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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168629/myostatin-and-beyond-in-cirrhosis-all-roads-lead-to-sarcopenia
#1
EDITORIAL
Srinivasan Dasarathy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154428/muscle-wasting-and-sarcopenia-in-heart-failure-and-beyond-update-2017
#2
REVIEW
Jochen Springer, Joshua-I Springer, Stefan D Anker
Sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass and muscle function) is a strong predictor of frailty, disability and mortality in older persons and may also occur in obese subjects. The prevalence of sarcopenia is increased in patients suffering from chronic heart failure. However, there are currently few therapy options. The main intervention is resistance exercise, either alone or in combination with nutritional support, which seems to enhance the beneficial effects of training. Also, testosterone has been shown to increased muscle power and function; however, a possible limitation is the side effects of testosterone...
November 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154220/association-of-melanocortin-mc4r-and-myostatin-mstn-genes-with-carcass-quality-in-rabbit
#3
Karim El-Sabrout, Sarah Aggag
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of Melanocortin (MC4R) and Myostatin (MSTN) with the carcass quality of V-line and Alexandria line rabbits. MC4R and MSTN were screened by single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis (SSCP) then DNA was sequenced. The results identified four novel SNPs using the four studied primers of the MC4R and MSTN genes. The genotype (BB) has significant higher body weight (BW), carcass weight (CW) and dressing percentage (DP) than AA rabbits. There were no significant differences within the two lines in the carcass color (light pink) and carcass fat (CF)...
November 7, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140406/smad3-stat3-crosstalk-in-pathophysiological-contexts
#4
Yuka Itoh, Masao Saitoh, Keiji Miyazawa
Smad3 and STAT3 are intracellular molecules that transmit signals from plasma membrane receptors to the nucleus. Smad3 operates downstream of growth/differentiation factors that utilize activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)-4, 5, or 7, such as transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), activin, and myostatin. STAT3 principally functions downstream of cytokines that exert their effects via gp130 and Janus family kinases, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and oncostatin M. Accumulating evidence indicates that Smad3 and STAT3 engage in crosstalk in a highly context-dependent fashion, cooperating in some conditions while acting antagonistically each other in others...
November 13, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138805/extracellular-polysaccharides-purified-from-aureobasidium-pullulans-sm%C3%A2-2001-polycan-inhibit-dexamethasone%C3%A2-induced-muscle-atrophy-in-mice
#5
Jong-Min Lim, Young Joon Lee, Hyung-Rae Cho, Dong-Chan Park, Go-Woon Jung, Sae Kwang Ku, Jae-Suk Choi
The present study assessed the beneficial skeletal muscle‑preserving effects of extracellular polysaccharides from Aureobasidium pullulans SM‑2001 (Polycan) (EAP) on dexamethasone (DEXA)‑induced catabolic muscle atrophy in mice. To investigate whether EAP prevented catabolic DEXA‑induced muscle atrophy, and to examine its mechanisms of action, EAP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was administered orally, once a day for 24 days. EAP treatment was initiated 2 weeks prior to DEXA treatment (1 mg/kg, once a day for 10 days) in mice...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123487/hypertrophy-stimulation-at-the-onset-of-type-i-diabetes-maintains-the-soleus-but-not-the-edl-muscle-mass-in-wistar-rats
#6
Marco A S Fortes, Maria V M Scervino, Gabriel N Marzuca-Nassr, Kaio F Vitzel, Carlos H da Justa Pinheiro, Rui Curi
Diabetes mellitus induces a reduction in skeletal muscle mass and strength. Strength training is prescribed as part of treatment since it improves glycemic control and promotes increase of skeletal muscle mass. The mechanisms involved in overload-induced muscle hypertrophy elicited at the establishment of the type I diabetic state was investigated in Wistar rats. The purpose was to examine whether the overload-induced hypertrophy can counteract the hypotrophy associated to the diabetic state. The experiments were performed in oxidative (soleus) or glycolytic (EDL) muscles...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121992/a-mouse-anti-myostatin-antibody-increases-muscle-mass-and-improves-muscle-strength-and-contractility-in-the-mdx-mouse-model-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-and-its-humanized-equivalent-domagrozumab-pf-06252616-increases-muscle-volume-in-cynomolgus-monkeys
#7
Michael St Andre, Mark Johnson, Prashant N Bansal, Jeremy Wellen, Andrew Robertson, Alan Opsahl, Peter M Burch, Peter Bialek, Carl Morris, Jane Owens
BACKGROUND: The treatments currently approved for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a progressive skeletal muscle wasting disease, address the needs of only a small proportion of patients resulting in an urgent need for therapies that benefit all patients regardless of the underlying mutation. Myostatin is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family of ligands and is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. Loss of myostatin has been shown to increase muscle mass and improve muscle function in both normal and dystrophic mice...
November 9, 2017: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109273/blockade-of-activin-type-ii-receptors-with-a-dual-anti-actriia-iib-antibody-is-critical-to-promote-maximal-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy
#8
Frederic Morvan, Jean-Michel Rondeau, Chao Zou, Giulia Minetti, Clemens Scheufler, Meike Scharenberg, Carsten Jacobi, Pascale Brebbia, Veronique Ritter, Gauthier Toussaint, Claudia Koelbing, Xavier Leber, Alain Schilb, Florian Witte, Sylvie Lehmann, Elke Koch, Sabine Geisse, David J Glass, Estelle Lach-Trifilieff
The TGF-β family ligands myostatin, GDF11, and activins are negative regulators of skeletal muscle mass, which have been reported to primarily signal via the ActRIIB receptor on skeletal muscle and thereby induce muscle wasting described as cachexia. Use of a soluble ActRIIB-Fc "trap," to block myostatin pathway signaling in normal or cachectic mice leads to hypertrophy or prevention of muscle loss, perhaps suggesting that the ActRIIB receptor is primarily responsible for muscle growth regulation. Genetic evidence demonstrates however that both ActRIIB- and ActRIIA-deficient mice display a hypertrophic phenotype...
November 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107647/muscle-protective-effects-of-schisandrae-fructus-extracts-in-old-mice-after-chronic-forced-exercise
#9
Ki-Young Kim, Sae-Kwang Ku, Ki-Won Lee, Chang-Hyun Song, Won G An
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Schisandrae Fructus (SF), the dried fruit of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., is a well-known traditional herb used in Asia for enhancing physical work capacity as well as providing anti-stress and anti-inflammatory effects. Extracts of SF (SFe) have also been reported to increase skeletal muscle mass and inhibit muscle atrophy. AIM OF THE STUDY: We examined whether SFe had muscle-protective effects in old mice after chronic forced exercises, and, if so, relevant mechanisms...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080996/impact-of-local-heating-and-cooling-on-skeletal-muscle-transcriptional-response-related-to-myogenesis-and-proteolysis
#10
Roksana B Zak, B M Hassenstab, L K Zuehlke, M W S Heesch, R J Shute, T L Laursen, D T LaSalle, D R Slivka
PURPOSE: To determine the impact of local muscle heating and cooling on myogenic and proteolytic gene responses following resistance exercise. METHODS: Recreationally trained males (n = 12), age 25.3 ± 1.5, % body fat 13.6 ± 1.92, completed four sets of 8-12 repetitions of unilateral leg press and leg extension while heating one leg, and cooling the other. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis of each leg pre and 4 h post exercise. RESULTS: MyoD, FOXO1, and MuRF1 mRNA increased with exercise regardless of temperature (p < 0...
October 28, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079832/myostatin-inhibition-prevents-skeletal-muscle-pathophysiology-in-huntington-s-disease-mice
#11
Marie K Bondulich, Nelly Jolinon, Georgina F Osborne, Edward J Smith, Ivan Rattray, Andreas Neueder, Kirupa Sathasivam, Mhoriam Ahmed, Nadira Ali, Agnesska C Benjamin, Xiaoli Chang, James R T Dick, Matthew Ellis, Sophie A Franklin, Daniel Goodwin, Linda Inuabasi, Hayley Lazell, Adam Lehar, Angela Richard-Londt, Jim Rosinski, Donna L Smith, Tobias Wood, Sarah J Tabrizi, Sebastian Brandner, Linda Greensmith, David Howland, Ignacio Munoz-Sanjuan, Se-Jin Lee, Gillian P Bates
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder of which skeletal muscle atrophy is a common feature, and multiple lines of evidence support a muscle-based pathophysiology in HD mouse models. Inhibition of myostatin signaling increases muscle mass, and therapeutic approaches based on this are in clinical development. We have used a soluble ActRIIB decoy receptor (ACVR2B/Fc) to test the effects of myostatin/activin A inhibition in the R6/2 mouse model of HD. Weekly administration from 5 to 11 weeks of age prevented body weight loss, skeletal muscle atrophy, muscle weakness, contractile abnormalities, the loss of functional motor units in EDL muscles and delayed end-stage disease...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070788/pharmacological-inhibition-of-myostatin-improves-skeletal-muscle-mass-and-function-in-a-mouse-model-of-stroke
#12
Marine Maud Desgeorges, Xavier Devillard, Jérome Toutain, Josiane Castells, Didier Divoux, David Frédéric Arnould, Christopher Haqq, Myriam Bernaudin, Anne-Cécile Durieux, Omar Touzani, Damien Gilles Freyssenet
In stroke patients, loss of skeletal muscle mass leads to prolonged weakness and less efficient rehabilitation. We previously showed that expression of myostatin, a master negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass, was strongly increased in skeletal muscle in a mouse model of stroke. We therefore tested the hypothesis that myostatin inhibition would improve recovery of skeletal muscle mass and function after cerebral ischemia. Cerebral ischemia (45 minutes) was induced by intraluminal right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069832/acylated-and-unacylated-ghrelin-inhibit-atrophy-in-myotubes-co-cultured-with-colon-carcinoma-cells
#13
Xianliang Zeng, Sizeng Chen, Yang Yang, Zhao Ke
Cancer cachexia is a result of increased protein degradation and decreased protein synthesis. The multifunctional circulating hormone ghrelin promotes synthesis and inhibits degradation of muscle protein, but its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether co-culturing C2C12 myotubes with CT26 colon carcinoma cells induces myotube atrophy, and whether acylated ghrelin (AG) and unacylated ghrelin (UnAG) had anti-atrophic effects. We found that co-culture induced myotube atrophy and increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and myostatin concentrations in the culture medium...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069231/myostatin-promotes-distinct-responses-on-protein-metabolism-of-skeletal-and-cardiac-muscle-fibers-of-rodents
#14
L H Manfredi, S Paula-Gomes, N M Zanon, I C Kettelhut
Myostatin is a novel negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. Myostatin expression is also found in heart in a much less extent, but it can be upregulated in pathological conditions, such as heart failure. Myostatin may be involved in inhibiting protein synthesis and/or increasing protein degradation in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Herein, we used cell cultures and isolated muscles from rats to determine protein degradation and synthesis. Muscles incubated with myostatin exhibited an increase in proteolysis with an increase of Atrogin-1, MuRF1 and LC3 genes...
October 19, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058242/effect-of-myostatin-snp-on-muscle-fiber-properties-in-male-thoroughbred-horses-during-training-period
#15
Hirofumi Miyata, Rika Itoh, Fumio Sato, Naoya Takebe, Tetsuro Hada, Teruaki Tozaki
Variants of the Myostatin gene have been shown to have an influence on muscle hypertrophy phenotypes in a wide range of mammalian species. Recently, a Thoroughbred horse with a C-Allele at the g.66493737C/T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been reported to be suited to short-distance racing. In this study, we examined the effect of the Myostatin SNP on muscle fiber properties in young Thoroughbred horses during a training period. To investigate the effect of the Myostatin SNP on muscle fiber before training, several mRNA expressions were relatively quantified in biopsy samples from the middle gluteal muscle of 27 untrained male Thoroughbred horses (1...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043432/recent-advances-in-pharmacological-hormonal-and-nutritional-intervention-for-sarcopenia
#16
REVIEW
Kunihiro Sakuma, Akihiko Yamaguchi
Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, is characterized by a deterioration of muscle quantity and quality leading to a gradual slowing of movement, a decline in strength and power, increased risk of fall-related injury, and often frailty. This review focuses on the recent advances of pharmacological, hormonal, and nutritional approaches for attenuating sarcopenia. The article is composed of the data reported in many basic and some clinical studies for mammalian muscles. Resistance training combined with amino acid-containing supplements is the gold standard to prevent sarcopenia...
October 18, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040223/effect-of-losartan-on-the-acute-response-of-human-elderly-skeletal-muscle-to-exercise
#17
Mette Flindt Heisterberg, Jesper L Andersen, Peter Schjerling, Jacob Bülow, Jeppe Bo Lauersen, Heidi L Roeber, Michael Kjaer, Abigail L Mackey
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of blocking the angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) upon the response to acute heavy resistance exercise in elderly human skeletal muscle. The hypothesis was that AT1R blocking would result in a superior myogenic response accompanied by downregulation of TGF-β and upregulation of IGF-1 signalling. METHODS: 28 healthy elderly men (+64 years) were randomized into two groups, consuming either AT1R blocker (Losartan, 100mg/day) or Placebo for 18 days prior to exercise...
October 16, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036192/viral-infection-upregulates-myostatin-promoter-activity-in-orange-spotted-grouper-epinephelus-coioides
#18
Yi-Tien Chen, Chao-Fen Lin, Young-Mao Chen, Chih-En Lo, Wan-Erh Chen, Tzong-Yueh Chen
Myostatin is a negative regulator of myogenesis and has been suggested to be an important factor in the development of muscle wasting during viral infection. The objective of this study was to characterize the main regulatory element of the grouper myostatin promoter and to study changes in promoter activity due to viral stimulation. In vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that the E-box E6 is a positive cis-and trans-regulation motif, and an essential binding site for MyoD. In contrast, the E-box E5 is a dominant negative cis-regulatory...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035972/hyperammonemia-and-proteostasis-in-cirrhosis
#19
Srinivasan Dasarathy, Maria Hatzoglou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skeletal muscle loss or sarcopenia is a frequent complication of cirrhosis that adversely affects clinical outcomes. As skeletal muscle is the largest store of proteins in the body, proteostasis or protein homeostasis is required for maintenance of muscle mass. This review will focus on disordered skeletal muscle proteostasis in liver disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Increased skeletal muscle uptake of ammonia initiates responses that result in disordered proteostasis including impaired protein synthesis and increased autophagy...
October 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024627/myostatin-inhibits-eef2k-eef2-by-regulating-ampk-to-suppress-protein-synthesis
#20
Zhao Deng, Pei Luo, Wen Lai, Tongxing Song, Jian Peng, Hong-Kui Wei
Growth of skeletal muscle is dependent on the protein synthesis, and the rate of protein synthesis is mainly regulated in the stage of translation initiation and elongation. Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, is a negative regulator of protein synthesis. C2C12 myotubes was incubated with 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 2, 3 μg/mL myostatin recombinant protein, and then we detected the rates of protein synthesis by the method of SUnSET. We found that high concentrations of myostatin (2 and 3 μg/mL) inhibited protein synthesis by blocking mTOR and eEF2K-eEF2 pathway, while low concentration of myostatin (0...
December 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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