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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097647/microbiota-composition-and-pulmonary-surfactant-protein-expression-as-markers-of-death-by-drowning
#1
So-Yeon Lee, Seung-Kyun Woo, So-Min Lee, Eun-Ju Ha, Kyoung-Hee Lim, Kyung-Hwa Choi, Young-Hee Roh, Yong-Bin Eom
Pathological diagnosis of drowning remains a challenge for forensic science, because of a lack of pathognomonic findings. We analyzed microbiota and surfactant protein in the lungs for a novel diagnosis of drowning. All rats were divided into drowning, postmortem submersion, and control groups. The water, lungs, closed organs (kidney and liver), and cardiac blood in rats were assayed by targeting 16S ribosomal RNA of Miseq sequencing. Lung samples were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining for surfactant protein A...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063590/forensic-likelihood-ratio-statistical-problems-and-pitfalls
#2
A Philip Dawid
This article is a response to the position papers published in the Science & Justice virtual special issue on measuring and reporting the precision of forensic likelihood ratios. I point out a number of serious statistical errors in some of these papers. These issues need to be properly addressed before the philosophical debate can be conducted in earnest.
January 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056377/variation-in-elemental-composition-of-human-teeth-and-its-application-for-feasible-species-identification
#3
Korakot Nganvongpanit, Kittisak Buddhachat, Promporn Piboon, Thippaporn Euppayo, Pasuk Mahakkanukrauh
Identifying human remains is a primary task in forensic science. In this study, we propose a possible new technique, handheld X-ray fluorescence (HHXRF), for determining whether a suspected tooth is an authentic human tooth. A total of 444 teeth obtained from 111 human skulls (male=62, female=49) aged between 30-67 years (51.81±8.37 years) were used as subjects. The teeth were scanned by HHXRF to acquire their elemental profile. Differences in elemental composition were analyzed for different tooth positions (numbers 1-32), between crown and root, and between sexes (male and female); also, the proportion of elements in relation to different human ages was examined...
December 21, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050997/mortality-among-homeless-women-who-remain-unclaimed-after-death-an-insight
#4
Aayushi Garg, Chittaranjan Behera, Saurav Chopra, D N Bhardwaj
BACKGROUND: Some homeless people remain unclaimed after death. Although women constitute a minor proportion among the homeless, they represent a more vulnerable section. We reviewed the major autopsy characteristics and causes of death among women whose bodies remained unclaimed after death. METHODS: We analysed the autopsy records and inquest papers of unclaimed bodies of women for the period 2006-12 at the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi...
July 2016: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042629/the-effects-of-gender-and-age-on-forensic-personal-identification-from-frontal-sinus-in-a-turkish-population
#5
Ertugrul Tatlisumak, Mahmut Asirdizer, Aydin Bora, Yavuz Hekimoglu, Yasin Etli, Orhan Gumus, Siddik Keskin
To define the dimensions of the frontal sinus in groups standardized for age and gender and to discuss the reasons and the effects of the variations. Methods: Frontal sinus measurements were obtained from paranasal CTscans of 180 males and 180 females in the Radiology Department of Dursun Odabas Medical Center of Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, which is located in Eastern Turkey, between February and March 2016. The width and height of sinuses were measured on a coronal plane, and the anteroposterior length was measured on an axial plane...
January 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035474/technical-note-early-post-mortem-changes-of-human-bone-in-taphonomy-with-%C3%AE-ct
#6
Erwan Le Garff, Vadim Mesli, Yann Delannoy, Thomas Colard, Xavier Demondion, Anne Becart, Valéry Hedouin
Post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation is an important issue in forensic medicine, particularly for criminal purposes and legal limitation periods. The goal of the present study is to examine the evolution of the trabecular cranial vault bone after 4 weeks of conservation in a controlled environment with micro-tomography (μCT) analyses.Four bone samples were extracted from a fresh human cranial vault (a donation to science according to the French law) and conserved in an air-controlled environment. The samples were weighed and μCT scanned at a 10-μm resolution every week after death for a month...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032532/the-missing-the-martyred-and-the-disappeared-global-networks-technical-intensification-and-the-end-of-human-rights-genetics
#7
Lindsay A Smith
In 1984, a group of Argentine students, trained by US academics, formed the Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team to apply the latest scientific techniques to the excavation of mass graves and identification of the dead, and to work toward transitional justice. This inaugurated a new era in global forensic science, as groups of scientists in the Global South worked outside of and often against local governments to document war crimes in post-conflict settings. After 2001, however, with the inauguration of the war on terror following the September 11(th) attacks on the World Trade Center in New York, global forensic science was again remade through US and European investment to increase preparedness in the face of potential terrorist attacks...
December 1, 2016: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032350/age-estimation-based-on-appearance-of-gray-hair-in-different-body-sites-of-sri-lankan-autopsy-cases
#8
Harshana Mahendra Kumara Senanayake, Nuwan Darshana Wickramasinghe
Owing to the scanty evidence on usefulness of information of appearance of gray hair for age estimation, this study was conducted to estimate age based on the appearance of gray hair on different body sites in a sample of autopsy cases in Sri Lanka. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Teaching Hospital-Kurunegala during 2011 to 2013. Based on the pattern of the presence of gray hair in different body sites, six stages of gray hair were computed. The analysis 1155 autopsy cases revealed strong, positive correlations between age and appearance of gray hair in head, mustache, beard, and pubic area among males and strong, positive correlations between age and the appearance of gray hair in head and pubic area among females (p < 0...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032349/obesity-body-mass-index-and-homicide
#9
Kimberley J Omond, Neil E I Langlois, Roger W Byard
The body mass indexes (BMIs) of 100 randomly selected homicide cases from the files of Forensic Science SA were compared to the Australian and South Australian populations. There were 70 males and 30 females (M:F = 2.3:1; age range 18-84 years; mean 42.3 years). There was a substantially lower proportion of obese individuals in the homicide population compared to the general Australian and South Australian populations (19% [vs.] 27.9% and 30%, respectively). A second group of 144 randomly selected autopsy cases where the BMI was ≥40 kg/m(2) was analyzed...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029436/psychiatric-psychological-forensic-report-writing
#10
Gerald Young
Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing...
October 28, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025791/high-resolution-melt-curve-analysis-based-on-methylation-status-for-human-semen-identification
#11
Caitlyn Fachet, Lawrence Quarino, K Joy Karnas
A high resolution melt curve assay to differentiate semen from blood, saliva, urine, and vaginal fluid based on methylation status at the Dapper Isoform 1 (DACT1) gene was developed. Stains made from blood, saliva, urine, semen, and vaginal fluid were obtained from volunteers and DNA was isolated using either organic extraction (saliva, urine, and vaginal fluid) or Chelex(®) 100 extraction (blood and semen). Extracts were then subjected to bisulfite modification in order to convert unmethylated cytosines to uracil, consequently creating sequences whose amplicons have melt curves that vary depending on their initial methylation status...
December 27, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008604/the-persistence-of-sperm-and-the-development-of-time-since-intercourse-tsi-guidelines-in-sexual-assault-cases-at-forensic-science-ireland-dublin-ireland
#12
David G Casey, Katarina Domijan, Sarah MacNeill, Damien Rizet, Declan O'Connell, Jennifer Ryan
The persistence of sperm using confirmatory microscopic analysis, the persistence of sperm with tails, time since intercourse (TSI) analysis, and results from the acid phosphatase (AP) reaction from approximately 5581 swabs taken from circa 1450 sexual assault cases are presented. The observed proportions of sperm in the vagina and anus declines significantly after 48 h TSI, and sperm on oral swabs were observed up to 15 h TSI. The AP reaction as a predictor of sperm on intimate swabs is questioned. All AP reaction times gave a low true positive rate; 23% of sperm-positive swabs gave a negative AP reaction time...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005085/-health-state-assessment-in-people-sentenced-to-the-penalty-of-restriction-of-liberty
#13
Paweł Świderski, Czesław Żaba, Natalia Macioszek
BACKGROUND: Assessment of the health state of people sentenced to the penalty of restriction of liberty makes up a significant percentage of cases annually elaborated in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences. The analysis of such cases was accomplished to point out the difficulties that expert physicians could encounter in formulating their opinions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The analysis involved 1051 medico-legal opinions issued in the years 2004-2013, considering the health state of people performing the duty of free, controlled social labor...
December 22, 2016: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997861/comparative-fly-species-composition-on-indoor-and-outdoor-forensic-cases-in-malaysia
#14
Rizal Abdullah Syamsa, Baharudin Omar, Firdaus Mohd Salleh Ahmad, Othman Hidayatulfathi, Abd Wahid Shahrom
Forensic entomology refers to the science of collection and analysis of insect evidence in order to determine the minimum time period since death. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of forensically important flies on 34 human remains referred to Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre over a period of three years. Entomological specimens were collected at the death scenes and/or during autopsies. Live specimens were reared into adults while preserved specimens were processed for species identification...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994407/determination-of-sexual-dimorphism-in-humans-by-measurements-of-mandible-on-digital-panoramic-radiograph
#15
V Sairam, M V Geethamalika, Praveen B Kumar, G Naresh, Gareema P Raju
BACKGROUND: Identification of sex is the first step in forensic science obtained from skeletal remains. Mandible, being a strong bone that is difficult to damage and disintegrate, is an important tool in sex determination. The present study is aimed to assess, compare, and evaluate the mandibular measurements as seen on digital panoramic radiographs to analyze their use in sexual dimorphism assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted using digital panoramic images of 100 each in both genders...
October 2016: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990179/analysis-of-urine-oral-fluid-and-fingerprints-by-liquid-extraction-surface-analysis-coupled-to-high-resolution-ms-and-ms-ms-opportunities-for-forensic-and-biomedical-science
#16
Melanie Bailey, Elizabeth C Randall, Catia Costa, Tara L Salter, Alan M Race, Marcel de Puit, Mattijs Koeberg, Mark Baumert, Josephine Bunch
Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis (LESA) is a new, high throughput tool for ambient mass spectrometry. A solvent droplet is deposited from a pipette tip onto a surface and maintains contact with both the surface and the pipette tip for a few seconds before being re-aspirated. The technique is particularly suited to the analysis of trace materials on surfaces due to its high sensitivity and low volume of sample removal. In this work, we assess the suitability of LESA for obtaining detailed chemical profiles of fingerprints, oral fluid and urine, which may be used in future for rapid medical diagnostics or metabolomics studies...
April 28, 2016: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984802/microbial-soil-community-analyses-for-forensic-science-application-to-a-blind-test
#17
Sandrine Demanèche, Leif Schauser, Lorna Dawson, Laure Franqueville, Pascal Simonet
Soil complexity, heterogeneity and transferability make it valuable in forensic investigations to help obtain clues as to the origin of an unknown sample, or to compare samples from a suspect or object with samples collected at a crime scene. In a few countries, soil analysis is used in matters from site verification to estimates of time after death. However, up to date the application or use of soil information in criminal investigations has been limited. In particular, comparing bacterial communities in soil samples could be a useful tool for forensic science...
December 9, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979996/soil-dna-metabarcoding-and-high-throughput-sequencing-as-a-forensic-tool-considerations-potential-limitations-and-recommendations
#18
J M Young, J J Austin, L S Weyrich
Analysis of physical evidence is typically a deciding factor in forensic casework by establishing what transpired at a scene or who was involved. Forensic geoscience is an emerging multi-disciplinary science that can offer significant benefits to forensic investigations. Soil is a powerful, nearly 'ideal' contact trace evidence, as it is highly individualistic, easy to characterise, has a high transfer and retention probability, and is often overlooked in attempts to conceal evidence. However, many real-life cases encounter close proximity soil samples or soils with low inorganic content, which cannot be easily discriminated based on current physical and chemical analysis techniques...
February 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977163/discovering-hidden-painted-images-subsurface-imaging-using-microscale-spatially-offset-raman-spectroscopy
#19
Alessandra Botteon, Claudia Conti, Marco Realini, Chiara Colombo, Pavel Matousek
We demonstrate for the first time the mapping capability of micro-spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (micro-SORS). The technique enables to form noninvasive images of thin sublayers through highly turbid overlayers. The approach is conceptually demonstrated on recovering overpainted images in situations where conventional Raman microscopy was unable to visualize the sublayer. The specimens mimic real situations encountered in Cultural Heritage that deal, for example, with hidden paintings vandalized with graffiti or covered by superimposed painted layers or whitewash...
December 15, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940064/erratum-to-encoding-of-low-quality-dna-profiles-as-genotype-probability-matrices-for-improved-profile-comparisons-relatedness-evalation-and-database-searches-forensic-science-international-genetics-2016-227-239
#20
K Ryan, D Gareth Williams, David J Balding
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
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