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Mucosal immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812548/bacteroidales-recruit-il-6-producing-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-in-the-colon-to-promote-barrier-integrity
#1
K A Kuhn, H M Schulz, E H Regner, E L Severs, J D Hendrickson, G Mehta, A K Whitney, D Ir, N Ohri, C E Robertson, D N Frank, E L Campbell, S P Colgan
Interactions between the microbiota and distal gut are important for the maintenance of a healthy intestinal barrier; dysbiosis of intestinal microbial communities has emerged as a likely contributor to diseases that arise at the level of the mucosa. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are positioned within the epithelial barrier, and in the small intestine they function to maintain epithelial homeostasis. We hypothesized that colon IELs promote epithelial barrier function through the expression of cytokines in response to interactions with commensal bacteria...
August 16, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812547/lung-epithelial-cells-therapeutically-inducible-effectors-of-antimicrobial-defense
#2
REVIEW
M M Leiva-Juárez, J K Kolls, S E Evans
Lung epithelial cells are increasingly recognized to be active effectors of microbial defense, contributing to both innate and adaptive immune function in the lower respiratory tract. As immune sentinels, lung epithelial cells detect diverse pathogens through an ample repertoire of membrane-bound, endosomal, and cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). The highly plastic epithelial barrier responds to detected threats via modulation of paracellular flux, intercellular communications, mucin production, and periciliary fluid composition...
August 16, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811631/development-of-a-primary-human-co-culture-model-of-inflamed-airway-mucosa
#3
Lael M Yonker, Hongmei Mou, Kengyeh K Chu, Michael A Pazos, Huimin Leung, Dongyao Cui, Jinhyeob Ryu, Rhianna M Hibbler, Alexander D Eaton, Tim N Ford, J R Falck, T Bernard Kinane, Guillermo J Tearney, Jayaraj Rajagopal, Bryan P Hurley
Neutrophil breach of the mucosal surface is a common pathological consequence of infection. We present an advanced co-culture model to explore neutrophil transepithelial migration utilizing airway mucosal barriers differentiated from primary human airway basal cells and examined by advanced imaging. Human airway basal cells were differentiated and cultured at air-liquid interface (ALI) on the underside of 3 µm pore-sized transwells, compatible with the study of transmigrating neutrophils. Inverted ALIs exhibit beating cilia and mucus production, consistent with conventional ALIs, as visualized by micro-optical coherence tomography (µOCT)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798335/cd71-erythroid-suppressor-cells-impair-adaptive-immunity-against-bordetella-pertussis
#4
Afshin Namdar, Petya Koleva, Shima Shahbaz, Stacy Strom, Volker Gerdts, Shokrollah Elahi
Infant's immune system cannot control infection or respond to vaccination as efficiently as older individuals, a phenomenon that has been attributed to immunological immaturity. Recently, we challenged this notion and proposed the presence of actively immunosuppressive and physiologically enriched CD71(+) erythroid cells in neonates. Here we utilized Bordetella pertussis, a common neonatal respiratory tract pathogen, as a proof of concept to investigate the role of these cells in adaptive immunity. We observed that CD71(+) cells have distinctive immunosuppressive properties and prevent recruitment of immune cells to the mucosal site of infection...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792376/construction-of-an-inactivated-typhoid-vaccine-candidate-expressing-escherichia-coli-heat-labile-enterotoxin-b-subunit-and-evaluation-of-its-immunogenicity-in-a-murine-model
#5
Boram Kim, Gayeon Won, John Hwa Lee
PURPOSE: Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi has contributed to the global public health burden, particularly in developing countries. In this study, an S. Typhi ghost was developed and its capacity as a vaccine candidate against typhoid fever was assessed. METHODOLOGY: An asd+ plasmid pJHL187 harbouring a ghost cassette comprising the PhiX 174 Elysis gene tightly controlled under the convergent promotor system was transformed into an asd gene-deleted mutant S...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792004/adjuvant-selection-regulates-gut-migration-and-phenotypic-diversity-of-antigen-specific-cd4-t-cells-following-parenteral-immunization
#6
D R Frederick, J A Goggins, L M Sabbagh, L C Freytag, J D Clements, J B McLachlan
Infectious diarrheal diseases are the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years, making vaccines against these diseases a high priority. It is known that certain vaccine adjuvants, chiefly bacterial ADP-ribosylating enterotoxins, can induce mucosal antibodies when delivered parenterally. Based on this, we reasoned vaccine-specific mucosal cellular immunity could be induced via parenteral immunization with these adjuvants. Here, we show that, in contrast to the Toll-like receptor-9 agonist CpG, intradermal immunization with non-toxic double-mutant heat-labile toxin (dmLT) from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli drove endogenous, antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells to expand and upregulate the gut-homing integrin α4β7...
August 9, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792003/vaccine-modified-nf-kb-and-gr-signaling-in-cervicovaginal-epithelium-correlates-with-protection
#7
L Shang, A J Smith, C S Reilly, L Duan, K E Perkey, S Wietgrefe, M Zupancic, P J Southern, R P Johnson, J V Carlis, A T Haase
Cervicovaginal epithelium plays a critical role in determining the outcome of virus transmission in the female reproductive tract (FRT) by initiating or suppressing transmission-facilitating mucosal immune responses in naïve and SIVmac239Δnef-vaccinated animals, respectively. In this study, we examined the very early responses of cervical epithelium within 24 h after vaginal exposure to SIV in naive and SIVmac239Δnef-vaccinated rhesus macaques. Using both ex vivo and in vivo experimental systems, we found that vaginal exposure to SIV rapidly induces a broad spectrum of pro-inflammatory responses in the epithelium associated with a reciprocal regulation of NF-kB and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling pathways...
August 9, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766556/antigen-specific-regulatory-t-cell-responses-to-intestinal-microbiota
#8
REVIEW
E V Russler-Germain, S Rengarajan, C-S Hsieh
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract can harbor both beneficial commensal bacteria important for host health, but also pathogenic bacteria capable of intestinal damage. It is therefore important that the host immune system mount the appropriate immune response to these divergent groups of bacteria-promoting tolerance in response to commensal bacteria and sterilizing immunity in response to pathogenic bacteria. Failure to induce tolerance to commensal bacteria may underlie immune-mediated diseases such as human inflammatory bowel disease...
August 2, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766555/the-tlr9-agonist-mgn1703-triggers-a-potent-type-i-interferon-response-in-the-sigmoid-colon
#9
A R Krarup, M Abdel-Mohsen, M H Schleimann, L Vibholm, P A Engen, A Dige, B Wittig, M Schmidt, S J Green, A Naqib, A Keshavarzian, X Deng, R Olesen, A M Petersen, T Benfield, L Østergaard, T A Rasmussen, J Agnholt, J R Nyengaard, A Landay, O S Søgaard, S K Pillai, M Tolstrup, P W Denton
Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonists are being developed for treatment of colorectal and other cancers, yet the impact of these drugs on human intestines remains unknown. This, together with the fact that there are additional potential indications for TLR9 agonist therapy (e.g., autoimmune and infectious diseases), led us to investigate the impact of MGN1703 (Lefitolimod) on intestinal homeostasis and viral persistence in HIV-positive individuals. Colonic sigmoid biopsies were collected (baseline and week four) from 11 HIV+ individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy, who received MGN1703 (60 mg s...
August 2, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766554/campylobacter-jejuni-impairs-sodium-transport-and-epithelial-barrier-function-via-cytokine-release-in-human-colon
#10
R Bücker, S M Krug, V Moos, C Bojarski, M R Schweiger, M Kerick, A Fromm, S Janßen, M Fromm, N A Hering, B Siegmund, T Schneider, C Barmeyer, J D Schulzke
Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent cause of foodborne bacterial enteritis worldwide. Patients present with diarrhea and immune responses lead to complications like arthritis and irritable bowel syndrome. Although studies exist in animal and cell models, we aimed at a functional and structural characterization of intestinal dysfunction and the involved regulatory mechanisms in human colon. First, in patients' colonic biopsies, sodium malabsorption was identified as an important diarrheal mechanism resulting from hampered epithelial ion transport via impaired epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) β- and γ-subunit...
August 2, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766553/regulatory-t-cells-with-superior-immunosuppressive-capacity-emigrate-from-the-inflamed-colon-to-draining-lymph-nodes
#11
Y Nakanishi, R Ikebuchi, T Chtanova, Y Kusumoto, H Okuyama, T Moriya, T Honda, K Kabashima, T Watanabe, Y Sakai, M Tomura
Foxp3(+) Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in the maintenance of colon homeostasis. Here we utilized photoconvertible KikGR mice to track immune cells from the caecum and ascending (proximal) colon in the steady state and DSS-induced colitis. We found that Tregs from the proximal colon (colonic migratory Tregs) migrated exclusively to the distal part of mesenteric lymph nodes (dMLN) in an S1PR1-dependent process. In the steady state, colonic migratory CD25(+) Tregs expressed higher levels of CD103, ICOS, LAG3 and CTLA-4 in comparison with pre-existing LN Tregs...
August 2, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761472/pathogenic-acanthamoeba-t4-genotype-isolated-from-mucosal-tissue-of-a-patient-with-hiv-infection-a-case-report
#12
Fatemeh Memari, Maryam Niyyati, Zeynab Joneidi
Opportunistic infections due to free-living amoebae such as Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis (GAE), cutaneous acanthamoebiasis and disseminated infections could be the causative agent of mortality in people living with HIV/AIDS. In this study, we report the occurrence of the Acanthamoeba belonging to the T4 genotype isolated from nasal and oral swabs of a 15-yr-old man with HIV infection. HIV was confirmed using ELISA kit and RT-PCR assay. The isolated strain showed pathogenic potential using thermo and osmotolerance assays...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748328/potential-therapeutic-use-of-il-37-a-key-suppressor-of-innate-immunity-and-allergic-immune-responses-mediated-by-mast-cells
#13
REVIEW
Pio Conti, Francesco Carinci, Gianfranco Lessiani, Enrico Spinas, Spyridon K Kritas, Gianpaolo Ronconi, Alessandro Caraffa, Theoharis C Theoharides
The host response to either exogenous or endogenous insults produces a series of changes, characterized by alterations in immunological functions and generation of mediators called cytokines which include the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family members. IL-1 acts as a hormone mediating the host responses to infection and inflammation. Blocking inflammatory IL-1 family members can be effective against inflammatory disorders, including allergies. IL-37, (formerly IL-1 family member 7), emerges as an inhibitor of innate and adaptive immunity by reducing circulating and organ cytokine levels...
July 26, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745328/diacylglycerol-kinase-synthesized-by-commensal-lactobacillus-reuteri-diminishes-protein-kinase-c-phosphorylation-and-histamine-mediated-signaling-in-the-mammalian-intestinal-epithelium
#14
B P Ganesh, A Hall, S Ayyaswamy, J W Nelson, R Fultz, A Major, A Haag, M Esparza, M Lugo, S Venable, M Whary, J G Fox, J Versalovic
Lactobacillus reuteri 6475 (Lr) of the human microbiome synthesizes histamine and can suppress inflammation via type 2 histamine receptor (H2R) activation in the mammalian intestine. Gut microbes such as Lr promote H2R signaling and may suppress H1R proinflammatory signaling pathways in parallel by unknown mechanisms. In this study, we identified a soluble bacterial enzyme known as diacylglycerol kinase (Dgk) from Lr that is secreted into the extracellular milieu and presumably into the intestinal lumen. DgK diminishes diacylglycerol (DAG) quantities in mammalian cells by promoting its metabolic conversion and causing reduced protein kinase C phosphorylation (pPKC) as a net effect in mammalian cells...
July 26, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745327/seminal-vesicle-fluid-increases-the-efficacy-of-intravaginal-hsv-2-vaccination
#15
A Varese, F Remes Lenicov, M Gonzalez Prinz, A Paletta, G Ernst, C Maeto, A Merlotti, J Sabatte, S Símula, M P Holgado, E Dantas, J Geffner, A Ceballos
Once considered merely as a vehicle for spermatozoa, it is now clear that seminal plasma (SP) induces a variety of biological actions on the female reproductive tissues able to modulate the immune response against paternal antigens. To our knowledge, the influence of SP on the immune response against sexually transmitted pathogens has not been yet evaluated. We here analyzed whether the seminal vesicle fluid (SVF), which contributes almost 60% of the SP volume in mice, could modulate the immune response against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)...
July 26, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745326/defective-positioning-in-granulomas-but-not-lung-homing-limits-cd4-t-cell-interactions-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infected-macrophages-in-rhesus-macaques
#16
K D Kauffman, M A Sallin, S Sakai, O Kamenyeva, J Kabat, D Weiner, M Sutphin, D Schimel, L Via, C E Barry, T Wilder-Kofie, I Moore, R Moore, D L Barber
Protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection requires CD4 T cells to migrate into the lung and interact with infected macrophages. In mice, less-differentiated CXCR3(+) CD4 T cells migrate into the lung and suppress growth of Mtb, whereas CX3CR1(+) terminally differentiated Th1 cells accumulate in the blood vasculature and do not control pulmonary infection. Here we examine CD4 T-cell differentiation and lung homing during primary Mtb infection of rhesus macaques. Mtb-specific CD4 T cells simultaneously appeared in the airways and blood ∼21-28 days post exposure, indicating that recently primed effectors are quickly recruited into the lungs after entering circulation...
July 26, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745325/the-regulation-of-gut-mucosal-iga-b-cell-responses-recent-developments
#17
REVIEW
N Y Lycke, M Bemark
The majority of activated B cells differentiate into IgA plasma cells, with the gut being the largest producer of immunoglobulin in the body. Secretory IgA antibodies have numerous critical functions of which protection against infections and the role for establishing a healthy microbiota appear most important. Expanding our knowledge of the regulation of IgA B-cell responses and how effective mucosal vaccines can be designed are of critical importance. Here we discuss recent developments in the field that shed light on the uniqueness and complexity of mucosal IgA responses and the control of protective IgA responses in the gut, specifically...
July 26, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745324/a-committed-postselection-precursor-to-natural-tcr%C3%AE-%C3%AE-intraepithelial-lymphocytes
#18
Christoph S N Klose, Jonas F Hummel, Lena Faller, Yannick d'Hargues, Karolina Ebert, Yakup Tanriver
The intestine is a major immune organ with several specialized lymphoid structures and immune cells. Among these are thymus-derived natural intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) that lack expression of the classical co-receptors CD4 or CD8αβ (double negative (DN)). Natural IELs are both αβ(+) and γδ(+) T cells that play important roles in the maintenance of the epithelial barrier at steady state and during inflammation. The transcription factor T-bet is essential for the peripheral development of natural IELs, but its role during thymic development has remained less clear...
July 26, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744226/the-mucosal-immune-function-is-not-compromised-during-a-period-of-high-intensity-interval-training-is-it-time-to-reconsider-an-old-assumption
#19
Dennis-Peter Born, Christoph Zinner, Billy Sperlich
Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the mucosal immune function and circadian variation of salivary cortisol, Immunoglobin-A (sIgA) secretion rate and mood during a period of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) compared to long-slow distance training (LSD). Methods: Recreational male runners (n = 28) completed nine sessions of either HIIT or LSD within 3 weeks. The HIIT involved 4 × 4 min of running at 90-95% of maximum heart rate interspersed with 3 min of active recovery while the LSD comprised of continuous running at 70-75% of maximum heart rate for 60-80 min...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726085/micrornas-in-mucosal-inflammation
#20
REVIEW
Viola Neudecker, Xiaoyi Yuan, Jessica L Bowser, Holger K Eltzschig
Of the total human body's surface, the majority is internal surface, belonging to the lungs (100 m(2)) and intestinal tract (400 m(2)). In comparison, the external surface area, belonging to the skin, comprises less than 1% (2 m(2)). Continuous exposure of the mucosal surface to external factors (e.g., pathogens, food particles) requires tight regulation to maintain homeostasis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have gained noticeable attention as playing important roles in maintaining the steady-state of tissues by modulating immune functions and inflammatory responses...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
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