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Mucosal immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910694/an-epidemiologic-perspective-on-the-stem-cell-hypothesis-in-human-carcinogenesis
#1
REVIEW
David Schottenfeld
BACKGROUND: Tomasetti and Vogelstein have hypothesized that the patterns of cancer incidence in various cells and tissues are highly correlated with the estimated lifetime number of stem cell divisions. The authors reviewed the risks in tissues of 17 types of cancer from the United States and 69 additional countries. Positive correlations were observed consistently between the tissue - specific cancer incidence and the estimated lifetime number of stem cell divisions. The authors concluded that approximately two-thirds of global cancer incidence may be attributed to random DNA replication errors...
September 11, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894447/the-microbial-metabolite-butyrate-induces-expression-of-th1-associated-factors-in-cd4-t-cells
#2
Meike Kespohl, Niyati Vachharajani, Maik Luu, Hani Harb, Sabine Pautz, Svenja Wolff, Nina Sillner, Alesia Walker, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Thomas Boettger, Harald Renz, Stefan Offermanns, Ulrich Steinhoff, Alexander Visekruna
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are generated by the bacterial fermentation of dietary fibers, promote expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Potential therapeutic value of SCFAs has been recently highlighted in the experimental models of T cell-mediated autoimmunity and allergic inflammation. These studies suggest that physiological intestinal concentrations of SCFAs within the millimolar range are crucial for dampening inflammation-mediated processes. Here, we describe opposing effects of SCFAs on T cell-mediated immune responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891558/mucosal-immunology-probiotic-induction-of-tolerogenic-t-cells-in-the-gut
#3
Katharine H Wrighton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889999/humoral-immune-responses-during-asthma-and-influenza-co-morbidity-in-mice
#4
Laura A Doorley, Kim S LeMessurier, Amy R Iverson, Maneesha Palipane, Amali E Samarasinghe
Humoral immunity serve dual functions of direct pathogen neutralization and enhancement of leukocyte function. Antibody classes are determined by antigen triggers, and the resulting antibodies can contribute to disease pathogenesis and host defense. Although asthma and influenza are immunologically distinct diseases, since we have found that allergic asthma exacerbation promotes antiviral host responses to influenza A virus, we hypothesized that humoral immunity may contribute to allergic host protection during influenza...
September 7, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882795/effects-of-cordyceps-militaris-spent-mushroom-substrate-and-lactobacillus-plantarum-on-mucosal-serum-immunology-and-growth-performance-of-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#5
Hien Van Doan, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Mahmoud A O Dawood, Chanagun Chitmanat, Khambou Tayyamath
An 8-weeks feeding trial was performed to investigate the possible effects of supplementation of Nile tilapia diet with Cordyceps militaris spent mushroom substrate (SMS) single or combined with Lactobacillus plantarum on immune parameters and growth performance. For this aim, Nile tilapia fingerlings were fed with four experimental diets namely: Diet 1 (0 - control), Diet 2 (10 g kg(-1) SMS), Diet 3 (10(8) CFU g(-1)L. plantarum), and Diet 4 (10 g kg(-1) SMS + 10(8) CFU g(-1)L. plantarum). At the end of feeding trial, skin mucus parameters, serum immune parameters, and growth performance were measured...
September 4, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879644/adenosine-reduces-reactive-oxygen-species-and-interleukin-8-production-by-trichomonas-vaginalis-stimulated-neutrophils
#6
Amanda Piccoli Frasson, Camila Braz Menezes, Gustavo Krumel Goelzer, Simone Cristina Baggio Gnoatto, Solange Cristina Garcia, Tiana Tasca
Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan that affects the human urogenital tract causing 276.4 million new infections a year. The parasite elicits a vaginal mucosal infiltration of immune cells, especially neutrophils which are considered to be primarily responsible for cytological change observed at the infection site as well as the major contributor in the inflammatory response against the parasite. Extracellular nucleotides and their nucleosides are signaling compounds involved in several biological processes, including inflammation and immune responses...
September 6, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878772/lactobacillus-plantarum-strains-can-enhance-human-mucosal-and-systemic-immunity-and-prevent-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-induced-reduction-in-t-regulatory-cells
#7
Paul de Vos, Zlatan Mujagic, Bart J de Haan, Roland J Siezen, Peter A Bron, Marjolein Meijerink, Jerry M Wells, Ad A M Masclee, Mark V Boekschoten, Marijke M Faas, Freddy J Troost
Orally ingested bacteria interact with intestinal mucosa and may impact immunity. However, insights in mechanisms involved are limited. In this randomized placebo-controlled cross-over trial, healthy human subjects were given Lactobacillus plantarum supplementation (strain TIFN101, CIP104448, or WCFS1) or placebo for 7 days. To determine whether L. plantarum can enhance immune response, we compared the effects of three stains on systemic and gut mucosal immunity, by among others assessing memory responses against tetanus toxoid (TT)-antigen, and mucosal gene transcription, in human volunteers during induction of mild immune stressor in the intestine, by giving a commonly used enteropathic drug, indomethacin [non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)]...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867783/the-mouse-papillomavirus-infection-model
#8
REVIEW
Jiafen Hu, Nancy M Cladel, Lynn R Budgeon, Karla K Balogh, Neil D Christensen
The mouse papillomavirus (MmuPV1) was first reported in 2011 and has since become a powerful research tool. Through collective efforts from different groups, significant progress has been made in the understanding of molecular, virological, and immunological mechanisms of MmuPV1 infections in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. This mouse papillomavirus provides, for the first time, the opportunity to study papillomavirus infections in the context of a small common laboratory animal for which abundant reagents are available and for which many strains exist...
August 30, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859268/development-and-trial-of-vaccines-against-brucella
#9
REVIEW
Jonathan Lalsiamthara, John Hwa Lee
The search for ideal brucellosis vaccines remains active today. Currently, no licensed human or canine anti-brucellosis vaccines are available. In bovines, the most successful vaccine (S19) is only used in calves, as adult vaccination results in orchitis in male, prolonged infection, and possible abortion complications in pregnant female cattle. Another widely deployed vaccine (RB51) has a low protective efficacy. An ideal vaccine should exhibit a safe profile as well as enhance protective efficacy. However, currently available vaccines exhibit one or more major drawbacks...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853442/po-and-id-bcg-vaccination-in-humans-induce-distinct-mucosal-and-systemic-immune-responses-and-cd4-t-cell-transcriptomal-molecular-signatures
#10
D F Hoft, M Xia, G L Zhang, A Blazevic, J Tennant, C Kaplan, G Matuschak, T J Dube, H Hill, L S Schlesinger, P L Andersen, V Brusic
Protective efficacy of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) may be affected by the methods and routes of vaccine administration. We have studied the safety and immunogenicity of oral (PO) and/or intradermal (ID) administration of BCG in healthy human subjects. No major safety concerns were detected in the 68 healthy adults vaccinated with PO and/or ID BCG. Although both PO and ID BCG could induce systemic Th1 responses capable of IFN-γ production, ID BCG more strongly induced systemic Th1 responses. In contrast, stronger mucosal responses (TB-specific secretory IgA and bronchoalveolar lavage T cells) were induced by PO BCG vaccination...
August 30, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853441/enteroendocrine-cells-sensory-sentinels-of-the-intestinal-environment-and-orchestrators-of-mucosal-immunity
#11
REVIEW
J J Worthington, F Reimann, F M Gribble
The intestinal epithelium must balance efficient absorption of nutrients with partitioning commensals and pathogens from the bodies' largest immune system. If this crucial barrier fails, inappropriate immune responses can result in inflammatory bowel disease or chronic infection. Enteroendocrine cells represent 1% of this epithelium and have classically been studied for their detection of nutrients and release of peptide hormones to mediate digestion. Intriguingly, enteroendocrine cells are the key sensors of microbial metabolites, can release cytokines in response to pathogen associated molecules and peptide hormone receptors are expressed on numerous intestinal immune cells; thus enteroendocrine cells are uniquely equipped to be crucial and novel orchestrators of intestinal inflammation...
August 30, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832609/distinct-aging-profiles-of-cd8-t-cells-in-blood-versus-gastrointestinal-mucosal-compartments
#12
Jeffrey Dock, Christina M Ramirez, Lance Hultin, Mary Ann Hausner, Patricia Hultin, Julie Elliott, Otto O Yang, Peter A Anton, Beth D Jamieson, Rita B Effros
A hallmark of human immunosenescence is the accumulation of late-differentiated memory CD8+ T cells with features of replicative senescence, such as inability to proliferate, absence of CD28 expression, shortened telomeres, loss of telomerase activity, enhanced activation, and increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Importantly, oligoclonal expansions of these cells are associated with increased morbidity and mortality risk in elderly humans. Currently, most information on the adaptive immune system is derived from studies using peripheral blood, which contains approximately only 2% of total body lymphocytes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832027/protein-kinase-c-delta-pkc%C3%AE-a-marker-of-inflammation-and-tuberculosis-disease-progression-in-humans-is-important-for-optimal-macrophage-killing-effector-functions-and-survival-in-mice
#13
S P Parihar, M Ozturk, M J Marakalala, D T Loots, R Hurdayal, D Beukes, M Van Reenen, D E Zak, S K Mbandi, F Darboe, A Penn-Nicholson, W A Hanekom, M Leitges, T J Scriba, R Guler, F Brombacher
We previously demonstrated that protein kinase C-δ (PKCδ) is critical for immunity against Listeria monocytogenes, Leishmania major, and Candida albicans infection in mice. However, the functional relevance of PKCδ during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is unknown. PKCδ was significantly upregulated in whole blood of patients with active tuberculosis (TB) disease. Lung proteomics further revealed that PKCδ was highly abundant in the necrotic and cavitory regions of TB granulomas in multidrug-resistant human participants...
August 23, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832026/tgf-%C3%AE-1-alters-esophageal-epithelial-barrier-function-by-attenuation-of-claudin-7-in-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#14
N Nguyen, S D Fernando, K A Biette, J A Hammer, K E Capocelli, D A Kitzenberg, L E Glover, S P Colgan, G T Furuta, J C Masterson
Barrier dysfunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), a potent pleiotropic molecule, is increased in EoE; however, no study has evaluated its influence on esophageal epithelial barrier. We hypothesized that TGF-β1 regulates barrier dysfunction in EoE. We aimed to determine the role of TGF-β1 in the epithelial barrier in models of EoE. To examine the impact of TGF-β1 on esophageal barrier, immortalized human esophageal epithelial (EPC2-hTERT) cells were exposed to TGF-β1 during the three-dimensional air-liquid interface (3D-ALI) model in vitro...
August 23, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826742/a-comprehensive-review-and-update-on-crohn-s-disease
#15
Mahesh Gajendran, Priyadarshini Loganathan, Anthony P Catinella, Jana G Hashash
The term inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refers principally to two major categories of chronic relapsing inflammatory intestinal disorders: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). In the United States, it is currently estimated that about 1.5 million people suffer from IBD, causing considerable suffering, mortality and economic loss every year. Yet the cause of IBD is unknown, and until we understand more, prevention or cure will not be possible. There is a lot of variation in the incidence and prevalence of CD based on geographic region, environment, immigrant population, and ethnic groups...
August 18, 2017: Disease-a-month: DM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825942/inflammatory-colonic-innate-lymphoid-cells-are-increased-during-untreated-hiv-1-infection-and-associated-with-markers-of-gut-dysbiosis-and-mucosal-immune-activation
#16
Stephanie M Dillon, Moriah J Castleman, Daniel N Frank, Gregory L Austin, Sara Gianella, Andrew C Cogswell, Alan L Landay, Edward Barker, Cara C Wilson
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection is associated with intestinal inflammation, changes in the enteric microbiota (dysbiosis) and intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) damage. NKp44 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play an important role in epithelial barrier maintenance via the production of IL-22, but also display functional plasticity and can produce inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IFNg) in response to cytokine milieu and stimulatory signals. The objective of this pilot study was to enumerate frequencies of IL-22 and IFNg-expressing colonic NKp44 ILCs during untreated, chronic HIV-1 infection...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823115/identification-of-distinctive-clinical-significance-in-hospitalized-patients-with-endoscopic-duodenal-mucosal-lesions
#17
Yeji Han, Hye-Kyung Jung, Ji Young Chang, Chang Mo Moon, Seong-Eun Kim, Ki-Nam Shim, Sung-Ae Jung, Joo-Young Kim, Ji-Yun Bae, Sae-In Kim, Ji-Hyun Lee, Sanghui Park
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Duodenitis is not infrequent finding in patient undergoing endoscopy. However, hospitalized patients have a higher incidence of secondary duodenal mucosal lesions that might be related with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, tuberculosis, immunologic disorders, or other rare infections. We aimed to identify clinicopathologic features of duodenal mucosal lesions in hospitalized patients. METHODS: All hospitalized patients having duodenal mucosal lesions were identified by endoscopic registration data and pathologic data query from 2011 to 2014...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822643/genetic-background-impacts-vaccine-induced-reduction-of-pneumococcal-colonization
#18
Kirsten Kuipers, Saskia van Selm, Fred van Opzeeland, Jeroen D Langereis, Lilly M Verhagen, Dimitri A Diavatopoulos, Marien I de Jonge
Vaccination has been one of the most successful strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality caused by respiratory infections. Recent evidence suggests that differences in the host genetic background and environmental factors may contribute to heterogeneity in the immune response to vaccination. During pre-clinical testing, vaccines are often evaluated in a single mouse inbred strain, which may not translate well to the heterogeneous human population. Here, we examined the influence of host genetic background on vaccine-induced protection against pneumococcal colonization in two commonly used inbred mouse strains, i...
August 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812548/bacteroidales-recruit-il-6-producing-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-in-the-colon-to-promote-barrier-integrity
#19
K A Kuhn, H M Schulz, E H Regner, E L Severs, J D Hendrickson, G Mehta, A K Whitney, D Ir, N Ohri, C E Robertson, D N Frank, E L Campbell, S P Colgan
Interactions between the microbiota and distal gut are important for the maintenance of a healthy intestinal barrier; dysbiosis of intestinal microbial communities has emerged as a likely contributor to diseases that arise at the level of the mucosa. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are positioned within the epithelial barrier, and in the small intestine they function to maintain epithelial homeostasis. We hypothesized that colon IELs promote epithelial barrier function through the expression of cytokines in response to interactions with commensal bacteria...
August 16, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812547/lung-epithelial-cells-therapeutically-inducible-effectors-of-antimicrobial-defense
#20
REVIEW
M M Leiva-Juárez, J K Kolls, S E Evans
Lung epithelial cells are increasingly recognized to be active effectors of microbial defense, contributing to both innate and adaptive immune function in the lower respiratory tract. As immune sentinels, lung epithelial cells detect diverse pathogens through an ample repertoire of membrane-bound, endosomal, and cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). The highly plastic epithelial barrier responds to detected threats via modulation of paracellular flux, intercellular communications, mucin production, and periciliary fluid composition...
August 16, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
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