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myostatins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732027/serum-irisin-and-myostatin-levels-after-2-weeks-of-high-altitude-climbing
#1
Ewa Śliwicka, Tomasz Cisoń, Zbigniew Kasprzak, Alicja Nowak, Łucja Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak
Exposure to high-altitude hypoxia causes physiological and metabolic adaptive changes by disturbing homeostasis. Hypoxia-related changes in skeletal muscle affect the closely interconnected energy and regeneration processes. The balance between protein synthesis and degradation in the skeletal muscle is regulated by several molecules such as myostatin, cytokines, vitamin D, and irisin. This study investigates changes in irisin and myostatin levels in male climbers after a 2-week high-altitude expedition, and their association with 25(OH)D and indices of inflammatory processes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725008/methylglyoxal-and-advanced-glycation-end-products-insight-of-the-regulatory-machinery-affecting-the-myogenic-program-and-of-its-modulation-by-natural-compounds
#2
Mohammad Hassan Baig, Arif Tasleem Jan, Gulam Rabbani, Khurshid Ahmad, Jalaluddin M Ashraf, Taeyeon Kim, Han Sol Min, Yong Ho Lee, Won-Kyung Cho, Jin Yeul Ma, Eun Ju Lee, Inho Choi
Methylglyoxal (MG) is a reactive dicarbonyl intermediate and a precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The authors investigated the role played by AGEs in muscle myopathy and the amelioration of its effects by curcumin and gingerol. In addition to producing phenotypical changes, MG increased oxidative stress and reduced myotube formation in C2C12 cells. RAGE (receptor for AGEs) expression was up-regulated and MYOD and myogenin (MYOG) expressions were concomitantly down-regulated in MG-treated cells...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723591/molecular-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-the-myostatin-gene-and-its-association-with-growth-traits-in-noble-scallop-chlamys-nobilis
#3
Sigang Fan, Youhou Xu, Baosuo Liu, Wenyao He, Bo Zhang, Jiaqi Su, Dahui Yu
Myostatin (MSTN), also called growth and differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8), is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and an inhibitor of muscle differentiation and growth. In this report, we identified and characterized a MSTN gene (CnMSTN) from the scallop Chlamys nobilis. The open reading frame of CnMSTN was 1374bp in length, encoding 457 amino acids. The structure of CnMSTN included a putative signal peptide, a TGF-β propeptide domain, and a conserved TGF-β domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the CnMSTN gene was clustered in the same subgroup with the MSTN gene found in Mollusca...
July 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701523/lifelong-exercise-but-not-short-term-high-intensity-interval-training-increases-gdf11-a-marker-of-successful-aging-a%C3%A2-preliminary-investigation
#4
Bradley T Elliott, Peter Herbert, Nicholas Sculthorpe, Fergal M Grace, Daniel Stratton, Lawrence D Hayes
Lifelong exercise is associated with regulation of skeletal mass and function, reductions in frailty, and successful aging. Yet, the influence of exercise on myostatin and myostatin-interacting factors is relatively under examined in older males. Therefore, we investigated whether serum total myostatin, free myostatin, follistatin, and growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) were altered following high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in a group of 13 lifelong sedentary (SED; 64 [6] years) and 11 lifelong exercising (LEX; 62 [6] years) older males...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691106/recombinant-myostatin-reduces-highly-expressed-micrornas-in-differentiating-c2c12-cells
#5
Zachary A Graham, Rita De Gasperi, William A Bauman, Christopher P Cardozo
Myostatin is small glycopeptide that is produced and secreted by skeletal muscle. It is a potent negative regulator of muscle growth that has been associated with conditions of frailty. In C2C12 cells, myostatin limits cell differentiation. Myostatin acts through activin receptor IIB, activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) and Smad transcription factors. microRNAs (miRNA) are short, 22 base pair nucleotides that bind to the 3' UTR of target mRNA to repress translation or reduce mRNA stability. In the present study, expression in differentiating C2C12 cells of the myomiRs miR-1 and 133a were down-regulated following treatment with 1 μg of recombinant myostatin at 1 d post-induction of differentiation while all myomiRs (miR-1, 133a/b and 206) were upregulated by SB431542, a potent ALK4/5/7 inhibitor which reduces Smad2 signaling, at 1 d and all, with the exception of miR-206, were upregulated by SB431542 at 3 d...
March 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690022/absence-of-myostatin-improves-cardiac-function-following-myocardial-infarction
#6
Sarina Lim, Chris D McMahon, Kenneth G Matthews, Gerard P Devlin, Marianne S Elston, John V Conaglen
BACKGROUND: Myostatin inhibits the development of skeletal muscle and regulates the proliferation of skeletal muscle fibroblasts. However, the role of myostatin in regulating cardiac muscle or myofibroblasts, specifically in acute myocardial infarction (MI), is less clear. This study sought to determine whether absence of myostatin altered left ventricular function post-MI. METHODS: Myostatin-null mice (Mstn(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice underwent ligation of the left anterior descending artery to induce MI...
June 15, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676454/myostatin-deficiency-is-associated-with-lipidomic-abnormalities-in-skeletal-muscles
#7
Narjes Baati, Christine Feillet-Coudray, Gilles Fouret, Barbara Vernus, Bénédicte Goustard, Charles Coudray, Jérome Lecomte, Véronique Blanquet, Laetitia Magnol, Anne Bonnieu, Christelle Koechlin-Ramonatxo
Myostatin (Mstn) deficiency leads to skeletal muscle overgrowth and Mstn inhibition is considered as a promising treatment for muscle-wasting disorders. Mstn gene deletion in mice also causes metabolic changes with decreased mitochondria content, disturbance in mitochondrial respiratory function and increased muscle fatigability. However the impact of MSTN deficiency on these metabolic changes is not fully elucidated. Here, we hypothesized that lack of MSTN will alter skeletal muscle membrane lipid composition in relation with pronounced alterations in muscle function and metabolism...
July 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666853/recombinant-bovine-growth-hormone-rbgh-enhances-somatic-growth-by-regulating-the-gh-igf-axis-in-fingerlings-of-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata
#8
Emilio J Vélez, Miquel Perelló, Sheida Azizi, Alberto Moya, Esmail Lutfi, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez, Josep A Calduch-Giner, Isabel Navarro, Josefina Blasco, Jaume Fernández-Borràs, Encarnación Capilla, Joaquim Gutiérrez
The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) endocrine axis is the main growth-regulator system in vertebrates. Some authors have demonstrated the positive effects on growth of a sustained-release formulation of a recombinant bovine GH (rBGH) in different fish species. The aim of this work was to characterize the effects of a single injection of rBGH in fingerlings of gilthead sea bream on growth, GH-IGF axis, and both myogenic and osteogenic processes. Thus, body weight and specific growth rate were significantly increased in rBGH-treated fish respect to control fish at 6weeks post-injection, whereas the hepatosomatic index was decreased and the condition factor and mesenteric fat index were unchanged, altogether indicating enhanced somatic growth...
June 27, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647906/exogenous-gdf11-induces-cardiac-and-skeletal-muscle-dysfunction-and-wasting
#9
Teresa A Zimmers, Yanling Jiang, Meijing Wang, Tiffany W Liang, Joseph E Rupert, Ernie D Au, Francesco E Marino, Marion E Couch, Leonidas G Koniaris
Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), a TGF-beta superfamily member, is highly homologous to myostatin and essential for embryonic patterning and organogenesis. Reports of GDF11 effects on adult tissues are conflicting, with some describing anti-aging and pro-regenerative activities on the heart and skeletal muscle while others opposite or no effects. Herein, we sought to determine the in vivo cardiac and skeletal muscle effects of excess GDF11. Mice were injected with GDF11 secreting cells, an identical model to that used to initially identify the in vivo effects of myostatin...
July 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643356/bimagrumab-improves-body-composition-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-insulin-resistant-subjects
#10
Tania Garito, Ronenn Roubenoff, Marcus Hompesch, Linda Morrow, Katherine Gomez, Daniel Rooks, Charles Meyers, Monte Buchsbaum, Srikanth Neelakantham, Therese Swan, Lee Anne Filosa, Didier Laurent, Olivier Petricoul, Marjorie Zakaria
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is a key mediator of insulin resistance. Bimagrumab, an antibody against activin receptor type II (ActRII), prevents binding of negative muscle regulators, like myostatin, and increases lean mass and decreases fat mass in animal models. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that an improving body composition in insulin resistant individuals could enhance insulin sensitivity. METHODS: Sixteen individuals with mean body mass index (BMI) = 29...
June 23, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638997/follistatin-treatment-suppresses-serca1b-levels-independently-of-other-players-of-calcium-homeostasis-in-c2c12-myotubes
#11
János Fodor, Adrienn Gomba-Tóth, Tamás Oláh, János Almássy, Ernő Zádor, László Csernoch
Follistatin (FS) is a high affinity activin-binding protein, neutralizing the effects of the Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily members, as myostatin (MSTN). Since MSTN emerged as a negative regulator, FS has been considered as a stimulator of skeletal muscle growth and differentiation. Here, we studied the effect of FS administration on the Ca(2+)-homeostasis of differentiating C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. FS-treatment increased the fusion index, the size of terminally differentiated myotubes, and transiently elevated the expression of the calcium-dependent protein phosphatase, calcineurin, at the beginning of differentiation...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638346/micrornas-in-muscle-characterizing-the-powerlifter-phenotype
#12
Randall F D'Souza, Thomas Bjørnsen, Nina Zeng, Kirsten M M Aasen, Truls Raastad, David Cameron-Smith, Cameron J Mitchell
Powerlifters are the epitome of muscular adaptation and are able to generate extreme forces. The molecular mechanisms underpinning the significant capacity for force generation and hypertrophy are not fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRs) are short non-coding RNA sequences that control gene expression via promotion of transcript breakdown and/or translational inhibition. Differences in basal miR expression may partially account for phenotypic differences in muscle mass and function between powerlifters and untrained age-matched controls...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634643/acute-high-caffeine-exposure-increases-autophagic-flux-and-reduces-protein-synthesis-in-c2c12-skeletal-myotubes
#13
M A Hughes, R M Downs, G W Webb, C L Crocker, S T Kinsey, Bradley L Baumgarner
Caffeine is a highly catabolic dietary stimulant. High caffeine concentrations (1-10 mM) have previously been shown to inhibit protein synthesis and increase protein degradation in various mammalian cell lines. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of short-term caffeine exposure on cell signaling pathways that regulate protein metabolism in mammalian skeletal muscle cells. Fully differentiated C2C12 skeletal myotubes either received vehicle (DMSO) or 5 mM caffeine for 6 h. Our analysis revealed that caffeine promoted a 40% increase in autolysosome formation and a 25% increase in autophagic flux...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627746/hepatic-perivascular-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-myogenic-properties
#14
Sudheer Shenoy P, Bipasha Bose
Pericytes are multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) located on the walls of blood vessels in various organs and are characterized as CD146(+) cells.. In this study, we have first immunohistochemically detected such pericytes in the perivascular regions of liver from two mouse genotypes namely wild-type (WT) and myostatin null (Mstn(-/-) ). We further isolated such pericytes using sorting as CD146(+) CD34(-) CD56(-) CD45(-) cells. The main finding of this study involve the contrasting -fibrogenic versus myogenic behavior of liver pericytes from WTMstn(-/-) ) mouse respectively...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627027/elevated-serum-myostatin-level-is-associated-with-worse-survival-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#15
Hiroki Nishikawa, Hirayuki Enomoto, Akio Ishii, Yoshinori Iwata, Yuho Miyamoto, Noriko Ishii, Yukihisa Yuri, Kunihiro Hasegawa, Chikage Nakano, Takashi Nishimura, Kazunori Yoh, Nobuhiro Aizawa, Yoshiyuki Sakai, Naoto Ikeda, Tomoyuki Takashima, Ryo Takata, Hiroko Iijima, Shuhei Nishiguchi
BACKGROUND: We aimed to elucidate the relationship between serum myostatin levels and other markers including skeletal muscle mass and to investigate the influence of serum myostatin levels on survival for patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). METHODS: A total of 198 LC subjects were analysed in this study. Myostatin levels were measured using stored sera. We retrospectively investigated the relationship between myostatin level and other markers, and the influence of myostatin level on overall survival (OS)...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622884/the-effect-of-caloric-restriction-on-the-forelimb-skeletal-muscle-fibers-of-the-hypertrophic-myostatin-null-mice
#16
Mohamed I Elashry, Antonios Matsakas, Sabine Wenisch, Stefan Arnhold, Ketan Patel
Skeletal muscle mass loss has a broad impact on body performance and physical activity. Muscle wasting occurs due to genetic mutation as in muscular dystrophy, age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia) as well as in chronic wasting disorders as in cancer cachexia. Food restriction reduces muscle mass underpinned by increased muscle protein break down. However the influence of dietary restriction on the morphometry and phenotype of forelimb muscles in a genetically modified myostatin null mice are not fully characterized...
June 13, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608457/potential-therapeutic-interventions-for-chronic-kidney-disease-associated-sarcopenia-via-indoxyl-sulfate-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#17
Yuki Enoki, Hiroshi Watanabe, Riho Arake, Rui Fujimura, Kana Ishiodori, Tadashi Imafuku, Kento Nishida, Ryusei Sugimoto, Saori Nagao, Shigeyuki Miyamura, Yu Ishima, Motoko Tanaka, Kazutaka Matsushita, Hirotaka Komaba, Masafumi Fukagawa, Masaki Otagiri, Toru Maruyama
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients experience skeletal muscle wasting and decreased exercise endurance. Our previous study demonstrated that indoxyl sulfate (IS), a uremic toxin, accelerates skeletal muscle atrophy. The purpose of this study was to examine the issue of whether IS causes mitochondria dysfunction and IS-targeted intervention using AST-120, which inhibits IS accumulation, or mitochondria-targeted intervention using L-carnitine or teneligliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor which retains mitochondria function and alleviates skeletal muscle atrophy and muscle endurance in chronic kidney disease mice...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607086/specific-targeting-of-tgf-%C3%AE-family-ligands-demonstrates-distinct-roles-in-the-regulation-of-muscle-mass-in-health-and-disease
#18
Justin L Chen, Kelly L Walton, Adam Hagg, Timothy D Colgan, Katharine Johnson, Hongwei Qian, Paul Gregorevic, Craig A Harrison
The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) network of ligands and intracellular signaling proteins is a subject of intense interest within the field of skeletal muscle biology. To define the relative contribution of endogenous TGF-β proteins to the negative regulation of muscle mass via their activation of the Smad2/3 signaling axis, we used local injection of adeno-associated viral vectors (AAVs) encoding ligand-specific antagonists into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of C57BL/6 mice. Eight weeks after AAV injection, inhibition of activin A and activin B signaling produced moderate (∼20%), but significant, increases in TA mass, indicating that endogenous activins repress muscle growth...
June 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606408/-common-therapeutic-approaches-of-sarcopenia-in-the-elderly-and-uremic-myopathy
#19
Philippe Chauveau, Karine Moreau, Catherine Lasseur, Christian Combe, Michel Aparicio
The gradual loss of weight and function of muscle in patients with chronic kidney disease as in the elderly impacts the quality of life. Early management should help slow the functional limitation. Physical activity is the first therapy to propose that ensures stability of muscle mass and improved function. Resistance training programs have proven effective but are not yet widely available in nephrology units. The nutritional management should not be forgotten because there is a resistance to anabolism and protein intake should be involved in physical activity program...
June 9, 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599707/a-multiplexed-immunocapture-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-assay-for-the-simultaneous-measurement-of-myostatin-and-gdf-11-in-rat-serum-using-an-automated-sample-preparation-platform
#20
Yue Zhao, Guowen Liu, Frank C Zambito, Yan J Zhang, Binodh S DeSilva, Alexander T Kozhich, Jim X Shen
Myostatin, also known as growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF-8), is a protein acting as a negative regulator in skeletal muscle growth. Inhibition of myostatin by therapeutic agents provides opportunities for current unmet medical needs. In order to better understand drug engagement to aid the drug development, we have developed a hybrid LC-MS/MS method which can differentially measure myostatin and another protein from the same GDF family, GDF-11. Although the two proteins share high homology, the LC-MS/MS assay provided the specificity based on monitoring of unique surrogate peptide generated from enzymatic digestion...
August 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
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