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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810068/putrefaction-an-additional-complicating-factor-in-the-assessment-of-freshwater-drownings-in-rivers
#1
Roger W Byard
Background hypothesis: That bodies immersed in freshwater (rivers) may show greater changes of decomposition than bodies immersed in saltwater (sea). Fifty de-identified river drownings and 50 sea drownings were randomly selected from autopsy files at Forensic Science SA, Adelaide, Australia and assessed for decomposition. RESULTS: The river cases consisted of 43 males and seven females (M:F 6:1); age range of 2-92 years (mean 46.8 years); decomposition-16/50 (32%); postmortem interval 1-14 days, average 3...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804655/a-new-phase-for-egyptian-journal-of-forensic-sciences-the-official-journal-of-the-international-association-of-law-and-forensic-sciences-ialfs
#2
EDITORIAL
Magdy Kharoshah, Mohammed Madadin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Egyptian journal of forensic sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776213/-standards-for-treatment-in-forensic-committment-according-to-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-63-and-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-64-of-the-german-criminal-code-interdisciplinary-task-force-of-the-dgppn
#3
REVIEW
J L Müller, N Saimeh, P Briken, S Eucker, K Hoffmann, M Koller, T Wolf, M Dudeck, C Hartl, A-K Jakovljevic, V Klein, G Knecht, R Müller-Isberner, J Muysers, K Schiltz, D Seifert, A Simon, H Steinböck, W Stuckmann, W Weissbeck, C Wiesemann, R Zeidler
People who have been convicted of a crime due to a severe mental disorder and continue to be dangerous as a result of this disorder may be placed in a forensic psychiatric facility for improvement and safeguarding according to § 63 and § 64 of the German Criminal Code (StGB). In Germany, approximately 9000 patients are treated in clinics for forensic psychiatry and psychotherapy on the basis of § 63 of the StGB and in withdrawal centers on the basis of § 64 StGB. The laws for treatment of patients in forensic commitment are passed by the individual States, with the result that even the basic conditions differ in the individual States...
August 3, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766531/-the-academic-discipline-forensic-medicine-as-an-important-component-of-the-training-of-dental-practitioners
#4
P O Romodanovsky, E Kh Barinov, V V Zharov, N A Mikheeva
The authors discuss the conceptual issues of the academic program designed to teach forensic medicine to the students of the stomatological faculties of educational medical institutions. The program has been elaborated in conformity with the federal state educational standard of higher professional education in the speciality stomatology'. It defines the goals and objectives of this discipline, the scope of its competences, the subject matter and the content, the requirements to the studies and educational work, control over the level of its success, academic progress, and other aspects of the training activities, with special emphasis being placed on the formation of the general professional competence of the students to enable them to work independently after they graduated from the institute...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764468/automatic-sociophonetics-exploring-corpora-with-a-forensic-accent-recognition-system
#5
Georgina Brown, Jessica Wormald
This paper demonstrates how the Y-ACCDIST system, the York ACCDIST-based automatic accent recognition system [Brown (2015). Proceedings of the International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Glasgow, UK], can be used to inspect sociophonetic corpora as a preliminary "screening" tool. Although Y-ACCDIST's intended application is to assist with forensic casework, the system can also be exploited in sociophonetic research to begin unpacking variation. Using a subset of the PEBL (Panjabi-English in Bradford and Leicester) corpus, the outputs of Y-ACCDIST are explored, which, it is argued, efficiently and objectively assess speaker similarities across different linguistic varieties...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763296/hair-testing-of-ghb-an-everlasting-issue-in-forensic-toxicology
#6
REVIEW
Francesco Paolo Busardò, Simona Pichini, Simona Zaami, Roberta Pacifici, Pascal Kintz
BACKGROUND: In this paper, the authors present a critical review of different studies regarding hair testing of endogenous γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), concentrations in chronic users, and values measured after a single GHB exposure in drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) cases together with the role of a recently identified GHB metabolite, GHB-glucuronide. CONTENT: The following databases (up to March 2017) PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science were used, searching the following key words: γ-hydroxybutyrate, GHB, GHB glucuronide, hair...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759776/fatal-poisoning-by-butane-sniffing-a-forensic-analysis-and-immunohistochemical-detection-of-myocardial-hypoxic-damage
#7
Francesco Ventura, Rosario Barranco, Maria Celeste Landolfa, Massimo Gallo, Andrea Gianelli Castiglione, Giulio Fraternali Orcioni, Francesco De Stefano
Although less widespread than twenty years ago, inhalant abuse remains an on-going problem, whose incidence among U.S. teenagers and young adults ranges from 10 to 15%. Death due to the inhalation of vapor from halogenated hydrocarbons is a well-known phenomenon, yet few cases of fatal butane-gas poisoning have been described. Many cases of volatile substance abuse in prison populations have been reported: drug-addicted inmates often resort to this alternative practice when unable to get their habitual drugs of abuse...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755626/the-use-of-forensic-dna-analysis-in-humanitarian-forensic-action-the-development-of-a-set-of-international-standards
#8
William H Goodwin
DNA analysis was first applied to the identification of victims of armed conflicts and other situations of violence (ACOSV) in the mid-1990s, starting in South America and the Balkans. Argentina was the first country to establish a genetic database specifically developed to identify disappeared children. Following on from these programs the early 2000s marked major programs, using a largely DNA-led approach, identifying missing persons in the Balkans and following the attack on the World Trade Center in New York...
July 10, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738663/statistical-approach-for-atr-ftir-screening-of-semen-in-sexual-evidence
#9
Inês Gregório, Félix Zapata, Mercedes Torre, Carmen García-Ruiz
Genetic identification has revolutionized the Forensic Sciences, especially in sexual aggression cases. For the successful extraction of the genetic information of a criminal, a crucial step is the prior detection of bodily fluids on evidence. In this article, a method for non-destructive screening of semen samples is reported. Using chemometric tools, bodily fluids can be detected and differentiated without damaging the sample, by correlating the infrared spectra of sexual evidence with previously recorded spectra from undamaged stains of individual bodily fluids...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735218/strength-of-linguistic-text-evidence-a-fused-forensic-text-comparison-system
#10
Shunichi Ishihara
Compared to other forensic comparative sciences, studies of the efficacy of the likelihood ratio (LR) framework in forensic authorship analysis are lagging. An experiment is described concerning the estimation of strength of linguistic text evidence within that framework. The LRs were estimated by trialling three different procedures: one is based on the multivariate kernel density (MVKD) formula, with each group of messages being modelled as a vector of authorship attribution features; the other two involve N-grams based on word tokens and characters, respectively...
July 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732316/a-user-friendly-technical-set-up-for-infrared-photography-of-forensic-findings
#11
Thomas Rost, Nicole Kalberer, Eva Scheurer
Infrared photography is interesting for a use in forensic science and forensic medicine since it reveals findings that normally are almost invisible to the human eye. Originally, infrared photography has been made possible by the placement of an infrared light transmission filter screwed in front of the camera objective lens. However, this set-up is associated with many drawbacks such as the loss of the autofocus function, the need of an external infrared source, and long exposure times which make the use of a tripod necessary...
July 10, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728057/integrating-the-microbiome-as-a-resource-in-the-forensics-toolkit
#12
Thomas H Clarke, Andres Gomez, Harinder Singh, Karen E Nelson, Lauren M Brinkac
The introduction of DNA fingerprinting to forensic science rapidly expanded the available evidence that could be garnered from a crime scene and used in court cases. Next generation sequencing technologies increased available genetic data that could be used as evidence by orders of magnitude, and as such, significant additional genetic information is now available for use in forensic science. This includes DNA from the bacteria that live in and on humans, known as the human microbiome. Next generation sequencing of the human microbiome demonstrates that its bacterial DNA can be used to uniquely identify an individual, provide information about their life and behavioral patterns, determine the body site where a sample came from, and estimate postmortem intervals...
June 27, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721987/evaluation-of-occlusal-groove-patterns-of-mandibular-first-and-second-molars-in-an-indian-population-a-forensic-anthropological-study
#13
Rashmi Gs Phulari, Rajendrasinh Rathore, Mili D Takvani, Shivani Jain
BACKGROUND: The study of dental morphological characteristics is important in anthropological research as it can provide information on the phylogenetic relationship between species, as well as variations and diversities within a population. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of six types of mandibular second molars in Gujarat state and the results can be used in both forensic anthropological researches and clinical aspects of dental sciences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This descriptive investigation was undertaken among 1000 students (13-25 years old) in high schools and dental institutes of Gujarat state...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704804/influence-of-spectral-resolution-spectral-range-and-signal-to-noise-ratio-of-fourier-transform-infra-red-spectra-on-identification-of-high-explosive-substances
#14
Krzysztof Banas, Agnieszka M Banas, Sascha P Heussler, Mark B H Breese
In the contemporary spectroscopy there is a trend to record spectra with the highest possible spectral resolution. This is clearly justified if the spectral features in the spectrum are very narrow (for example infra-red spectra of gas samples). However there is a plethora of samples (in the liquid and especially in the solid form) where there is a natural spectral peak broadening due to collisions and proximity predominately. Additionally there is a number of portable devices (spectrometers) with inherently restricted spectral resolution, spectral range or both, which are extremely useful in some field applications (archaeology, agriculture, food industry, cultural heritage, forensic science)...
July 5, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697737/radiologic-evaluation-of-orbital-index-among-ghanaians-using-ct-scan
#15
Benard Ohene Botwe, Derick Seyram Sule, Abdul Mumin Ismael
BACKGROUND: Orbital index (OI) expresses the proportion of the orbital height to the orbital width and varies with race, regions within the same race and periods in evolution. This index is useful in forensic medicine, anthropology and surgery. However, the average OI among Ghanaian adults was unknown. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the orbital index of adult Ghanaians and classify them under one of the three predetermined groups. METHOD: The study design was a retrospective cross-sectional...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694208/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-minisequencing-in-hypervariable-regions-for-screening-of-thais
#16
Punlop Thongngam, Worraanong Leewattanapasuk, Tanin Bhoopat, Padchanee Sangthong
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis has displayed an important role and been considered as a powerful tool in various fields of forensic science applications. Nowadays, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on mtDNA have become additional DNA markers when conventional STR typing practically fails. mtDNA sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from the hypervariable region I (HVRI) and II (HVRII) is the standard method of mtDNA analysis. However, mtDNA sequencing is rather expensive, time consuming and technically complex...
September 5, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691915/forensic-individual-age-estimation-with-dna-from-initial-approaches-to-methylation-tests
#17
REVIEW
A Freire-Aradas, C Phillips, M V Lareu
Individual age estimation is a key factor in forensic science analysis that can provide very useful information applicable to criminal, legal, and anthropological investigations. Forensic age inference was initially based on morphological inspection or radiography and only later began to adopt molecular approaches. However, a lack of accuracy or technical problems hampered the introduction of these DNA-based methodologies in casework analysis. A turning point occurred when the epigenetic signature of DNA methylation was observed to gradually change during an individual´s lifespan...
July 2017: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690801/single-nucleotide-polymorphism-barcoding-of-cytochrome-c-oxidase-i-sequences-for-discriminating-17-species-of-columbidae-by-decision-tree-algorithm
#18
Cheng-Hong Yang, Kuo-Chuan Wu, Hans-Uwe Dahms, Li-Yeh Chuang, Hsueh-Wei Chang
DNA barcodes are widely used in taxonomy, systematics, species identification, food safety, and forensic science. Most of the conventional DNA barcode sequences contain the whole information of a given barcoding gene. Most of the sequence information does not vary and is uninformative for a given group of taxa within a monophylum. We suggest here a method that reduces the amount of noninformative nucleotides in a given barcoding sequence of a major taxon, like the prokaryotes, or eukaryotic animals, plants, or fungi...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689044/voyaging-into-the-third-dimension-a-perspective-on-virtual-methods-and-their-application-to-studies-of-juvenile-sex-estimation-and-the-ontogeny-of-sexual-dimorphism
#19
REVIEW
L A B Wilson, L T Humphrey
In contrast to the well-established and highly accurate morphological methods available for sexing adult skeletons, juvenile sex estimation is widely recognised as a difficult task that faces a series of challenges. The acquisition of 3D data, and construction of 3D models from volume or surface scans, has become increasingly common in forensic sciences, and these data offer considerable opportunity for the development and refinement of methods in sex estimation. The suitability and potential of virtual methods for juvenile sex estimation are evaluated with the aims of identifying (1) the benefits and challenges associated with virtual data and quantitative analysis of 3D models, and (2) pathways that may lead to practical improvements for sexing juveniles...
June 26, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688344/finding-the-way-forward-for-forensic-science-in-the-us-a-commentary-on-the-pcast-report
#20
REVIEW
I W Evett, C E H Berger, J S Buckleton, C Champod, G Jackson
A recent report by the US President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), (2016) has made a number of recommendations for the future development of forensic science. Whereas we all agree that there is much need for change, we find that the PCAST report recommendations are founded on serious misunderstandings. We explain the traditional forensic paradigms of match and identification and the more recent foundation of the logical approach to evidence evaluation. This forms the groundwork for exposing many sources of confusion in the PCAST report...
June 26, 2017: Forensic Science International
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