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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651306/heme-oxygenase-1-induction-and-anti-inflammatory-actions-of-atractylodes-macrocephala-and-taraxacum-herba-extracts-prevented-colitis-and-was-more-effective-than-sulfasalazine-in-preventing-relapse
#1
Kyu-Hyun Han, Jong-Min Park, Migyeong Jeong, Young-Min Han, Eun-Jin Go, Juyeon Park, Hocheol Kim, Jae Gab Han, Oran Kwon, Ki Baik Hahm
Background/Aims: In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), repeated bouts of remission and relapse occur in patients and can impose a risk of colitis-associated cancer. We hypothesized that plant extracts of Atractylodes macrocephala (AM) or Taraxacum herba (TH) may be better than sulfasalazine for treating this disease because these extracts can promote additional regeneration. Methods: Murine intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cells were pretreated with AM or TH before a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced challenge...
June 27, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651304/rifaximin-and-propranolol-combination-therapy-is-more-effective-than-propranolol-monotherapy-for-the-reduction-of-portal-pressure-an-open-randomized-controlled-pilot-study
#2
Yoo Li Lim, Moon Young Kim, Yoon Ok Jang, Soon Koo Baik, Sang Ok Kwon
Background/Aims: Non-selective beta blockers (NSBBs) are currently the only accepted regimen for preventing portal hypertension (PHT)-related complications. However, the effect of NSBBs is insufficient in many cases. Bacterial translocation (BT) is one of the aggravating factors of PHT in cirrhosis; therefore, selective intestinal decontamination by rifaximin is a possible therapeutic option for improving PHT. We investigated whether the addition of rifaximin to propranolol therapy can improve hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) response...
June 27, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651250/a-role-for-neuronal-alpha-synuclein-in-gastrointestinal-immunity
#3
Ethan Stolzenberg, Deborah Berry, De Yang, Ernest Y Lee, Alexander Kroemer, Stuart Kaufman, Gerard C L Wong, Joost J Oppenheim, Supti Sen, Thomas Fishbein, Ad Bax, Brent Harris, Denise Barbut, Michael A Zasloff
BACKGROUND: Alpha-synuclein (αS) is a nerve cell protein associated with Parkinson disease (PD). Accumulation of αS within the enteric nervous system (ENS) and its traffic from the gut to the brain are implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of PD. αS has no known function in humans and the reason for its accumulation within the ENS is unknown. Several recent studies conducted in rodents have linked αS to immune cell activation in the central nervous system. We hypothesized that αS in the ENS might play a role in the innate immune defenses of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651060/mechanism-underlying-methyl-eugenol-attenuation-of-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#4
Hanan Saleh, Haidan M El-Shorbagy
Intestinal Ischemia/Reperfusion injury (I/R) is associated with a high risk of mortality in the clinical situation. Many factors are involved in I/R including reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytokine release and apoptosis. We aimed to determine whether a pure methyl eugenol (ME) given before intestinal ischemia, protects against intestinal I/R and the possible mechanism involved in this protection. Rat received ME (100 mg/kg) for 30 days then underwent intestinal I/R with 30 min ischemia and 60 min reperfusion...
June 26, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651048/nutritional-and-metabolic-characteristics-of-brassica-carinata-coproducts-from-biofuel-processing-in-dairy-cows
#5
Yajing Ban, Nazir Ahmad Khan, Peiqiang Yu
The increased utilization of Brassica carinata in the biofuel industry in Canada has resulted in the large scale production of coproducts that can be potentially exploited as alternative protein ingredient in dairy ration. The objectives of this study were to investigate the nutritive value of carinata presscake and meal for dairy cows in terms of (1) nutrient and anti-nutrient composition; (2) rumen degradation kinetics of organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber; (3) hourly effective degradation ratio and potential N to energy synchronization; (4) intestinal digestion of rumen undegraded protein (RUP); and (5) total metabolizable protein (MP) supply to the small intestine...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650985/chronic-trichuris-muris-infection-causes-neoplastic-change-in-the-intestine-and-exacerbates-tumour-formation-in-apc-min-mice
#6
Kelly S Hayes, Laura J Cliffe, Alison J Bancroft, Simon P Forman, Seona Thompson, Cath Booth, Richard K Grencis
Incidences of infection-related cancers are on the rise in developing countries where the prevalence of intestinal nematode worm infections are also high. Trichuris muris (T. muris) is a murine gut-dwelling nematode that is the direct model for human T. trichiura, one of the major soil-transmitted helminth infections of humans. In order to assess whether chronic infection with T. muris does indeed influence the development of cancer hallmarks, both wild type mice and colon cancer model (APC min/+) mice were infected with this parasite...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650927/dexamethasone-prevents-lipopolysaccharide-induced-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-in-rat-ileum
#7
Aline Barbosa Ribeiro, Humberto Giusti, Ana Paula Trevelin Souza, Celso Rodrigues Franci, Rafael Simone Saia
Inflammatory mediators have been postulated as elementary inducing factors to the disruption of the intestinal tight junctions (TJ) and consequently, gut permeability and bacterial translocation. Corticosteroids are considered the mainstay in the treatment of septic shock; however the impact of this therapy on the intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction during septic shock remains unknown. Our aims were to demonstrate the role of low dexamethasone (DEX) doses in modulation of the inflammatory response, as well as the expression and the arrangement of TJ proteins in endotoxemic rats...
June 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650926/hypercapnia-induced-amelioration-of-the-intestinal-microvascular-oxygenation-in-sepsis-is-independent-of-the-endogenous-sympathetic-nervous-system
#8
Jan Schulz, Sabrina Schöneborn, Christian Vollmer, Richard Truse, Anna Herminghaus, Inge Bauer, Christopher Beck, Olaf Picker
INTRODUCTION: Insufficient microvascular oxygenation (μHBO2) of the intestinal mucosa worsens outcome of septic patients. Hypercapnia ameliorates μHBO2, mediated via endogenous vasopressin release. Under physiological conditions, blockade of the endogenous sympathetic nervous system abolishes this protective effect of hypercapnia. The aim of our study was therefore to evaluate the role of the endogenous sympathetic nervous system during hypercapnia on intestinal μHBO2 under septic conditions...
June 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650782/effect-of-probiotic-yogurt-and-xylitol-containing-chewing-gums-on-salivary-s-mutans-count
#9
Elnaz Ghasemi, Romina Mazaheri, Arezoo Tahmourespour
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In addition to improving gastrointestinal health and intestinal microflora, probiotic bacteria have been recently suggested to decrease cariogenic agents in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of probiotic yogurt and xylitol-containing chewing gums on reducing salivary Streptococcus mutans levels. STUDY DESIGN: This randomized clinical trial recruited 50 female students with over 10(5) colony forming units S...
2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650684/intentional-ingestion-of-elemental-mercury-requiring-multi-step-decontamination-and-prophylactic-appendectomy-a-case-report-and-treatment-proposal
#10
Andrea Michielan, Azzurra Schicchi, Roberto Cappuccio, Davide Lonati, Francesca Lamboglia, Alessandra Vitalba, Alessandro Caroli, Marta Crevani, Carlo A Locatelli, Giorgio Betetto
BACKGROUND: Ingestion of elemental mercury (Hg0) is considered non-toxic. After massive ingestion, local intestinal complications may develop: retention within appendix is quite frequent but treatment is debated. We describe a case of intentional ingestion of Hg0 requiring multi-step decontamination and prophylactic appendectomy. Case detail: A 19-year-old woman was admitted to ED for abdominal pain. History revealed ingestion of large amount of Hg0 as suicide attempt. To prevent absorption, facilitate elimination, and avoid complications a conservative approach was started...
June 26, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650431/illuminating-vital-surface-molecules-of-symbionts-in-health-and-disease
#11
Jason E Hudak, David Alvarez, Ashwin Skelly, Ulrich H von Andrian, Dennis L Kasper
The immunomodulatory surface molecules of commensal and pathogenic bacteria are critical to microorganisms' survival and the host's response(1,2). Recent studies have highlighted the unique and important responses elicited by commensal-derived surface macromolecules(3-5). However, the technology available to track these molecules in host cells and tissues remains primitive. We report, here, an interdisciplinary approach that uses metabolic labelling combined with bioorthogonal click chemistry (that is, reactions performed in living organisms)(6) to specifically tag up to three prominent surface immunomodulatory macromolecules-peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide and capsular polysaccharide-either simultaneously or individually in live anaerobic commensal bacteria...
June 26, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650216/brachylaimiasis-brachylaima-spp-digenea-brachylaimidae-metacercariae-parasitizing-the-edible-snail-cornu-aspersum-helicidae-in-spanish-public-marketplaces-and-health-associated-risk-factors
#12
Mercedes Gracenea, Laia Gállego
The edible land snail Cornu aspersum (Pulmonata: Stylommatophora) acts as a second intermediate host in the terrestrial life-cycle of the trematodes Brachylaima spp., harboring unencysted metacercariae in its kidney. The ingestion of undercooked infected snails by humans may allow metacercariae to potentially develop to adult stage in the intestine causing brachylaimiasis, as already seen in the case of a given Brachylaima species in Australia. Prevalence and dynamics of C. aspersum parasitization by Brachylaima spp...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650209/the-intestinal-barrier-a-fundamental-role-in-health-and-disease
#13
Maaike Vancamelbeke, Séverine Vermeire
The gastrointestinal mucosa constitutes a critical barrier where millions of microbes and environmental antigens come in close contact with the host immune system. Intestinal barrier defects have been associated with a broad range of diseases and therefore denote a new therapeutic target. Areas covered: This review is based on an extensive literature search in PubMed of how the intestinal barrier contributes to health and as a trigger for disease. It discusses the anatomy of the intestinal barrier and explains the available methods to evaluate its function...
June 26, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649963/the-effect-of-growth-medium-on-i-escherichia-coli-i-pathway-mirrored-into-gc-ms-profiles
#14
Ileana Andreea Ratiu, Tomasz Ligor, Victor Bocos-Bintintan, Hossam Al-Suod, Tomasz Kowalkowski, Katarzyna Rafińska, Boguslaw Buszewski
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a gram-negative coliform bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms. Most of the strains are harmless, but some serotypes are pathogenic, meaning they can cause illness, either diarrhea or illness outside of the intestinal tract. The aim of this work was to assess which components are generated in case of E. coli target analysis needed. In this purpose our study intends to emphasize the importance of the cultivability and to prove the crucial role of growth media used in bacteria growing...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649913/faecal-calprotectin-detects-subclinical-bowel-inflammation-and-may-predict-treatment-response-in-spondyloarthritis
#15
R D Østgård, B W Deleuran, M Y Dam, I T Hansen, A G Jurik, H Glerup
OBJECTIVE: Intestinal inflammation is frequent in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA). Here, we test the validity of faecal calprotectin as a marker of intestinal inflammation in SpA patients and evaluate the response of adalimumab in patients with and without intestinal lesions. METHOD: Patients were included on the basis of active SpA with a Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index ≥ 4. After a 4 week non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug washout period, patients were divided into two groups based on faecal calprotectin level (> 100 mg/kg, n = 15, and < 50 mg/kg, n = 15)...
June 26, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649632/three-dimensional-organotypic-co-culture-model-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells-and-macrophages-to-study-salmonella-enterica-colonization-patterns
#16
Jennifer Barrila, Jiseon Yang, Aurélie Crabbé, Shameema F Sarker, Yulong Liu, C Mark Ott, Mayra A Nelman-Gonzalez, Simon J Clemett, Seth D Nydam, Rebecca J Forsyth, Richard R Davis, Brian E Crucian, Heather Quiriarte, Kenneth L Roland, Karen Brenneman, Clarence Sams, Christine Loscher, Cheryl A Nickerson
Three-dimensional models of human intestinal epithelium mimic the differentiated form and function of parental tissues often not exhibited by two-dimensional monolayers and respond to Salmonella in key ways that reflect in vivo infections. To further enhance the physiological relevance of three-dimensional models to more closely approximate in vivo intestinal microenvironments encountered by Salmonella, we developed and validated a novel three-dimensional co-culture infection model of colonic epithelial cells and macrophages using the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel bioreactor...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649603/the-gut-brain-axis-is-intestinal-inflammation-a-silent-driver-of-parkinson-s-disease-pathogenesis
#17
Madelyn C Houser, Malú G Tansey
The state of the intestinal environment can have profound effects on the activity of the central nervous system through the physiological contributions of the microbiota, regulation of intestinal barrier function, and altered activity of peripheral neurons. The common language employed for much of the gut-brain communication is the modulation of immune activity. Chronic proinflammatory immune activity is increasingly being recognized as a fundamental element of neurodegenerative disorders, and in Parkinson's disease, inflammation in the intestine appears particularly relevant in pathogenesis...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649593/colonic-microbiota-encroachment-correlates-with-dysglycemia-in-humans
#18
Benoit Chassaing, Shreya M Raja, James D Lewis, Shanthi Srinivasan, Andrew T Gewirtz
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mucoid structures that coat the epithelium play an essential role in keeping the intestinal microbiota at a safe distance from host cells. Encroachment of bacteria into the normally almost-sterile inner mucus layer has been observed in inflammatory bowel disease and in mouse models of colitis. Moreover, such microbiota encroachment has also been observed in mouse models of metabolic syndrome, which are associated low-grade intestinal inflammation. Hence, we investigated if microbiota encroachment might correlate with indices of metabolic syndrome in humans...
September 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649508/isolation-of-shewanella-putrefaciens-in-an-elderly-man-with-subacute-intestinal-obstruction-appendicitis
#19
Arif Maqsood Ali, Muhammad Noorulamin, Shazia Arif
Shewanella is Gram-negative motile bacillus, non fermentative and facultative anaerobe. Its natural habitat is all forms of water and soil, but has also been isolated from fish, dairy products, oils, and carcasses. Often found with microflora of the marine environment. Bacterial infections with Shewanella spp. are rare. The exposure to the marine environment, sea and diary food are considered as a risk factor for Shewanella spp. infection. Clinical infections seen are otitis, soft tissue infection, bacteremia, ear infection, eye infection, infective arthritis, osteomyelitis, infective endocarditis and peritonitis...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649469/distinct-patterns-in-the-gut-microbiota-after-surgical-or-medical-therapy-in-obese-patients
#20
Daniel A Medina, Juan P Pedreros, Dannae Turiel, Nicolas Quezada, Fernando Pimentel, Alex Escalona, Daniel Garrido
Bariatric surgery is highly successful in improving health compared to conventional dietary treatments. It has been suggested that the gut microbiota is a relevant factor in weight loss after bariatric surgery. Considering that bariatric procedures cause different rearrangements of the digestive tract, they probably have different effects on the gut microbiota. In this study, we compared the impact of medical treatment, sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on the gut microbiota from obese subjects...
2017: PeerJ
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