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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804461/the-effect-of-resistance-exercise-on-inflammatory-and-myogenic-markers-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#1
Emma L Watson, Joao L Viana, David Wimbury, Naomi Martin, Neil J Greening, Jonathan Barratt, Alice C Smith
Background: Muscle wasting is a common complication of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and is clinically important given its strong association with morbidity and mortality in many other chronic conditions. Exercise provides physiological benefits for CKD patients, however the molecular response to exercise remains to be fully determined. We investigated the inflammatory and molecular response to resistance exercise before and after training in these patients. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a randomized trial that investigated the effect of 8 week progressive resistance training on muscle mass and strength compared to non-exercising controls...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790226/effect-of-metformin-on-handgrip-strength-gait-speed-myostatin-serum-level-and-health-related-quality-of-life-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial-among-non-diabetic-pre-frail-elderly-patients
#2
Purwita Wijaya Laksmi, Siti Setiati, Tirza Z Tamin, Pradana Soewondo, Wasilah Rochmah, Nafrialdi Nafrialdi, Joedo Prihartono
BACKGROUND: sarcopenia contributes to the development of frailty syndrome. Frailty syndrome is potentially improved by modifying insulin resistance, inflammation, and myostatin level. This study is aimed to investigate the effect of metformin on handgrip strength, gait speed, myostatin serum level, and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) among non-diabetic pre-frail elderly patients. METHODS: a double blind randomized controlled trial study was conducted on non-diabetic elderly outpatients aged ≥ 60 years with pre-frail status based on phenotype and/ or index criteria (Cardiovascular Health Study and/ or Frailty Index 40 items) consecutively recruited from March 2015 to June 2016 at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital...
April 2017: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771499/irisin-regulates-cardiac-physiology-in-zebrafish
#3
Lakshminarasimhan Sundarrajan, Chanel Yeung, Logan Hahn, Lynn P Weber, Suraj Unniappan
Irisin is a myokine encoded in its precursor fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5). It is abundantly expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscle, and is secreted upon the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1 alpha). We aimed to study the role of irisin on cardiac function and muscle protein regulation in zebrafish. Western blot analyses detected the presence of irisin protein (23 kDa) in zebrafish heart and skeletal muscle, and irisin immunoreactivity was detected in both tissues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765418/the-emergence-of-sarcopenia-as-an-important-entity-in-older-people
#4
Natalie J Offord, Miles D Witham
Sarcopenia refers to the loss of muscle mass and strength seen with advancing age. The pathophysiology is multifactorial, with loss of muscle satellite cells, changes in hormonal systems, chronic inflammation, oxidative stress and anabolic resistance to protein utilisation all implicated. Older age, female sex and immobility are important risk factors. Sarcopenia is clinically important as it is a major risk factor for physical frailty, falls, prolonged hospitalisation, dependency and earlier death. Diagnosis requires evidence of reduced muscle mass measured by handgrip strength or walk speed, together with evidence of low muscle mass, measured by one of a variety of techniques such as bioimpedance analysis or dual X-ray absorptiometry...
July 2017: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763828/muscle-bone-interactions-movement-in-the-field-of-mechano-humoral-coupling-of-muscle-and-bone
#5
Christopher P Cardozo, Zachary A Graham
Cyclical, mechanical loading of bone by skeletal muscle is widely recognized as a critical determinant of bone structure and mass. A growing body of evidence indicates that substances released from skeletal muscle into the bloodstream also regulate bone mass and metabolism. In this commentary, we discuss the status of research in the area of humoral regulation of bone mass by the skeletal muscle secretome, with an emphasis on the roles of myostatin, irisin, interleukin-6, and exosomes. The interplay between muscle, bone, and other modulators of bone mass, including circadian rhythm and sympathetic tone, is also discussed...
August 1, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762162/effect-of-acute-treadmill-exercise-on-cisplatin-induced-muscle-atrophy-in-the-mouse
#6
Hiroyasu Sakai, Minami Kimura, Yosuke Isa, Saori Yabe, Akihide Maruyama, Yukari Tsuruno, Yuki Kai, Fumiaki Sato, Tetsuro Yumoto, Yoshihiko Chiba, Minoru Narita
Cisplatin, a platinum-based anti-cancer drug, is one of the most effective broad-spectrum anti-cancer agents used against various cancers. It has been recently suggested that low skeletal muscle mass is predictive of mortality in patients with cancer. Although several molecules produced by the actual tumor itself contribute to skeletal muscle impairment, we recently suggested that the administration of cisplatin could increase levels of muscle RING finger-1 (MuRF1) and atrogin-1, possibly leading to muscle atrophy in the mouse...
July 31, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745831/osteopontin-is-linked-with-akt-foxo1-and-myostatin-in-skeletal-muscle-cells
#7
Peter P Nghiem, Joe N Kornegay, Kitipong Uaesoontrachoon, Luca Bello, Ying Yin, Akanchha Kesari, Priya Mittal, Scott J Schatzberg, Gina M Many, Norman H Lee, Eric P Hoffman
INTRODUCTION: Osteopontin (OPN) polymorphisms are associated with muscle size and modify disease progression in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We hypothesized that OPN may share a molecular network with myostatin (MSTN). METHODS: Studies were conducted in the golden retriever (GRMD) and mdx mouse models of DMD. Follow-up in-vitro studies were employed in myogenic cells and the mdx mouse treated with recombinant mouse (rm) or human (Hu) OPN protein. RESULTS: OPN was increased and MSTN was decreased and levels correlated inversely in GRMD hypertrophied muscle...
July 26, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744224/downregulated-translation-initiation-signaling-predisposes-low-birth-weight-neonatal-pigs-to-slower-rates-of-muscle-protein-synthesis
#8
Ying Chen, Sydney R McCauley, Sally E Johnson, Robert P Rhoads, Samer W El-Kadi
Low-birth-weight (LBWT) neonates experience restricted muscle growth in their perinatal life. Our aim was to investigate the mechanisms that contribute to slower skeletal muscle growth of LBWT neonatal pigs. Twenty-four 1-day old male LBWT (816 ± 55 g) and normal-birth-weight (NBWT; 1,642 ± 55 g) littermates (n = 12) were euthanized to collect blood and longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle subsamples. Plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) were lower in LBWT compared with NBWT pigs. Muscle IGF-I mRNA expression were lower in LBWT than NBWT pigs...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742154/lipopolysaccharide-inhibits-myogenic-differentiation-of-c2c12-myoblasts-through-the-toll-like-receptor-4-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-and-myoblast-derived-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE
#9
Yuko Ono, Kazuho Sakamoto
BACKGROUND: Circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations are often elevated in patients with sepsis or with various endogenous diseases that are associated with metabolic endotoxemia. Involuntary loss of skeletal muscle, termed muscle wasting, is commonly observed in these conditions, suggesting that circulating LPS might play an essential role in its development. Although impairment of muscle regeneration is an important determinant of skeletal muscle wasting, it is unclear whether LPS affects this process and, if so, by what mechanism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740611/development-of-potent-myostatin-inhibitory-peptides-through-hydrophobic-residue-directed-structural-modification
#10
Kentaro Takayama, Cédric Rentier, Tomo Asari, Akari Nakamura, Yusuke Saga, Takahiro Shimada, Kei Nirasawa, Eri Sasaki, Kyohei Muguruma, Akihiro Taguchi, Atsuhiko Taniguchi, Yoichi Negishi, Yoshio Hayashi
Myostatin, a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth, is a promising target for treating muscle atrophic disorders. Recently, we discovered a minimal myostatin inhibitor 1 (WRQNTRYSRIEAIKIQILSKLRL-amide) derived from positions 21-43 of the mouse myostatin prodomain. We previously identified key residues (N-terminal Trp(21), rodent-specific Tyr(27), and all aliphatic amino acids) required for effective inhibition through structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies based on 1 and characterized a 3-fold more potent inhibitor 2 bearing a 2-naphthyloxyacetyl group at position 21...
July 13, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740214/compensatory-anabolic-signaling-in-the-sarcopenia-of-experimental-chronic-arthritis
#11
Robert D Little, Iván Prieto-Potin, Sandra Pérez-Baos, Amanda Villalvilla, Paula Gratal, Flavia Cicuttini, Raquel Largo, Gabriel Herrero-Beaumont
Inflammatory activity in rheumatoid arthritis may alter the regulation of muscle mass leading to a secondary sarcopenia, commonly termed rheumatoid cachexia (RC). We characterized alterations to muscle structure and various pro-inflammatory, catabolic and regenerative markers in an animal model of RC. Antigen induced arthritis (AiA) was performed in 20 male adult rabbits. AiA animals exhibited significantly less weight gain, a markedly elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP), lighter muscles with shorter cross-sectional diameter and increased myonuclei when compared to controls...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732027/serum-irisin-and-myostatin-levels-after-2-weeks-of-high-altitude-climbing
#12
Ewa Śliwicka, Tomasz Cisoń, Zbigniew Kasprzak, Alicja Nowak, Łucja Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak
Exposure to high-altitude hypoxia causes physiological and metabolic adaptive changes by disturbing homeostasis. Hypoxia-related changes in skeletal muscle affect the closely interconnected energy and regeneration processes. The balance between protein synthesis and degradation in the skeletal muscle is regulated by several molecules such as myostatin, cytokines, vitamin D, and irisin. This study investigates changes in irisin and myostatin levels in male climbers after a 2-week high-altitude expedition, and their association with 25(OH)D and indices of inflammatory processes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725008/methylglyoxal-and-advanced-glycation-end-products-insight-of-the-regulatory-machinery-affecting-the-myogenic-program-and-of-its-modulation-by-natural-compounds
#13
Mohammad Hassan Baig, Arif Tasleem Jan, Gulam Rabbani, Khurshid Ahmad, Jalaluddin M Ashraf, Taeyeon Kim, Han Sol Min, Yong Ho Lee, Won-Kyung Cho, Jin Yeul Ma, Eun Ju Lee, Inho Choi
Methylglyoxal (MG) is a reactive dicarbonyl intermediate and a precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The authors investigated the role played by AGEs in muscle myopathy and the amelioration of its effects by curcumin and gingerol. In addition to producing phenotypical changes, MG increased oxidative stress and reduced myotube formation in C2C12 cells. RAGE (receptor for AGEs) expression was up-regulated and MYOD and myogenin (MYOG) expressions were concomitantly down-regulated in MG-treated cells...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723591/molecular-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-the-myostatin-gene-and-its-association-with-growth-traits-in-noble-scallop-chlamys-nobilis
#14
Sigang Fan, Youhou Xu, Baosuo Liu, Wenyao He, Bo Zhang, Jiaqi Su, Dahui Yu
Myostatin (MSTN), also called growth and differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8), is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and an inhibitor of muscle differentiation and growth. In this report, we identified and characterized a MSTN gene (CnMSTN) from the scallop Chlamys nobilis. The open reading frame of CnMSTN was 1374bp in length, encoding 457 amino acids. The structure of CnMSTN included a putative signal peptide, a TGF-β propeptide domain, and a conserved TGF-β domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the CnMSTN gene was clustered in the same subgroup with the MSTN gene found in Mollusca...
July 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701523/lifelong-exercise-but-not-short-term-high-intensity-interval-training-increases-gdf11-a-marker-of-successful-aging-a%C3%A2-preliminary-investigation
#15
Bradley T Elliott, Peter Herbert, Nicholas Sculthorpe, Fergal M Grace, Daniel Stratton, Lawrence D Hayes
Lifelong exercise is associated with regulation of skeletal mass and function, reductions in frailty, and successful aging. Yet, the influence of exercise on myostatin and myostatin-interacting factors is relatively under examined in older males. Therefore, we investigated whether serum total myostatin, free myostatin, follistatin, and growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) were altered following high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in a group of 13 lifelong sedentary (SED; 64 [6] years) and 11 lifelong exercising (LEX; 62 [6] years) older males...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691106/recombinant-myostatin-reduces-highly-expressed-micrornas-in-differentiating-c2c12-cells
#16
Zachary A Graham, Rita De Gasperi, William A Bauman, Christopher P Cardozo
Myostatin is small glycopeptide that is produced and secreted by skeletal muscle. It is a potent negative regulator of muscle growth that has been associated with conditions of frailty. In C2C12 cells, myostatin limits cell differentiation. Myostatin acts through activin receptor IIB, activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) and Smad transcription factors. microRNAs (miRNA) are short, 22 base pair nucleotides that bind to the 3' UTR of target mRNA to repress translation or reduce mRNA stability. In the present study, expression in differentiating C2C12 cells of the myomiRs miR-1 and 133a were down-regulated following treatment with 1 μg of recombinant myostatin at 1 d post-induction of differentiation while all myomiRs (miR-1, 133a/b and 206) were upregulated by SB431542, a potent ALK4/5/7 inhibitor which reduces Smad2 signaling, at 1 d and all, with the exception of miR-206, were upregulated by SB431542 at 3 d...
March 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690022/absence-of-myostatin-improves-cardiac-function-following-myocardial-infarction
#17
Sarina Lim, Chris D McMahon, Kenneth G Matthews, Gerard P Devlin, Marianne S Elston, John V Conaglen
BACKGROUND: Myostatin inhibits the development of skeletal muscle and regulates the proliferation of skeletal muscle fibroblasts. However, the role of myostatin in regulating cardiac muscle or myofibroblasts, specifically in acute myocardial infarction (MI), is less clear. This study sought to determine whether absence of myostatin altered left ventricular function post-MI. METHODS: Myostatin-null mice (Mstn(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice underwent ligation of the left anterior descending artery to induce MI...
June 15, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676454/myostatin-deficiency-is-associated-with-lipidomic-abnormalities-in-skeletal-muscles
#18
Narjes Baati, Christine Feillet-Coudray, Gilles Fouret, Barbara Vernus, Bénédicte Goustard, Charles Coudray, Jérome Lecomte, Véronique Blanquet, Laetitia Magnol, Anne Bonnieu, Christelle Koechlin-Ramonatxo
Myostatin (Mstn) deficiency leads to skeletal muscle overgrowth and Mstn inhibition is considered as a promising treatment for muscle-wasting disorders. Mstn gene deletion in mice also causes metabolic changes with decreased mitochondria content, disturbance in mitochondrial respiratory function and increased muscle fatigability. However the impact of MSTN deficiency on these metabolic changes is not fully elucidated. Here, we hypothesized that lack of MSTN will alter skeletal muscle membrane lipid composition in relation with pronounced alterations in muscle function and metabolism...
July 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666853/recombinant-bovine-growth-hormone-rbgh-enhances-somatic-growth-by-regulating-the-gh-igf-axis-in-fingerlings-of-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata
#19
Emilio J Vélez, Miquel Perelló, Sheida Azizi, Alberto Moya, Esmail Lutfi, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez, Josep A Calduch-Giner, Isabel Navarro, Josefina Blasco, Jaume Fernández-Borràs, Encarnación Capilla, Joaquim Gutiérrez
The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) endocrine axis is the main growth-regulator system in vertebrates. Some authors have demonstrated the positive effects on growth of a sustained-release formulation of a recombinant bovine GH (rBGH) in different fish species. The aim of this work was to characterize the effects of a single injection of rBGH in fingerlings of gilthead sea bream on growth, GH-IGF axis, and both myogenic and osteogenic processes. Thus, body weight and specific growth rate were significantly increased in rBGH-treated fish respect to control fish at 6weeks post-injection, whereas the hepatosomatic index was decreased and the condition factor and mesenteric fat index were unchanged, altogether indicating enhanced somatic growth...
June 27, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647906/exogenous-gdf11-induces-cardiac-and-skeletal-muscle-dysfunction-and-wasting
#20
Teresa A Zimmers, Yanling Jiang, Meijing Wang, Tiffany W Liang, Joseph E Rupert, Ernie D Au, Francesco E Marino, Marion E Couch, Leonidas G Koniaris
Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), a TGF-beta superfamily member, is highly homologous to myostatin and essential for embryonic patterning and organogenesis. Reports of GDF11 effects on adult tissues are conflicting, with some describing anti-aging and pro-regenerative activities on the heart and skeletal muscle while others opposite or no effects. Herein, we sought to determine the in vivo cardiac and skeletal muscle effects of excess GDF11. Mice were injected with GDF11 secreting cells, an identical model to that used to initially identify the in vivo effects of myostatin...
July 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
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