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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533730/forensic-odontology-the-new-dimension-in-dental-analysis
#1
K P Divakar
Forensic Odontology a branch of Forensic sciences uses the skill of the dentist in personal identification during mass calamities, sexual assault and child abuse to name a few. This branch not stranger to many has been growing tenfold in its potential and its ability to bring the forlorn to justice where a dental remains is the only available evidence. It's role and importance in the judiciary is fast growing and hence in depth knowledge in this field seems more than justified.
March 2017: International Journal of Biomedical Science: IJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520560/assessing-age-related-change-in-japanese-mental-foramen-opening-direction-using-multidetector-computed-tomography
#2
N Ishii, Y Makino, M Fujita, A Sakuma, S Torimitsu, F Chiba, D Yajima, G Inokuchi, A Motomura, N H Iwase, H Saitoh
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate how the opening direction of the mental foramen (MF) changes with age in a Japanese population using multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). METHODS: Post-mortem MDCT scans of 121 Japanese subjects (66 males and 55 females) were carried out where all subjects possessed at least twenty teeth, including molar teeth, in the upper and lower jaws. Two angles of the mental foramen opening were measured, namely the superior-inferior angle in the coronal plane and anterior-posterior angle in the transverse plane, on the CT reconstructed images...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Odonto-stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514701/a-biased-opinion-demonstration-of-cognitive-bias-on-a-fingerprint-matching-task-through-knowledge-of-dna-test-results
#3
Sarah V Stevenage, Alice Bennett
One study is presented which explores the biasing effects of irrelevant contextual information on a fingerprint matching task. Bias was introduced by providing the outcomes of a DNA test relating to each fictitious case under consideration. This was engineered to suggest either a match, no match, or an inconclusive outcome, and was thus either consistent, misleading or unbiased depending on the ground truth of each fingerprint pair. The results suggested that, when the difficulty of the fingerprint matching task was measurably increased, participants became more vulnerable to the biasing information...
May 1, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511513/sexual-dimorphism-of-maxillary-sinus-a-morphometric-analysis-using-cone-beam-computed-tomography
#4
Ayeesha Urooge, Bharati A Patil
INTRODUCTION: Age and sex determination in forensic sciences are primary components of any skeletal analysis. As most bones used for sex determination are recovered in incomplete state, it is often necessary to use bones that are recovered intact e.g., the maxillary sinus. Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) can provide precise information about complex anatomical structures, as it is characterized by rapid volumetric image acquisition with high resolution. AIM: The present study was designed to evaluate the size and volume of Maxillary Sinus (MS) in determining gender by CBCT...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511408/estimation-of-total-length-of-femur-from-its-proximal-and-distal-segmental-measurements-of-disarticulated-femur-bones-of-nepalese-population-using-regression-equation-method
#5
Laxman Khanal, Sandip Shah, Sarun Koirala
INTRODUCTION: Length of long bones is taken as an important contributor for estimating one of the four elements of forensic anthropology i.e., stature of the individual. Since physical characteristics of the individual differ among different groups of population, population specific studies are needed for estimating the total length of femur from its segment measurements. AIM: Since femur is not always recovered intact in forensic cases, it was the aim of this study to derive regression equations from measurements of proximal and distal fragments in Nepalese population...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508028/data-in-support-of-poisoning-related-mortalities-from-southern-himachal-pradesh
#6
Shivkant Sharma, Kuldeep Kumar, Saurabh Bhargava, V S Jamwal, Arun Sharma, Rajvinder Singh
Poisoning has always been pointed as one of the leading causes of human death throughout the world. Despite the best efforts made by many research institutes, the worldwide true figure on mortalities with poisoning could never be achieved due to many reasons. One of the main reasons is the unavailability of complete database from the rural and catchment areas of the world where these types of incidents are usual. People can be made aware about this problem by presenting data articles on regular basis, therefore to mark a resource document these data should be regularly up-dated...
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504570/saliva-a-reliable-sample-matrix-in-bioanalytics
#7
Michael Gröschl
Saliva is gaining increasing attention as a bioanalytical sample matrix. Mostly because of the easy and noninvasive collection, it is not only beneficial in endocrinological and behavioral science, but also in pediatrics. Saliva also has the advantage of being the only body fluid which can be collected even during physical exercise, for example, during sportive activities, and there are physiological characteristics that make it superior to serum/plasma or urine for specific scientific questions. This review provides an insight into the physiology of saliva formation, explaining how certain compounds enter this bodily fluid, and gives advice for collection, storage and analytical methods...
May 15, 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504354/new-methodology-to-reconstruct-in-2-d-the-cuspal-enamel-of-modern-human-lower-molars
#8
Mario Modesto-Mata, Cecilia García-Campos, Laura Martín-Francés, Marina Martínez de Pinillos, Rebeca García-González, Yuliet Quintino, Antoni Canals, Marina Lozano, M Christopher Dean, María Martinón-Torres, José María Bermúdez de Castro
OBJECTIVES: In the last years different methodologies have been developed to reconstruct worn teeth. In this article, we propose a new 2-D methodology to reconstruct the worn enamel of lower molars. Our main goals are to reconstruct molars with a high level of accuracy when measuring relevant histological variables and to validate the methodology calculating the errors associated with the measurements. METHODS: This methodology is based on polynomial regression equations, and has been validated using two different dental variables: cuspal enamel thickness and crown height of the protoconid...
May 15, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501360/cow-urine-indian-yellow-and-art-forgeries-an-update
#9
Gregory Dale Smith
In a recent technical note in this Journal, de Faria et al., 2017 [1] reported the Raman spectrum of authentic Indian yellow artists' pigment, correcting a decades old reference spectrum that has led to the misidentification of this pigment in artworks that actually contained tartrazine yellow. The present communication provides additional information and corrects important experimental details mentioned by de Faria et al. that should lead to further identifications of the authentic pigment in artworks. Despite their claim that the analysis of this naturally fluorescent colorant is only possible with Fourier transform (FT) instruments, the ready characterization of two authentic samples of historic Indian yellow pigment is demonstrated here using commonly available visible and near-infrared excitation sources on a dispersive Raman microspectrometer...
April 27, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490265/crush-asphyxia-and-ride-on-lawn-mowers
#10
Roger W Byard, Neil Ei Langlois
Search of files at Forensic Science SA, Australia, over the past 20 years (1997-2016) revealed three cases of death due to crush asphyxia associated with the use of ride-on lawn mowers. (1) A 61-year-old man was trapped under a ride-on mower that had rolled over. Autopsy examination revealed congestion and petechial haemorrhages of the face and chest, and markings on the chest associated with underlying rib fractures. (2) A 78-year-old man was trapped under a ride-on mower that had also rolled over. Autopsy examination revealed petechial haemorrhages of the face and chest and markings on the chest...
January 1, 2017: Medicine, Science, and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486143/association-between-frontal-sinus-morphology-and-craniofacial-parameters-a-forensic-view
#11
Suleyman Kutalmış Buyuk, Ahmet Karaman, Yasin Yasa
The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphologic structure of the frontal sinuses with postero-anterior cephalometric radiographs in Turkish adolescents and to compare the findings between genders. The study sample consisted of 148 subjects divided into two groups (74 male subjects; mean age: 14.55 ± 1.42 years-74 female subjects; mean age: 14.95 ± 1.80 years). The right and left maximum height and width of the frontal sinus, maxillary width, nasal width, cranial width, antegonial width parameters were measured in 148 postero-anterior cephalometric radiographs...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485670/hermeneutic-caring-conversations-in-forensic-psychiatric-caring
#12
Kenneth Rydenlund, Unni Å Lindström, Arne Rehnsfeldt
BACKGROUND: In forensic psychiatric care, a hermeneutic caring conversation between caregivers and patients can improve health outcomes. The hermeneutic approach entails starting from the whole and involves openness for what is shown as well as paying attention to the different parts. One way to deepen these conversations is to take advantage of both the caregivers' and the patients' life experiences. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: The purpose of the study is to discuss and reflect on what hermeneutic caring conversations can mean for a deepened understanding of the movement in the health processes of patients in forensic care, patients who are in deep suffering...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479711/comparative-analysis-of-lip-with-thumbprints-an-identification-tool-in-personal-authentication
#13
Rashmi Naik, B R Ahmed Mujib, Neethu Telagi, Jaydeva Hallur
CONTEXT: Identification of person living or dead using diverse characteristics is the basis in forensic science. The uniqueness of lip and fingerprints and further, association between them can be useful in establishing facts in legal issues. AIMS: The present study was carried out to determine the distribution of different lip print patterns among subjects having different thumbprint patterns and to determine the correlation between lip print patterns and thumbprint patterns...
January 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475227/re-evaluation-of-the-hydrogen-stable-isotopic-composition-of-keratin-calibration-standards-for-wildlife-and-forensic-science-applications
#14
David X Soto, Geoff Koehler, Leonard I Wassenaar, Keith A Hobson
RATIONALE: Determination of non-exchangeable hydrogen isotopic compositions (δ(2) H values) of bulk complex organic materials is difficult due to uncontrolled H isotope exchange between the organic material and ambient water vapor. A number of calibration keratinous materials with carefully measured hydrogen isotopic compositions of the non-exchangeable fraction were proposed to enable stable isotope laboratories to normalize their (2) H measurements. However, it was recently reported that high temperature carbon-reactor methods for measuring the hydrogen isotopic composition of nitrogenous organic materials is biased by the production of HCN in the reactor...
May 5, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466139/forensic-aspects-of-gene-expression-signatures-for-age-determination-in-bruises-as-evaluated-in-an-experimental-porcine-model
#15
Kristiane Barington, Henrik Elvang Jensen, Kerstin Skovgaard
Determining the age of bruises and the force used to inflict the trauma is of crucial importance in both human and veterinary forensic pathology. In the present study, the expression of more than 50 different genes in subcutaneous fat and muscle tissue from experimental bruises in pigs was investigated. The aim was to evaluate if expression signatures of selected genes were capable of determining bruises according to age and the force of impact. Eighteen experimental pigs were anesthetized, and on each animal four blunt traumas were inflicted on the back with a low, moderate or high force...
May 2, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454622/basic-research-and-applied-science-in-forensic-entomology
#16
EDITORIAL
Valentina Bugelli, Carlo Pietro Campobasso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452296/forensic-approaches-to-detect-possible-agents-of-bioterror
#17
Alfredo A González, Jessica I Rivera-Pérez, Gary A Toranzos
Many biological agents have been strategic pathogenic agents throughout history. Some have even changed history as a consequence of early discoveries of their use as weapons of war. Many of these bioagents can be easily isolated from the environment, and some have recently been genetically manipulated to become more pathogenic for biowarfare. However, it is difficult to determine accidental outbreaks of disease from intentional exposures. In this review, we examine how molecular tools have been used in combination with forensic research to resolve cases of unusual outbreaks and trace the source of the biocrime...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450516/genome-sequence-of-a-providencia-stuartii-strain-isolated-from-luciliasericata-salivary-glands
#18
Ye Yuan, Yu Zhang, Shuhua Fu, Tawni L Crippen, David K Visi, M Eric Benbow, Michael S Allen, Jeffery K Tomberlin, Sing-Hoi Sze, Aaron M Tarone
We present here the draft genome sequence of a Providencia stuartii strain, derived from the salivary glands of larval Lucilia sericata, a common blow fly important to forensic, medical, and veterinary science. The genome sequence will help dissect coinfections involving P. stuartii and Proteus mirabilis, as well as blow fly-bacteria interactions.
April 27, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449842/critical-issues-in-the-historical-and-contemporary-development-of-forensic-anthropology-in-australia-an-international-comparison
#19
Xanthé Mallett, Martin P Evison
The aim of this brief critical qualitative analysis is to examine the development of forensic anthropology in Australia, at a time of significant change in the discipline. It will briefly summarise its historical establishment, making comparative reference to other regions-particularly the United Kingdom and United States, and the influence of the Bali Bombings of 2002, Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami of 2004 and Black Saturday Bushfires of 2009. The analysis goes on to consider key factors in research in forensic anthropology in the United States, and the development of standards and regulation in the US and UK...
March 31, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444439/back-to-the-future-part-2-post-mortem-assessment-and-evolutionary-role-of-the-bio-medicolegal-sciences
#20
REVIEW
Santo Davide Ferrara, Giovanni Cecchetto, Rossana Cecchi, Donata Favretto, Silke Grabherr, Takaki Ishikawa, Toshikazu Kondo, Massimo Montisci, Heidi Pfeiffer, Maurizio Rippa Bonati, Dina Shokry, Marielle Vennemann, Thomas Bajanowski
Part 2 of the review "Back to the Future" is dedicated to the evolutionary role of the bio-medicolegal sciences, reporting the historical profiles, the state of the art, and prospects for future development of the main related techniques and methods of the ancillary disciplines that have risen to the role of "autonomous" sciences, namely, Genetics and Genomics, Toxicology, Radiology, and Imaging, involved in historic synergy in the "post-mortem assessment," together with the mother discipline Legal Medicine, by way of its primary fundament, universally denominated as Forensic Pathology...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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