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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533420/igf1-stimulates-greater-muscle-hypertrophy-in-the-absence-of-myostatin-in-male-mice
#1
Alexander Hennebry, Jenny M Oldham, Tea Shavlakadze, Miranda Grounds, Philip Sheard, Marta Fiorotto, Shelley J Falconer, Heather K Smith, Carole Berry, Ferenc Jeanplong, Jeremy Bracegirdle, Kenneth G Matthews, Gina Nicholas, Monica Senna-Salerno, Trevor Watson, Christopher D McMahon
Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and myostatin have opposing roles in regulating the growth and size of skeletal muscle, with IGF1 stimulating, and myostatin inhibiting, growth. However, it remains unclear whether these proteins have mutually dependent, or independent, roles. To clarify this issue, we crossed myostatin null (Mstn-/-) mice with mice over-expressing Igf1 in skeletal muscle (Igf1+) to generate six genotypes of male mice; wild-type (Mstn+/+), Mstn+/-, Mstn-/-, Mstn+/+:Igf1+, Mstn+/-:Igf1+ and Mstn-/-:Igf1+...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533206/myostatin-like-proteins-regulate-synaptic-function-and-neuronal-morphology
#2
Hrvoje Augustin, Kieran McGourty, Joern R Steinert, Helena M Cochemé, Jennifer Adcott, Melissa Cabecinha, Alec Vincent, Els F Halff, Josef T Kittler, Emmanuel Boucrot, Linda Partridge
Growth factors of the TGF-β superfamily play key roles in regulating neuronal and muscle function. Myostatin (or GDF8) and GDF11 are potent negative regulators of skeletal muscle mass. However, expression of both Myostatin and its cognate receptors in other tissues, including brain and peripheral nerves, suggests a potential wider biological role. Here, we show that Myoglianin (MYO), the Drosophila homolog of Myostatin and GDF11, regulates not only body weight and muscle size, but also inhibits neuromuscular synapse strength and composition in a Smad2-dependent manner...
May 22, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507342/effects-of-dietary-methionine-on-breast-muscle-growth-myogenic-gene-expression-and-igf-i-signaling-in-fast-and-slow-growing-broilers
#3
Chao Wen, Xueying Jiang, Liren Ding, Tian Wang, Yanmin Zhou
This study investigated the responses of fast- (FG) and slow- (SG) growing broilers to dietary methionine (Met) status. The broilers were subjected to low (LM, 0.38 and 0.28 g/100 g), adequate (AM, 0.51 and 0.42 g/100 g) and high (HM, 0.65 and 0.52 g/100 g) Met during 1-21 and 22-42 d, respectively. Compared with the LM diets, the AM and HM diets increased body weight gain only in the FG broilers. The HM diets increased breast muscle yield only in the FG broilers, although insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentration was increased in both strains of broilers...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506762/the-nuclear-phosphatase-scp4-regulates-foxo-transcription-factors-during-muscle-wasting-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
Xinyan Liu, Rizhen Yu, Lijing Sun, Giacomo Garibotto, Xia Lin, Yanlin Wang, Sandhya S Thomas, Rongshan Li, Zhaoyong Hu
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and related inflammatory responses stimulate protein-energy wasting, a complication causing loss of muscle mass. Primarily, muscle wasting results from accelerated protein degradation via autophagic/lysosomal and proteasomal pathways, but mechanisms regulating these proteolysis pathways remain unclear. Since dephosphorylation of FoxOs regulates ubiquitin/proteasome protein metabolism, we tested whether a novel nuclear phosphatase, the small C-terminal domain phosphatase (SCP) 4, regulates FoxOs signaling and, in turn, muscle wasting...
May 12, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506172/the-effect-of-myostatin-gdf-8-on-proliferation-and-tenocyte-differentiation-of-rat-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#5
Wei Le, Jeffrey Yao
BACKGROUND: The future in flexor tendon surgery involves tissue engineering approaches directed toward increasing early repair strength to accelerate tendon healing and to allow for earlier onset of rehabilitation. Previous work has shown that pluripotential mesenchymal stem cells may be successfully delivered to a tendon repair site using a suture carrier. The current work describes the use of Myostatin (GDF-8) to help guide these delivered pluripotential stem cells to differentiate down a tenocyte lineage to potentially maximize the reparative effects of these cells at the tendon repair site...
June 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493029/age-and-sex-differences-in-human-skeletal-muscle-fibrosis-markers-and-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-signaling
#6
Lewan Parker, Marissa K Caldow, Rani Watts, Pazit Levinger, David Cameron-Smith, Itamar Levinger
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to determine whether higher fibrosis markers in skeletal muscle of older adults are accompanied by increased expression of components of the canonical TGF-β signal transduction pathway. METHODS: Fourteen healthy young (21-35 years; 9 males and 5 females) and seventeen older (55-75 years; 9 males and 8 females) participants underwent vastus lateralis biopsies to determine intramuscular mRNA and protein expression of fibrogenic markers and TGF-β signaling molecules related to TGF-β1 and myostatin...
May 10, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484596/association-of-growth-rate-with-hormone-levels-and-myogenic-gene-expression-profile-in-broilers
#7
Yingping Xiao, Choufei Wu, Kaifeng Li, Guohong Gui, Guolong Zhang, Hua Yang
BACKGROUND: The growth rate often varies among individual broilers of the same breed under a common management condition. To investigate whether a variation in the growth rate is associated with a difference in hormone levels and myogenic gene expression profile in broilers, a feeding trial was conducted with 10,000 newly hatched Ross 308 chicks in a commercial production facility under standard management. At 38 d of age, 30 fast-, 30 medium-, and 30 slow-growing broilers were selected among 600 healthy male individuals...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482746/neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-combined-with-protein-ingestion-preserves-thigh-muscle-mass-but-not-muscle-function-in-healthy-older-adults-during-5-days-of-bed-rest
#8
Paul Reidy, Alec McKenzie, Preston Brunker, Daniel Nelson, Katherine Barrows, Mark Supiano, Paul LaStayo, Micah Drummond
Short-term bed rest in older adults is characterized by significant loss in leg lean mass and strength posing significant health consequences. The purpose of this study was to determine in healthy older adults if the daily combination of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and protein supplementation (NMES+PRO) would protect muscle mass and function after 5-days of bed rest. Twenty healthy older adults (~70y) were subjected to 5-days of continuous bed rest and were randomized into one of two groups: NMES+PRO (n=10) or CON (n=10)...
May 8, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472635/the-growth-differentiation-factor-11-gdf11-and-myostatin-mstn-in-tissue-specific-aging
#9
REVIEW
Xiaolan Fan, Uma Gaur, Lin Sun, Deying Yang, Mingyao Yang
Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) and myostatin (MSTN) are evolutionarily conserved homologues proteins which are closely related members of the transforming growth factor β superfamily. They are often perceived to serve similar or overlapping roles. Recently, GDF11 has been identified as playing a role during aging, however there are conflicting reports as to the nature of this role. In this review, we will discuss the literature regarding functions of GDF11 and myostatin in the heart, brain, and skeletal muscle during aging...
May 1, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471505/role-of-follistatin-in-muscle-and-bone-alterations-induced-by-gravity-change-in-mice
#10
Naoyuki Kawao, Hironobu Morita, Koji Obata, Kohei Tatsumi, Hiroshi Kaji
Interactions between muscle and bone have been recently noted. We reported that the vestibular system plays crucial roles in the changes in muscle and bone induced by hypergravity in mice. However, the details of the mechanisms by which gravity change affects muscle and bone through the vestibular system still remain unknown. Here, we investigated the roles of humoral factors linking muscle to bone and myostatin-related factors in the hypergravity-induced changes in muscle and bone in mice with vestibular lesions (VL)...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469267/epidemiology-of-sarcopenia-and-insight-into-possible-therapeutic-targets
#11
REVIEW
Elaine M Dennison, Avan A Sayer, Cyrus Cooper
Musculoskeletal ageing is a major public health concern owing to demographic shifts in the population. Sarcopenia, generally defined as the age-related loss of muscle mass and function, is associated with considerable risk of falls, loss of independence in older adults and hospitalization with poorer health outcomes. This condition is therefore associated with increased morbidity and health care costs. As with bone mass, muscle mass and strength increase during late adolescence and early adulthood, but begin to decline substantially from ∼50 years of age...
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465350/myostatin-inhibits-osteoblastic-differentiation-by-suppressing-osteocyte-derived-exosomal-microrna-218-a-novel-mechanism-in-muscle-bone-communication
#12
Yiwen Qin, Yuanzhen Peng, Wei Zhao, Jianping Pan, Hanna Ksiezak-Reding, Christopher Cardozo, Yingjie Wu, Paola Divieti Pajevic, Lynda F Bonewald, William A Bauman, Weiping Qin
Muscle and bone are closely associated in both anatomy and function, but the mechanisms that coordinate their synergistic action remain poorly defined. Myostatin, a myokine secreted by muscles, has been shown to inhibit muscle growth, and the disruption of the myostatin gene has been reported to cause muscle hypertrophy and increase bone mass. Extracellular vesicle-exosomes that carry microRNA (miRNA), mRNA, and proteins are known to perform an important role in cell-cell communication. We hypothesized that myostatin may play a crucial role in muscle-bone interactions and may promote direct effects on osteocytes and on osteocyte-derived exosomal miRNAs, thereby indirectly influencing the function of other bone cells...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465115/myostatin-signaling-is-up-regulated-in-female-patients-with-advanced-heart-failure
#13
Junichi Ishida, Masaaki Konishi, Masakazu Saitoh, Markus Anker, Stefan D Anker, Jochen Springer
BACKGROUND: Myostatin, a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass, is up-regulated in the myocardium of heart failure (HF) and increased myostatin is associated with weight loss in animal models with HF. Although there are disparities in pathophysiology and epidemiology between male and female patients with HF, it remains unclear whether there is gender difference in myostatin expression and whether it is associated with weight loss in HF patients. METHODS: Heart tissue samples were collected from patients with advanced heart failure (n=31, female n=5) as well as healthy control donors (n=14, female n=6)...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459069/modulation-of-myostatin-hepatocyte-growth-factor-balance-by-different-hemodialysis-modalities
#14
Pasquale Esposito, Edoardo La Porta, Marta Calatroni, Maria Antonietta Grignano, Samantha Milanesi, Daniela Verzola, Yuri Battaglia, Marilena Gregorini, Carmelo Libetta, Giacomo Garibotto, Teresa Rampino
Background. In this study we investigated the relevance of myostatin and Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) in patients undergoing hemodialysis HD and the influence of different HD modalities on their levels. Methods. We performed a prospective crossover study in which HD patients were randomized to undergo 3-month treatment periods with bicarbonate hemodialysis (BHD) followed by online hemodiafiltration (HDF). Clinical data, laboratory parameters, and myostatin and HGF serum levels were collected and compared...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450151/quercetin-a-natural-product-supplement-impairs-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-and-locomotor-behavior-in-larval-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#15
Ji-Liang Zhang, Christopher Laurence Souders, Nancy D Denslow, Christopher J Martyniuk
Quercetin is a natural product that is sold as a supplement in health food stores. While there are reported benefits for this flavonoid as a dietary supplement due to antioxidant properties, the full scope of its biological interactions has not been fully addressed. To learn more about the mechanisms of action related to quercetin, we exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos to 1 and 10μg/L quercetin for 96h starting at 3h post fertilization. Quercetin up to 10μg/L did not induce significant mortality in developing fish, but did increase prevalence of an upward-curved dorsal plane in hatched larvae...
April 25, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448086/effects-of-running-wheel-activity-and-dietary-hmb-and-%C3%AE-alanine-co-supplementation-on-muscle-quality-in-aged-male-rats
#16
D W Russ, C Acksel, K W McCorkle, N K Edens, S M Garvey
OBJECTIVE: Loss of skeletal muscle function is linked to increased risk for loss of health and independence in older adults. Dietary interventions that can enhance aging muscle function, alone or in combination with exercise, may offer an effective way to reduce these risks. The goal of this study was to evaluate the muscular effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and beta-alanine (β-Ala) co-supplementation in aged Sprague-Dawley rats with voluntary access to running wheels (RW)...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437004/4-4-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane-ddt-and-4-4-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene-dde-inhibit-myogenesis-in-c2c12-myoblasts
#17
Jonggun Kim, Min Young Park, Yoo Kim, Kyong Sup Yoon, John Marshall Clark, Yeonhwa Park, Kwang-Youn Whang
BACKGROUND: Most countries have banned the use of 4,4'-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). However, due to its extremely high lipophilic characteristics, DDT and its metabolite 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) are ubiquitous in the environment and in many types of food. The positive correlation between exposure to insecticides, including DDT and DDE, and weight gain, resulting in impaired energy metabolism in offspring following perinatal DDT and DDE exposure was previously reported...
April 24, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432282/loss-of-function-myostatin-mutation-increases-insulin-sensitivity-and-browning-of-white-fat-in-meishan-pigs
#18
Chunbo Cai, Lili Qian, Shengwang Jiang, Youde Sun, Qingqing Wang, Dezun Ma, Gaojun Xiao, Biao Li, Shanshan Xie, Ting Gao, Yaoxing Chen, Jie Liu, Xiaorong An, Wentao Cui, Kui Li
Myostatin-deficient mice showed a remarkable hypertrophy of skeletal muscle, with a decreased fat mass and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Currently, it is unclear if the inhibition of myostatin could be used as an approach to treat human obesity and insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated if the inhibition of porcine myostatin has any effect on fat deposition and insulin sensitivity using genetically engineered Meishan pigs containing a myostatin loss-of-function mutation (Mstn -/- ). Our results indicated that, when compared with wild-type pigs, the amount of subcutaneous fat and leaf fat of Mstn -/- pigs were significantly decreased mainly due to the browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422851/relation-between-serum-myokines-and-phase-ii-cardiac-rehabilitation
#19
Der-Sheng Han, Ming-Yen Hsiao, Tyng-Guey Wang, Ssu-Yuan Chen, Wei-Shiung Yang
Patients with coronary heart disease or acute myocardial infarction after cardiac catheterization with stenting referred for phase II cardiac rehabilitation (CR) were grouped according to their preference. Cardio-pulmonary exercise testing (CPET) was used to determine oxygen uptake ((Equation is included in full-text article.)) at peak exercise and anaerobic threshold (AT). The control patients received counseling only while the experiment group received 36 sessions of CR in 3 to 6 months. Exercise physiology parameters and serum myokines (myostatin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured pre- and postrehabilitation...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419894/muscle-cell-communication-in-development-and-repair
#20
REVIEW
Alexis R Demonbreun, Elizabeth M McNally
Under basal conditions, postnatal skeletal muscle displays little cell turnover. With injury, muscle initiates a rapid repair response to reseal damaged membrane, reactivating many developmental pathways to facilitate muscle regeneration and prevent tissue loss. Muscle precursor cells become activated accompanied by differentiation and fusion during both muscle growth and regeneration; inter-cellular communication is required for successful completion of these processes. Cellular communication is mediated by lipids, fusogenic membrane proteins, and exosomes...
April 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
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