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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350132/toward-forensic-uses-of-microbial-source-tracking
#1
Christopher M Teaf, David Flores, Michele Garber, Valerie J Harwood
The science of microbial source tracking has allowed researchers and watershed managers to go beyond general indicators of fecal pollution in water such as coliforms and enterococci, and to move toward an understanding of specific contributors to water quality issues. The premise of microbial source tracking is that characteristics of microorganisms that are strongly associated with particular host species can be used to trace fecal pollution to particular animal species (including humans) or groups, e.g., ruminants or birds...
January 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348411/in-vivo-microscopic-photoacoustic-spectroscopy-for-non-invasive-glucose-monitoring-invulnerable-to-skin-secretion-products
#2
Joo Yong Sim, Chang-Geun Ahn, Eun-Ju Jeong, Bong Kyu Kim
Photoacoustic spectroscopy has been shown to be a promising tool for non-invasive blood glucose monitoring. However, the repeatability of such a method is susceptible to changes in skin condition, which is dependent on hand washing and drying due to the high absorption of infrared excitation light to the skin secretion products or water. In this paper, we present a method to meet the challenges of mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasive glucose monitoring. By obtaining the microscopic spatial information of skin during the spectroscopy measurement, the skin region where the infrared spectra is insensitive to skin condition can be locally selected, which enables reliable prediction of the blood glucose level from the photoacoustic spectroscopy signals...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341129/diagnosing-crime-and-diagnosing-disease-ii-visual-pattern-perception-and-diagnostic-accuracy
#3
Saty Satya-Murti, Joseph J Lockhart
Previously, we reviewed how general cognitive processes might be susceptible to bias across both forensic and clinical fields, and how interdisciplinary comparisons could reduce error. We discuss several examples of clinical tasks which are heavily dependent on visual processing, comparing them to eyewitness identification (EI). We review the "constructive" nature of visual processing, and how contextual factors influence both medical experts and witnesses in decision making and recall. Overall, studies suggest common cognitive factors uniting these visual tasks, in both their strengths and shortcomings...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341124/metric-assessment-of-the-pubic-bone-using-known-and-novel-data-points-for-sex-estimation
#4
Kathleen A S Blake, Kristen Hartnett-McCann
Biological sex estimation of skeletal remains is essential in forensic and archaeological analyses. Anthropologists most often use the pelvis, which is the most sexually dimorphic element both morphologically and metrically. While nonmetric pubic bone features have been studied extensively, few metric studies have examined this individual bone for dimorphism. For this study, three observers examined three previously identified and ten novel measurements of the pubic body on a modern sample of isolated pubic bones from the Maricopa County Forensic Science Center (FSC), in Phoenix, Arizona (n = 400)...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335777/fully-automatic-ct-histogram-based-fat-estimation-in-dead-bodies
#5
Michael Hubig, Sebastian Schenkl, Holger Muggenthaler, Felix Güttler, Andreas Heinrich, Ulf Teichgräber, Gita Mall
Post-mortem body cooling is the foundation of temperature-based death time estimations (TDE) in homicide cases. Forensic science generally provides two types of p.m. body cooling models, the phenomenological and the physical models. Since both of them have to implement important individual parameters like the quantity of abdominal fat explicitly or implicitly, a more exact quantification and localization of abdominal fat is a desideratum in TDE. Particularly for the physical models, a better knowledge of the abdominal fat distribution could lead to relevant improvements in TDEs...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332694/score-based-procedures-for-the-calculation-of-forensic-likelihood-ratios-scores-should-take-account-of-both-similarity-and-typicality
#6
Geoffrey Stewart Morrison, Ewald Enzinger
Score based procedures for the calculation of forensic likelihood ratios are popular across different branches of forensic science. They have two stages, first a function or model which takes measured features from known-source and questioned-source pairs as input and calculates scores as output, then a subsequent model which converts scores to likelihood ratios. We demonstrate that scores which are purely measures of similarity are not appropriate for calculating forensically interpretable likelihood ratios...
January 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331680/estimating-error-rates-for-firearm-evidence-identifications-in-forensic-science
#7
John Song, Theodore V Vorburger, Wei Chu, James Yen, Johannes A Soons, Daniel B Ott, Nien Fan Zhang
Estimating error rates for firearm evidence identification is a fundamental challenge in forensic science. This paper describes the recently developed congruent matching cells (CMC) method for image comparisons, its application to firearm evidence identification, and its usage and initial tests for error rate estimation. The CMC method divides compared topography images into correlation cells. Four identification parameters are defined for quantifying both the topography similarity of the correlated cell pairs and the pattern congruency of the registered cell locations...
December 13, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314015/there-are-no-sides-in-forensic-science
#8
EDITORIAL
Betty Layne DesPortes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300235/forensic-nursing-state-of-the-science-research-and-practice-opportunities
#9
Stacy A Drake, Cathy Koetting, Kathi Thimsen, Nancy Downing, Carolyn Porta, Peggy Hardy, Julie L Valentine, Cris Finn, Joan Engebretson
INTRODUCTION: The International Association of Forensic Nurses (IAFN) is the only nursing organization advancing the forensic nursing specialty. The organization seeks to advance the profession, and one mechanism for doing so is development of a research agenda. METHODS: The purpose of this action-based research study was to aid in the development of a forensic nursing research agenda. The study was carried out in two integral stages: (a) focus groups with IAFN members attending the annual conference and (b) reviewing posted IAFN member listserv material...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294707/physical-violence-against-children-and-adolescents-in-porto-a-5-year-study
#10
Humberto Gomes Vidal, Inês Morais Caldas, Arnaldo de França Caldas, Luiz Gutenberg Toledo de Miranda Coelho Júnior, Eliane Helena Alvim de Souza, Maria Lurdes Pereira
The aim of the present study was to analyze the prevalence of physical violence against children and adolescents (PVCA) in a 5-year period in the city of Porto, Portugal. All forensic reports between 2009 and 2013 in the clinical services of the North Branch of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and forensic sciences were analyzed. Victims were classified according to sex, age, relationship with perpetrator, traumatic consequences of the event, and year of occurrence. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (Version 22...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284066/digital-stratigraphy-contextual-analysis-of-file-system-traces-in-forensic-science
#11
Eoghan Casey
This work introduces novel methods for conducting forensic analysis of file allocation traces, collectively called digital stratigraphy. These in-depth forensic analysis methods can provide insight into the origin, composition, distribution, and time frame of strata within storage media. Using case examples and empirical studies, this paper illuminates the successes, challenges, and limitations of digital stratigraphy. This study also shows how understanding file allocation methods can provide insight into concealment activities and how real-world computer usage can complicate digital stratigraphy...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275560/-research-progress-of-maldi-tof-ims-in-biomedicine-and-its-application-prospect-in-forensic-sciences
#12
REVIEW
G H Ren, R H Weng, Y Shi, P Huang, Z D Li, Y Shao, K F Deng, N G Liu, Y J Chen
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-IMS) can analysis unknown compounds in sections and obtain molecule imaging by scanning biological tissue sections, which has become a powerful tool for the research of biomarker, lipid distribution and drug metabolism, etc. This article reviews the application of this technique in protein identification, clinical application, drug discovery, lipid research and brain injury.
October 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275557/-forensic-analysis-of-63-cases-of-non-violent-death-occurred-in-custody
#13
S M Yang, Y B Cheng
OBJECTIVES: To collect cases of non-violent death occurred in custody for analyzing the forensic characteristics and related influencing factors. METHODS: Sixty-three cases of non-violent death among detainees in custody that handled by a forensic science center from 2000 to 2015 were collected. The type, onset season, medical history, clinical manifestation, treatment and duration of related fatal diseases were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: The deaths due to diseases in custody were common in male, and with a high incidence in middle aged adults...
October 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275553/-application-of-ischemia-modified-albumin-for-acute-ischemic-heart-disease-in-forensic-science
#14
P Wang, Z L Zhu, N Zhu, H Yu, Q Yue, X L Wang, C M Feng, C L Wang, G H Zhang
OBJECTIVES: To explore the application value and forensic significance of ischemia modified albumin (IMA) in pericardial fluid to diagnose sudden cardiac death. METHODS: IMA level in pericardial fluid was detected in acute ischemic heart disease group (n=36), acute myocardial infarction group (n=6), cardiomyopathy group (n=4) and control group (n=15) by albumin cobalt binding method. The levels of IMA were compared among these groups. The best cut-off IMA value was estimated and the sensitivity and specificity of acute myocardial ischemia group was distinguished from control group by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve...
October 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275089/a-template-for-constructing-bayesian-networks-in-forensic-biology-cases-when-considering-activity-level-propositions
#15
Duncan Taylor, Alex Biedermann, Tacha Hicks, Christophe Champod
The hierarchy of propositions has been accepted amongst the forensic science community for some time. It is also accepted that the higher up the hierarchy the propositions are, against which the scientist are competent to evaluate their results, the more directly useful the testimony will be to the court. Because each case represents a unique set of circumstances and findings, it is difficult to come up with a standard structure for evaluation. One common tool that assists in this task is Bayesian networks (BNs)...
December 15, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274706/recent-advances-in-mass-spectrometry-based-approaches-for-proteomics-and-biologics-great-contribution-for-developing-therapeutic-antibodies
#16
REVIEW
Noriko Iwamoto, Takashi Shimada
Since the turn of the century, mass spectrometry (MS) technologies have continued to improve dramatically, and advanced strategies that were impossible a decade ago are increasingly becoming available. The basic characteristics behind these advancements are MS resolution, quantitative accuracy, and information science for appropriate data processing. The spectral data from MS contain various types of information. The benefits of improving the resolution of MS data include accurate molecular structural-derived information, and as a result, we can obtain a refined biomolecular structure determination in a sequential and large-scale manner...
December 21, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273824/accuracy-of-the-third-molar-maturity-index-in-assessing-the-legal-age-of-18%C3%A2-years-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Bianca Marques Santiago, Leopoldina Almeida, Yuri Wanderley Cavalcanti, Marcela Baraúna Magno, Lucianne Cople Maia
The age estimation is a complex procedure required in the daily practice of legal medicine. The maturity of third molars stands out by the age of 18 because these teeth are still in development. This systematic review aimed to assess the accuracy of the third molar maturity index (I 3M), proposed by Cameriere et al. (2008), in discriminating whether an individual is under or over 18 years. Seven electronic databases were screened: PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library, LILACS, SIGLE, and CAPES...
December 22, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273569/forensic-face-recognition-as-a-means-to-determine-strength-of-evidence-a-survey
#18
REVIEW
C G Zeinstra, D Meuwly, A Cc Ruifrok, R Nj Veldhuis, L J Spreeuwers
This paper surveys the literature on forensic face recognition (FFR), with a particular focus on the strength of evidence as used in a court of law. FFR is the use of biometric face recognition for several applications in forensic science. It includes scenarios of ID verification and open-set identification, investigation and intelligence, and evaluation of the strength of evidence. We present FFR from operational, tactical, and strategic perspectives. We discuss criticism of FFR and we provide an overview of research efforts from multiple perspectives that relate to the domain of FFR...
January 2018: Forensic Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247928/a-review-of-bioinformatic-methods-for-forensic-dna-analyses
#19
REVIEW
Yao-Yuan Liu, SallyAnn Harbison
Short tandem repeats, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and whole mitochondrial analyses are three classes of markers which will play an important role in the future of forensic DNA typing. The arrival of massively parallel sequencing platforms in forensic science reveals new information such as insights into the complexity and variability of the markers that were previously unseen, along with amounts of data too immense for analyses by manual means. Along with the sequencing chemistries employed, bioinformatic methods are required to process and interpret this new and extensive data...
December 12, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230998/-research-progress-on-the-detection-method-of-dna-methylation-and-its-application-in-forensic-science
#20
REVIEW
Y C Nie, L J Yu, H Guan, Y Zhao, H B Rong, B W Jiang, T Zhang
As an important part of epigenetic marker, DNA methylation involves in the gene regulation and attracts a wide spread attention in biological auxology, geratology and oncology fields. In forensic science, because of the relative stable, heritable, abundant, and age-related characteristics, DNA methylation is considered to be a useful complement to the classic genetic markers for age-prediction, tissue-identification, and monozygotic twins' discrimination. Various methods for DNA methylation detection have been validated based on methylation sensitive restriction endonuclease, bisulfite modification and methylation-CpG binding protein...
June 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
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