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Mucosal immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331021/onset-progression-and-resolution-of-experimental-peri-implant-mucositis-at-different-abutment-surfaces-a-randomized-controlled-two-center-study
#1
F Schwarz, J Becker, C Sara, D Hazar, T Iglhaut, G Iglhaut
OBJECTIVES: To assess the onset, progression and resolution of experimentally induced peri-implant mucositis lesions at abutments with different microstructures in humans. MATERIAL & METHODS: In a randomized, controlled, interventional two-center study, a total of 28 patients had received 28 target implants and were randomly allocated to either partially microgrooved- (test) or machined (control) healing abutments. The study was accomplished in 3 phases, including a wound healing period (WH) following implant placement (12 weeks), a plaque exposure phase (EP - 21 days) and a resolution phase (RP - 16 weeks)...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322410/citrobacter-rodentium-infection-model-for-the-analysis-of-bacterial-pathogenesis-and-mucosal-immunology
#2
Catherine L Kennedy, Elizabeth L Hartland
Citrobacter rodentium is a mouse restricted pathogen that was originally isolated from laboratory mouse colonies and causes transmissible colonic hyperplasia, characterized by thickening of the colon and inflammation. As a natural pathogen of mice, the infection model has proven critical to the development of our understanding of the pathogenesis of enteric disease and the mucosal immune response. In addition to this, some features of disease such as dysbiosis, inflammation, and wound healing replicate features of human inflammatory bowel diseases...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319881/systemic-il-2-anti-il-2ab-complex-combined-with-sublingual-immunotherapy-suppresses-experimental-food-allergy-in-mice-through-induction-of-mucosal-regulatory-t-cells
#3
Paola L Smaldini, Fernando Trejo, José L Cohen, Eliane Piaggio, Guillermo H Docena
Therapeutic tolerance restoration has been proven to modify food allergy in patients and animal models and although sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has showed promise, combined therapy may be necessary to achieve a strong and long-term tolerance. In this work, we combined SLIT with systemic administration of IL-2 associated with an anti-IL-2 monoclonal antibody (IL-2/anti-IL-2Ab complex or IL-2C) to reverse the IgE-mediated experimental allergy. Balb/c mice were sensitized with cholera toxin and milk proteins and orally challenged with allergen to elicit hypersensitivity reactions...
January 10, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316420/immunology-the-neuronal-pathway-to-mucosal-immunity
#4
Stephan Löser, Rick M Maizels
Type 2 immunity at mucosal surfaces is thought to be initiated by type 2 innate lymphoid cells. New studies report that these cells are themselves activated by the neuropeptide neuromedin U, produced by cholinergic neurons in the gut and in airways.
January 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311119/the-role-of-the-gut-microbiome-in-systemic-inflammatory-disease
#5
REVIEW
Jose C Clemente, Julia Manasson, Jose U Scher
The role of the gut microbiome in models of inflammatory and autoimmune disease is now well characterized. Renewed interest in the human microbiome and its metabolites, as well as notable advances in host mucosal immunology, has opened multiple avenues of research to potentially modulate inflammatory responses. The complexity and interdependence of these diet-microbe-metabolite-host interactions are rapidly being unraveled. Importantly, most of the progress in the field comes from new knowledge about the functional properties of these microorganisms in physiology and their effect in mucosal immunity and distal inflammation...
January 8, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309656/mucosal-immunity-the-forgotten-arm-of-the-immune-system-synopsis-of-the-pediatric-infectious-disease-society-s-2017-stanley-a-plotkin-lecture-in-vaccinology
#6
Peter F Wright, Margaret E Ackerman, Elizabeth B Brickley
The 2017 Stanley A. Plotkin Lecture in Vaccinology was delivered by Professor Peter F. Wright at the Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting in San Francisco, California, in May 2017. The presentation provided an overview of the mucosal immune system as it applies to vaccinology. Specifically, Professor Wright's lecture highlighted the remarkable opportunities for mucosal immunity research afforded by having both topically administered live vaccines and systemically administered inactivated vaccines available for the same pathogen...
December 22, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297502/immunity-to-gastrointestinal-nematode-infections
#7
REVIEW
D Sorobetea, M Svensson-Frej, R Grencis
Numerous species of nematodes have evolved to inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of animals and humans, with over a billion of the world's population infected with at least one species. These large multicellular pathogens present a considerable and complex challenge to the host immune system given that individuals are continually exposed to infective stages, as well as the high prevalence in endemic areas. This review summarizes our current understanding of host-parasite interactions, detailing induction of protective immunity, mechanisms of resistance, and resolution of the response...
January 3, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297501/t-bet-independent-th1-response-induces-intestinal-immunopathology-during-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#8
Américo H López-Yglesias, Elise Burger, Alessandra Araujo, Andrew T Martin, Felix Yarovinsky
Coordinated production of IFN-γ by innate and adaptive immune cells is central for host defense, but can also trigger immunopathology. The investigation of the lymphoid cell-specific contribution to the IFN-γ-mediated intestinal pathology during Toxoplasma gondii infection identified CD4+ T cells as a key cell population responsible for IFN-γ-dependent intestinal inflammation and Paneth cell loss, where T-bet-dependent group 1 innate lymphoid cells have a minor role in driving the parasite-induced immunopathology...
January 3, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297500/oral-gut-connection-one-step-closer-to-an-integrated-view-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#9
R Lira-Junior, E A Boström
Although an enrichment of orally derived bacteria is reported in the gut microbiota of patients with several diseases, it is mostly unknown whether oral bacteria can colonize and induce intestinal inflammation. In a recent paper in Science, Atarashi et al.1 from Kenya Honda's laboratory show that a subset of orally derived bacteria colonizes and persists in the gut, leading to activation of the intestinal immune system and subsequent chronic inflammation in a susceptible host. The impact of oral health status as a potential contributor to inflammatory diseases at distal sites of the body deserves consideration...
January 3, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297499/differential-regulation-of-the-transcriptomic-and-secretomic-landscape-of-sensor-and-effector-functions-of-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#10
Roland Lehmann, Mario M Müller, Tilman E Klassert, Dominik Driesch, Magdalena Stock, Anina Heinrich, Theresia Conrad, Christoph Moore, Uta K Schier, Reinhard Guthke, Hortense Slevogt
Protein secretion upon TLR, TNFR1, and IFNGR ligation in the human airways is considered to be central for the orchestration of pulmonary inflammatory and immune responses. In this study, we compared the gene expression and protein secretion profiles in response to specific stimulation of all expressed TLRs and in further comparison to TNFR1 and IFNGR in primary human airway epithelial cells. In addition to 22 cytokines, we observed the receptor-induced regulation of 571 genes and 1,012 secreted proteins. Further analysis revealed high similarities between the transcriptional TLR sensor and TNFR1 effector responses...
January 3, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297498/epithelial-hes1-maintains-gut-homeostasis-by-preventing-microbial-dysbiosis
#11
X-K Guo, J Ou, S Liang, X Zhou, X Hu
Recent advancements suggest that in addition to its roles in developmental processes, transcription repressor hairy and enhancer of split 1 (Hes1) also acts as a key regulator of inflammatory responses. A healthy gut microbiota ecology is critical for establishment of tissue homeostasis. However, the role of epithelial Hes1 in regulating intestinal microbiota ecology and intestinal homeostasis remains unexplored. Here we show that epithelial Hes1 deficiency leads to intestinal microbial dysbiosis and disturbed homeostasis...
January 3, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289808/myd88-mediated-innate-sensing-by-oral-epithelial-cells-controls-periodontal-inflammation
#12
Andrea E Delitto, Fernanda Rocha, Ann M Decker, Byron Amador, Heather L Sorenson, Shannon M Wallet
Periodontal diseases are a class of non-resolving inflammatory diseases, initiated by a pathogenic subgingival biofilm, in a susceptible host, which if left untreated can result in soft and hard tissue destruction. Oral epithelial cells are the first line of defense against microbial infection within the oral cavity, whereby they can sense the environment through innate immune receptors including toll-like receptors (TLRs). Therefore, oral epithelial cells directly and indirectly contribute to mucosal homeostasis and inflammation, and disruption of this homeostasis or over-activation of innate immunity can result in initiation and/or exacerbation of localized inflammation as observed in periodontal diseases...
December 16, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289381/recombinant-lactococcus-lactis-co-expressing-omph-of-an-m-cell-targeting-ligand-and-ibdv-vp2-protein-provide-immunological-protection-in-chickens
#13
Linlin Liu, Wang Zhang, Yuxin Song, Wenqian Wang, Yuan Zhang, Tingting Wang, Kai Li, Qing Pan, Xiaole Qi, Yulong Gao, Li Gao, Changjun Liu, Yanping Zhang, Yongqiang Wang, Gaoming He, Xiaomei Wang, Hongyu Cui
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a highly contagious disease that results in enormous economic losses in the global poultry sector. Lactic acid bacteria are an appealing vehicle for the safe and effective delivery of heterologous protein antigens. Oral administration of the commensal bacterium Lactococcus lactis expressing recombinant fusion proteins has been used to elicit mucosal and systemic immune responses. In this study, a Lactococcus lactis NZ3900 strain co-expressing the outer membrane protein (Omp) H of the microfold (M) cell-targeting ligand and the viral capsid protein (VP)2 antigen of IBDV was genetically engineered, and its immunopotentiating capacity as an oral and injected vaccine in chickens was evaluated...
December 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286179/localized-cyclical-variations-in-immunoproteins-in-the-female-genital-tract-and-the-implications-on-the-design-and-assessment-of-mucosal-infection-and-therapies
#14
Julia Makinde, Clifford Jones, Angela Bartolf, Sengeziwe Sibeko, Susan Baden, Catherine Cosgrove, Robin J Shattock
PROBLEM: Fluctuating hormones regulate reproductive processes in the female genital tract. Consequent changes in the local immunological environment are likely to affect cellular interaction with infectious agents and the assessment of therapies that target mucosal infections. METHOD OF STUDY: We compared Softcup and Weck-Cel sampling protocols and assessed the changes in the concentrations of 39 soluble proteins with menstrual cycle progression in the mucosal and peripheral compartments...
December 29, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260483/prophylactic-potential-of-synbiotic-lactobacillus-casei-and-inulin-in-malnourished-murine-giardiasis-an-immunological-and-ultrastructural-study
#15
Geeta Shukla, Anuj Sharma, Ruchika Bhatia, Mridul Sharma
Giardiasis is a re-emerging infectious disease with outbreaks reported globally specially in children and malnourished individuals leading to malabsorption, growth retardation, and severe diarrhea. Thus, in the present study, prophylactic administration of synbiotic as the functional food was used to assess its antigiardial potential in malnourished murine giardiasis. Interestingly, prior administration of synbiotic (Lactobacillus casei + inulin) even to malnourished-Giardia-infected mice led to increased body mass, small intestine mass, lactobacilli counts, and reduced severity of giardiasis as evident by decreased cyst and trophozoite counts...
December 19, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259582/experimental-oral-herpes-simplex-virus-1-hsv-1-co-infection-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-siv-infected-rhesus-macaques
#16
Meropi Aravantinou, Olga Mizenina, Giulia Calenda, Jessica Kenney, Ines Frank, Jeffrey D Lifson, Moriah Szpara, Lichen Jing, David M Koelle, Natalia Teleshova, Brooke Grasperge, James Blanchard, Agegnehu Gettie, Elena Martinelli, Nina Derby
Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1/2) similarly initiate infection in mucosal epithelia and establish lifelong neuronal latency. Anogenital HSV-2 infection augments the risk for sexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and is associated with higher HIV viral loads. However, whether oral HSV-1 infection contributes to oral HIV susceptibility, viremia, or oral complications of HIV infection is unknown. Appropriate non-human primate (NHP) models would facilitate this investigation, yet there are no published studies of HSV-1/SIV co-infection in NHPs...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248310/when-clarity-is-crucial-regulating-ocular-surface-immunity
#17
REVIEW
William Foulsham, Giulia Coco, Afsaneh Amouzegar, Sunil K Chauhan, Reza Dana
The ocular surface is a unique mucosal immune compartment in which anatomical, physiological, and immunological features act in concert to foster a particularly tolerant microenvironment. These mechanisms are vital to the functional competence of the eye, a fact underscored by the devastating toll of excessive inflammation at the cornea - blindness. Recent data have elucidated the contributions of specific anatomical components, immune cells, and soluble immunoregulatory factors in promoting homeostasis at the ocular surface...
December 13, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231767/high-altitude-induced-alterations-in-gut-immune-axis-a-review
#18
Kunjan Khanna, K P Mishra, Lilly Ganju, Bhuvnesh Kumar, Shashi Bala Singh
High-altitude sojourn above 8000 ft is increasing day by day either for pilgrimage, mountaineering, holidaying or for strategic reasons. In India, soldiers are deployed to these high mountains for their duty or pilgrims visit to the holy places, which are located at very high altitude. A large population also resides permanently in high altitude regions. Every year thousands of pilgrims visit Holy cave of Shri Amarnath ji, which is above 15 000 ft. The poor acclimatization to high altitude may cause alteration in immunity...
December 12, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226031/sodium-salt-medium-chain-fatty-acids-and-bacillus-based-probiotic-strategies-to-improve-growth-and-intestinal-health-of-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata
#19
Paula Simó-Mirabet, M Carla Piazzon, Josep Alvar Calduch-Giner, Álvaro Ortiz, Mónica Puyalto, Ariadna Sitjà-Bobadilla, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
Background: The increased demand for fish protein has led to the intensification of aquaculture practices which are hampered by nutritional and health factors affecting growth performance. To solve these problems, antibiotics have been used for many years in the prevention, control and treatment against disease as well as growth promoters to improve animal performance. Nowadays, the use of antibiotics in the European Union and other countries has been completely or partially banned as a result of the existence of antibiotic cross-resistance...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223454/preparation-characterization-and-immunological-evaluation-of-alginate-nanoparticles-loaded-with-whole-inactivated-influenza-virus-dry-powder-formulation-for-nasal-immunization-in-rabbits
#20
Solmaz Dehghan, Masoumeh Tavassoti Kheiri, Khalil Abnous, Maryam Eskandari, Mohsen Tafaghodi
It has become important to explore more efficient and feasible influenza vaccines, since epidemics of influenza virus cause hundreds of thousands of deaths all around the world. Improving immunogenicity of parentral influenza vaccines has given rise to mucosal delivery routes. In this study, alginate nanoparticles (NPs) were efficiently synthetized by ionic gelation method and influenza virus and CpG ODN or Quillaja Saponin (QS) adjuvants were actively incorporated into alginate NPs. The prepared particles were evaluated for both humoral and cellular immune responses in rabbits' nostrils...
December 6, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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