other-forensic-evidence-collection-techniques
#10
Sabine Hess, Cordula Haas
Trace DNA is often found in forensic science investigations. Experience has shown that it is difficult to retrieve a DNA profile when trace DNA is collected from clothing. The aim of this study was to compare four different DNA collection techniques on six different types of clothing in order to determine the best trace DNA recovery method. The classical stain recovery technique using a wet cotton swab was tested against dry swabbing, scraping and a new method, referred to as the mini-tape lifting technique...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864533/calculating-probability-in-sex-offender-risk-assessment
#11
Richard W Elwood
Risk is the probability of an adverse event or outcome. In a previous article, I compared the Bayesian and Frequentist models of defining probability. This article compares the Bayesian and regression models of quantifying probability. Both approaches are widely used in the biomedical and behavioral sciences even though they yield different results. No consensus has emerged as to which is more appropriate. The choice between them remains controversial. This article concludes that the Bayesian model provides a viable alternative to logistic regression and may be more useful in quantifying the absolute recidivism risk of individual sex offenders...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846093/editorial-reflections-on-the-international-association-of-forensic-nurses-2016-international-conference-on-forensic-science-and-practice
#12
Cindy Peternelj-Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834660/private-and-efficient-query-processing-on-outsourced-genomic-databases
#13
Reza Ghasemi, Md Momin Al Aziz, Noman Mohammed, Massoud Hadian Dehkordi, Xiaoqian Jiang
Applications of genomic studies are spreading rapidly in many domains of science and technology such as healthcare, biomedical research, direct-to-consumer services, and legal and forensic. However, there are a number of obstacles that make it hard to access and process a big genomic database for these applications. First, sequencing genomic sequence is a timeconsuming and expensive process. Second, it requires large-scale computation and storage systems to processes genomic sequences. Third, genomic databases are often owned by different organizations and thus not available for public usage...
November 4, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826005/comparative-evaluation-of-polycyanoacrylates
#14
Yoav Barkan, Mira Levinman, Ilana Veprinsky-Zuzuliya, Tsadok Tsach, Emmanuelle Merqioul, Galia Blum, Abraham J Domb, Arijit Basu
: Cyanoacrylate esters (CA) and their corresponding polymers (PolyCA) are used as general and medical adhesives, biodegradable carriers for controlled drug delivery, and as agents for fingerprint development in forensic science. Most reports of cyanoacrylate are on ethyl or 2-octyl cyanoacrylate ester with little attention to other esters. It is the objective of this study to determine the differences amongst cyanoacrylate esters regarding their synthesis, chemical characterization, hydrolytic degradation, and thermal and mechanical properties...
November 4, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823806/the-forensic-use-of-behavioral-genetics-in-criminal-proceedings-case-of-the-maoa-l-genotype
#15
Sally McSwiggan, Bernice Elger, Paul S Appelbaum
The role of behavioral genetic evidence in excusing and mitigating criminal behavior is unclear. Research has suggested that a low activity genotype of the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAOA-L) may increase the risk for aggressive and antisocial behavior. By examining criminal proceedings in which MAOA-L genotype evidence was introduced, we explored the forensic uses of behavioral genetic science. Westlaw and LexisNexis legal databases were electronically searched for cases from 1995 to 2016 to identify court documents from cases involving the MAOA-L genotype...
November 4, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817057/the-y-chromosome-as-the-most-popular-marker-in-genetic-genealogy-benefits-interdisciplinary-research
#16
REVIEW
Francesc Calafell, Maarten H D Larmuseau
The Y chromosome is currently by far the most popular marker in genetic genealogy that combines genetic data and family history. This popularity is based on its haploid character and its close association with the patrilineage and paternal inherited surname. Other markers have not been found (yet) to overrule this status due to the low sensitivity and precision of autosomal DNA for genetic genealogical applications, given the vagaries of recombination, and the lower capacities of mitochondrial DNA combined with an in general much lower interest in maternal lineages...
November 5, 2016: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816850/a-multiplex-pcr-system-for-13-rm-y-strs-with-separate-amplification-of-two-different-repeat-motif-structures-in-dyf403s1a
#17
Eun Young Lee, Hwan Young Lee, So Yeun Kwon, Yu Na Oh, Woo Ick Yang, Kyoung-Jin Shin
In forensic science and human genetics, Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) have been used as very useful markers. Recently, more Y-STR markers have been analyzed to enhance the resolution power in haplotype analysis, and 13 rapidly mutating (RM) Y-STRs have been suggested as revolutionary tools that can widen Y-chromosomal application from paternal lineage differentiation to male individualization. We have constructed two multiplex PCR sets for the amplification of 13 RM Y-STRs, which yield small-sized amplicons (<400bp) and a more balanced PCR efficiency with minimum PCR cycling...
October 27, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799432/determination-of-thickness-of-thin-turbid-painted-over-layers-using-micro-scale-spatially-offset-raman-spectroscopy
#18
Claudia Conti, Marco Realini, Chiara Colombo, Alessandra Botteon, Moira Bertasa, Jana Striova, Marco Barucci, Pavel Matousek
We present a method for estimating the thickness of thin turbid layers using defocusing micro-spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (micro-SORS). The approach, applicable to highly turbid systems, enables one to predict depths in excess of those accessible with conventional Raman microscopy. The technique can be used, for example, to establish the paint layer thickness on cultural heritage objects, such as panel canvases, mural paintings, painted statues and decorated objects. Other applications include analysis in polymer, biological and biomedical disciplines, catalytic and forensics sciences where highly turbid overlayers are often present and where invasive probing may not be possible or is undesirable...
December 13, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783126/identification-of-individual-red-blood-cells-by-raman-microspectroscopy-for-forensic-purposes-in-search-of-a-limit-of-detection
#19
Claire K Muro, Igor K Lednev
Traces of body fluids can be present at a variety of crime scenes. It is important that forensic investigators have a reliable and nondestructive method of identifying these traces. Of equal importance is establishing the limitations of any method in use, including its detection limit. We have previously reported on the use of Raman microspectroscopy and multivariate data analysis to identify and differentiate body fluids. While many studies use serial dilutions to establish limits of detection, we utilized a different approach and demonstrated that a single red blood cell is sufficient to be correctly identified as blood...
October 25, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782054/ultraviolet-imaging-with-low-cost-smartphone-sensors-development-and-application-of-a-raspberry-pi-based-uv-camera
#20
Thomas C Wilkes, Andrew J S McGonigle, Tom D Pering, Angus J Taggart, Benjamin S White, Robert G Bryant, Jon R Willmott
Here, we report, for what we believe to be the first time, on the modification of a low cost sensor, designed for the smartphone camera market, to develop an ultraviolet (UV) camera system. This was achieved via adaptation of Raspberry Pi cameras, which are based on back-illuminated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensors, and we demonstrated the utility of these devices for applications at wavelengths as low as 310 nm, by remotely sensing power station smokestack emissions in this spectral region...
October 6, 2016: Sensors
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