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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214756/multifarious-applications-of-atomic-force-microscopy-in-forensic-science-investigations
#1
REVIEW
Gaurav Pandey, Maithri Tharmavaram, Deepak Rawtani, Sumit Kumar, Y Agrawal
Forensic science is a wide field comprising of several subspecialties and uses methods derived from natural sciences for finding criminals and other evidence valid in a legal court. A relatively new area; Nano-forensics brings a new era of investigation in forensic science in which instantaneous results can be produced that determine various agents such as explosive gasses, biological agents and residues in different crime scenes and terrorist activity investigations. This can be achieved by applying Nanotechnology and its associated characterization techniques in forensic sciences...
February 11, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212198/forensic-nursing-provides-closure-in-workplace-fatality
#2
Colin Harris
The Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia in Canada is the provincial agency mandated to investigate workplace injuries and fatalities. In 2012, the Fatal and Serious Injuries Investigation section of this organization initiated the integration of forensic nursing expertise into the investigation of workplace incidents. The goals were to improve investigative outcomes and aid in prevention initiatives by achieving a more accurate understanding of incident causation through the application of forensic nursing science...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211993/recent-lab-on-chip-developments-for-novel-drug-discovery
#3
REVIEW
Nauman Khalid, Isao Kobayashi, Mitsutoshi Nakajima
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and micro total analysis systems (μTAS) revolutionized the biochemical and electronic industries, and this miniaturization process became a key driver for many markets. Now, it is a driving force for innovations in life sciences, diagnostics, analytical sciences, and chemistry, which are called 'lab-on-a-chip, (LOC)' devices. The use of these devices allows the development of fast, portable, and easy-to-use systems with a high level of functional integration for applications such as point-of-care diagnostics, forensics, the analysis of biomolecules, environmental or food analysis, and drug development...
February 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208285/determining-gender-by-raman-spectroscopy-of-a-bloodstain
#4
Aliaksandra Sikirzhytskaya, Vitali Sikirzhytski, Igor K Lednev
The development of novel methods for forensic science is a constantly growing area of modern analytical chemistry. Raman spectroscopy is one of a few analytical techniques capable of nondestructive and nearly instantaneous analysis of a wide variety of forensic evidence, including body fluid stains, at the scene of a crime. In this proof-of-concept study, Raman microspectroscopy was utilized for gender identification based on dry bloodstains. Raman spectra were acquired in mapping mode from multiple spots on a bloodstain to account for intrinsic sample heterogeneity...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194988/personal-information-from-latent-fingerprints-using-desorption-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry-and-machine-learning
#5
Zhenpeng Zhou, Richard N Zare
Desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) was applied to latent fingerprints to obtain not only spatial patterns but also chemical maps. Samples with similar lipid compositions as those of the fingerprints were collected by swiping a glass slide across the forehead of consenting adults. A machine learning model called gradient boosting tree ensemble (GDBT) was applied to the samples that allowed us to distinguish between different genders, ethnicities, and ages (within 10 years)...
January 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176637/personalized-medicine-applied-to-forensic-sciences-new-advances-and-perspectives-for-a-tailored-forensic-approach
#6
Alessandro Santurro, Anna Maria Vullo, Marina Borro, Giovanna Gentile, Raffaele La Russa, Maurizio Simmaco, Paola Frati, Vittorio Fineschi
Personalized medicine (PM), included in P5 medicine (Personalized, Predictive, Preventive, Participative and Precision medicine) is an innovative approach to the patient, emerging from the need to tailor and to fit the profile of each individual. PM promises to dramatically impact also on forensic sciences and justice system in ways we are only beginning to understand. The application of omics (genomic, transcriptomics, epigenetics/imprintomics, proteomic and metabolomics) is ever more fundamental in the so called "molecular autopsy"...
February 7, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168694/the-optimization-of-electrophoresis-on-a-glass-microfluidic-chip-and-its-application-in-forensic-science
#7
Jun P Han, Jing Sun, Le Wang, Peng Liu, Bin Zhuang, Lei Zhao, Yao Liu, Cai X Li
Microfluidic chips offer significant speed, cost, and sensitivity advantages, but numerous parameters must be optimized to provide microchip electrophoresis detection. Experiments were conducted to study the factors, including sieving matrices (the concentration and type), surface modification, analysis temperature, and electric field strengths, which all impact the effectiveness of microchip electrophoresis detection of DNA samples. Our results showed that the best resolution for ssDNA was observed using 4...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168685/performance-study-of-a-score-based-likelihood-ratio-system-for-forensic-fingermark-comparison
#8
Anna Jeannette Leegwater, Didier Meuwly, Marjan Sjerps, Peter Vergeer, Ivo Alberink
In this article, the performance of a score-based likelihood ratio (LR) system for comparisons of fingerprints with fingermarks is studied. The system is based on an automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS) comparison algorithm and focuses on fingerprint comparisons where the fingermarks contain 6-11 minutiae. The hypotheses under consideration are evaluated at the level of the person, not the finger. The LRs are presented with bootstrap intervals indicating the sampling uncertainty involved. Several aspects of the performance are measured: leave-one-out cross-validation is applied, and rates of misleading evidence are studied in two ways...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162088/a-history-of-forensic-science-british-beginnings-in-the-twentieth-century
#9
Ian Burney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2017: Ambix
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152441/the-identification-of-markers-for-geoforensic-hplc-profiling-at-close-proximity-sites
#10
G McCulloch, L A Dawson, M J Brewer, R M Morgan
Soil is a highly transferable source of trace physical material that is both persistent in the environment and varied in composition. This inherent variability can provide useful information to determine the geographical origin of a questioned sample or when comparing and excluding samples, since the composition of soil is dependent on geographical factors such as climate, bedrock geology and land use. Previous studies have limited forensic relevance due to the requirement for large sample amounts and unrealistic differences between the land use and geographical location of the sample sites...
January 17, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130745/sex-attracts-neural-correlates-of-sexual-preference-under-cognitive-demand
#11
Kirsten Jordan, Katrin Wieser, Isabel Methfessel, Peter Fromberger, Peter Dechent, Jürgen L Müller
Neurofunctional correlates of sexual arousal are of interest in basic research as well as in clinical science. In forensic psychiatry, it is important to use designs which are potentially robust against susceptibility to manipulation or deception. We tested a new design to measure neurofunctional correlates of sexual preference. Twenty-two healthy heterosexual men had to solve a mental rotation task while sexually preferred or non-preferred distractors were presented simultaneously. With this challenging active task, subjects' possibility to manipulate their response to the sexual stimuli should be lower than in easier tasks and in passive designs...
January 27, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129584/bone-natural-autofluorescence-and-confocal-laser-scanning-microscopy-preliminary-results-of-a-novel-useful-tool-to-distinguish-between-forensic-and-ancient-human-skeletal-remains
#12
Luigi Capasso, Ruggero D'Anastasio, Simone Guarnieri, Joan Viciano, Maria Mariggiò
The fast, high-throughput distinction between palaeoanthropological/archaeological remains and recent forensic/clinical bone samples is of vital importance in the field of medico-legal science. In this paper, a novel dating method was developed using the autofluorescence of human bones and the confocal laser scanning microscope as the means to distinguish between archaeological and forensic anthropological skeletal findings. Human bones exhibit fluorescence, typically induced by natural antibiotics that are absorbed by collagen, and provide secondary, exogenous fluorophores...
January 22, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123286/assessment-of-sexual-dimorphism-using-digital-orthopantomographs-in-south-indians
#13
Sailaja Sambhana, Praveen Sanghvi, Rezwana Begum Mohammed, Prasanth Prathapan Shanta, Anshuj Ajay Rao Thetay, Varunjeet Singh Chaudhary
INTRODUCTION: The identification of human skeletal remains plays a crucial role in forensic investigation and its accuracy depends on the available parts of the skeleton. The mandible is the hardest and strongest bone of the skull, which exhibits a high degree of sexual dimorphism and helps to identify the sex in human remains. The aim of this study was to develop discriminant function to determine sex from the mandibular radiographs in a South Indian (Visakhapatnam) population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study consisted of 384 (192 males and 192 females) digital orthopantomographs (OPGs) divided into five groups according to age...
September 2016: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123283/reliability-of-lip-prints-in-personal-identification-an-inter-racial-pilot-study
#14
Laliytha Bijai Kumar, Venkatesh Jayaraman, Philips Mathew, S Ramasamy, Ravi David Austin
CONTEXT: Forensic science is a branch of science that deals with the application of science and technology in solving a crime and this requires a multidisciplinary team effort. The word "Forensic" is derived from the Latin word, "Forensis" which means the study of public. Dental professionals should develop interests in contributing to legal issues. AIMS: To study the lip prints among people of different races. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Descriptive study...
September 2016: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123282/lip-outline-a-new-paradigm-in-forensic-sciences
#15
Aruna Kumari Maloth, Shyam Prasad Reddy Dorankula, Ajay Prakash Pasupula
INTRODUCTION: Personal identification is becoming increasingly important not only in legal medicine but also in crime/criminal investigation and identification. Sometimes establishing a person's identity can be a very difficult process. Dental, fingerprint, and DNA comparisons are probably the most common technique used. However, there are many well-known implanted methods of human identification, one of the most interesting emerging methods of human identification which originates from the criminal and forensic practice, is human lips recognition...
September 2016: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123281/the-connecting-link-lip-prints-and-fingerprints
#16
Amita Negi, Anurag Negi
BACKGROUND: Lip prints and fingerprints are considered to be unique to each individual. The study of fingerprints and lip prints is very popular in personal identification of the deceased and in criminal investigations. AIMS: This study was done to find the predominant lip and fingerprint patterns in males and females in the North Indian population and also to find any correlation between lip print and fingerprint patterns within a gender. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred students (100 males, 100 females) were included in the study...
September 2016: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123276/is-there-enough-evidence-so-that-mandible-can-be-used-as-a-tool-for-sex-dimorphism-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Puja Hazari, Rakesh S Hazari, Sunil Kumar Mishra, Surendra Agrawal, Mukesh Yadav
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: One of the most challenging tasks for forensic science is to identify the unknown human skeletal remains of deceased individuals. Study of sex by distinguishing the various morphological characteristics of bones is utmost important in forensic anthropology and for medico-legal assessment. PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to review the literature, to find if there is sufficient evidence to establish the use of mandible in sex identification...
September 2016: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123269/age-estimation-by-pulp-to-tooth-area-ratio-using-cone-beam-computed-tomography-a-preliminary-analysis
#18
Arpita Rai, Ashith B Acharya, Venkatesh G Naikmasur
BACKGROUND: Age estimation of living or deceased individuals is an important aspect of forensic sciences. Conventionally, pulp-to-tooth area ratio (PTR) measured from periapical radiographs have been utilized as a nondestructive method of age estimation. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a new method to acquire three-dimensional images of the teeth in living individuals. AIMS: The present study investigated age estimation based on PTR of the maxillary canines measured in three planes obtained from CBCT image data...
September 2016: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123265/quantitative-and-qualitative-analysis-of-palatal-rugae-patterns-in-gujarati-population-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#19
Jayasankar Pillai, Alka Banker, Amit Bhattacharya, Radha Gandhi, Nupur Patel, Sarthak Parikh
INTRODUCTION: Palatal rugae are irregular and nonidentical mucosal elevations seen on the anterior third of palate. They are arranged in transverse direction on either side of the median palatine raphe (MPR) and are protected from high temperature and trauma because of their rational position in the oral cavity. Their number and patterns are not uniform in all the individuals, and they appear to vary in different population subsets. The study of palatal rugae is termed as "Rugoscopy" or "Palatoscopy", and it finds its application in various fields such as anthropology, orthodontics, forensic sciences; including forensic odonto-stomatology...
September 2016: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122322/third-molar-cut-off-value-in-assessing-the-legal-age-of-18-in-saudi-population
#20
Sakher AlQahtani, Alemad Kawthar, Ayman AlAraik, Ahmad AlShalan
: Teeth plays a major role in forensic sciences especially in age assessment of an individual, which can be used to aid in criminal or civil matters. The importance of teeth comes from their ability to survive inhumation well and because they are hardly affected by exogenous and endogenous factors. Third molars are the only teeth still developing after the age of 14 years and during the legal age of adulthood, which is 18 years. The consequences of criminal violation can strongly affect the individual's life, it is important to set different parameters to decide whether an individual is a minor or an adult in the absence of documents...
January 11, 2017: Forensic Science International
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