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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352675/impact-of-intestinal-mannitol-on-hyperammonemia-oxidative-stress-and-severity-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-the-ed
#1
Daniel H Montes-Cortés, José L Novelo-Del Valle, Ivonne M Olivares-Corichi, José V Rosas-Barrientos, Luis J Jara, María Pilar Cruz-Domínguez
Hyperammonemia results from hepatic inability to remove nitrogenous products generated by protein metabolism of intestinal microbiota, which leads to hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in chronic liver disease (CLD). In ammonium neurotoxicity, oxidative stress (OxS) plays a pathogenic role. Our objective was to evaluate if intestinal mannitol is as effective and safe as conventional treatment for diminishing hyperammonemia, OxS, and HE in patients with CLD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included 30 patients with HE classified by "Haven Criteria for Hepatic Encephalopathy"...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352575/double-plication-for-spring-mediated-intestinal-lengthening-of-a-defunctionalized-roux-limb
#2
Genia Dubrovsky, Nhan Huynh, Anne-Laure Thomas, Shant Shekherdimian, James C Y Dunn
BACKGROUND: Spring-mediated distraction enterogenesis has been shown to increase the length of an intestinal segment. The goal of this study is to use suture plication to confine a spring within an intestinal segment while maintaining luminal patency to the rest of the intestine. METHODS: Juvenile mini-Yucatan pigs underwent placement of nitinol springs within a defunctionalized Roux limb of jejunum. A 20 French catheter was passed temporarily, and sutures were used to plicate the intestinal wall around the catheter at both ends of the encapsulated spring...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352513/morbid-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-alter-intestinal-fatty-acid-uptake-and-blood-flow
#3
Jukka Koffert, Mia Ståhle, Henry Karlsson, Patricia Iozzo, Paulina Salminen, Anne Roivainen, Pirjo Nuutila
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment to tackle morbid obesity and type 2 diabetes, but the mechanisms of action are still unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of bariatric surgery on intestinal fatty acid (FA) uptake and blood flow. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 27 morbidly obese subjects of which 10 had type 2 diabetes and 15 healthy age-matched controls. Intestinal blood flow and fatty acid uptake from circulation were measured during fasting state using positron emission tomography (PET)...
January 20, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352428/hnf4%C3%AE-is-involved-in-the-regulation-of-vertebrate-lc-pufa-biosynthesis-insights-into-the-regulatory-role-of-hnf4%C3%AE-on-expression-of-liver-fatty-acyl-desaturases-in-the-marine-teleost-siganus-canaliculatus
#4
Shuqi Wang, Junliang Chen, Danli Jiang, Qinghao Zhang, Cuihong You, Douglas R Tocher, Óscar Monroig, Yewei Dong, Yuanyou Li
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis is an important metabolic pathway in vertebrates, especially fish, considering they are the major source of n-3 LC-PUFA in the human diet. However, most fish have only limited capability for biosynthesis of LC-PUFA. The rabbitfish (Siganus canaliculatus) is able to synthesize LC-PUFA as it has all the key enzyme activities required including Δ6Δ5 Fads2, Δ4 Fads2, Elovl5, and Elovl4. We previously reported a direct interaction between the transcription factor Hnf4α and the promoter regions of Δ4 and Δ6Δ5 Fads2, which suggested that Hnf4α was involved in the transcriptional regulation of fads2 in rabbitfish...
January 19, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352300/5-aminosalicylic-acid-improves-lipid-profile-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-cholesterol-diet-through-its-dual-effects-on-intestinal-ppar%C3%AE-and-ppar%C3%AE
#5
Zheng Wang, Debby Koonen, Marten Hofker, Zhijun Bao
Obesity is associated with a series of metabolic complications, including dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (IR) that lack effective therapies. In recent years, intestinal inflammation has been suggested to contribute to obesity related metabolic syndrome and targeting gut inflammation with 5-ASA improves diet induced IR, however, its role in dyslipidemia is unknown and has never been explored. In the present study, we reported for the first time that administration of 5-ASA for 12 weeks significantly improved lipid profile by repressing plasma triglycerides and free cholesterol levels in mice fed high-fat cholesterol diet (HFC)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352218/nutritional-deficiencies-and-bone-metabolism-after-endobarrier-in-obese-type-2-patients-with-diabetes
#6
Nuria Vilarrasa, Alexandra Fabregat, Silvia Toro, Amador García Gordejuela, Anna Casajoana, Mónica Montserrat, Pilar Garrido, Rafael López-Urdiales, Núria Virgili, Alejandra Planas-Vilaseca, Andreu Simó-Servat, Jordi Pujol
Endobarrier® is a minimally invasive, reversible endoscopic treatment for obesity. It provokes malabsorption along 60 cm of the small intestine, which can contribute to the development of vitamin deficiencies and to changes in bone mineral density (BMD). To determine the prevalence of nutrient deficiencies, changes in body composition and BMD during the first year after Endobarrier® placement. Twenty-one patients with type 2 diabetes met inclusion criteria. Levels of vitamins, micro and macronutrients were assessed prior and at 1, 3 and 12 months post-operatively...
January 19, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352187/reduction-in-hepatic-secondary-bile-acids-caused-by-short-term-antibiotic-induced-dysbiosis-decreases-mouse-serum-glucose-and-triglyceride-levels
#7
Takuya Kuno, Mio Hirayama-Kurogi, Shingo Ito, Sumio Ohtsuki
Antibiotic-caused changes in intestinal flora (dysbiosis) can have various effects on the host. Secondary bile acids produced by intestinal bacteria are ligands for specific nuclear receptors, which regulate glucose, lipid, and drug metabolism in the liver. The present study aimed to clarify the effect of changes in secondary bile acids caused by antibiotic-induced dysbiosis on the host physiology, especially glucose, lipid, and drug metabolism. After oral administration of non-absorbable antibiotics for 5 days, decreased amounts of secondary bile acid-producing bacteria in faeces and a reduction in secondary bile acid [lithocholic acid (LCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA)] levels in the liver were observed...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352110/melatonin-inhibits-apoptotic-cell-death-induced-by-vibrio-vulnificus-vvha-via-melatonin-receptor-2-coupling-with-ncf-1
#8
Sei-Jung Lee, Hyun Jik Lee, Young Hyun Jung, Jun Sung Kim, Sang Ho Choi, Ho Jae Han
Melatonin, an endogenous hormone molecule, has a variety of biological functions, but a functional role of melatonin in the infection of Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio vulnificus has yet to be described. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of melatonin in the apoptosis of human intestinal epithelial (HCT116) cells induced by the hemolysin (VvhA) produced by V. vulnificus. Melatonin (1 μM) significantly inhibited apoptosis induced by the recombinant protein (r) VvhA, which had been inhibited by the knockdown of MT2...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352082/clostridial-strain-specific-characteristics-associated-with-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#9
Sophia Schönherr-Hellec, Geraldine L Klein, Johanne Delannoy, Laurent Ferraris, Jean Christophe Rozé, Marie José Butel, Julio Aires
We aimed at identifying potential clostridial factors linking these bacteria with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We compared the phenotypic traits, stress responses, cellular cytotoxicity and inflammatory capabilities of the largest collection of Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium neonatale strains isolated from fecal samples of NEC and control preterm neonates (PN). When strains characteristics were used as explanatory variables, a statistical discriminant analysis allowed the separation of NEC and control strains into separate groups...
January 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352076/intestinal-dysbiosis-and-permeability-the-yin-and-yang-in-alcohol-dependence-and-alcoholic-liver-disease
#10
REVIEW
Peter Stärkel, Sophie Leclercq, Philippe de Timary, Bernd Schnabl
Alcohol dependence and alcoholic liver disease represent a major public health problem with substantial morbidity and mortality. By yet incompletely understood mechanisms, chronic alcohol abuse is associated with increased intestinal permeability and alterations of the gut microbiota composition, allowing bacterial components, bacteria, and metabolites to reach the portal and the systemic circulation. These gut-derived bacterial products are recognized by immune cells circulating in the blood or residing in remote organs such as the liver leading to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines which are considered important mediators of the liver-gut-brain communication...
January 31, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352002/intestinal-epithelial-cell-derived-lkb1-suppresses-colitogenic-microbiota
#11
Xia'nan Liu, Jinfeng Lu, Zhenshan Liu, Junjie Zhao, Hongxiang Sun, Ningbo Wu, Hongzhi Liu, Weiwei Liu, Zhuqin Hu, Guangxun Meng, Lei Shen, Aaron W Miller, Bing Su, Xiaoxia Li, Zizhen Kang
Dysregulation of the immune barrier function of the intestinal epithelium can often result in dysbiosis. In this study we report a novel role of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) -derived liver kinase B1 (LKB1) in suppressing colitogenic microbiota. IEC-specific deletion of LKB1 (LKB1ΔIEC) resulted in an increased susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis and a definitive shift in the composition of the microbial population in the mouse intestine. Importantly, transfer of the microbiota from LKB1ΔIEC mice was sufficient to confer increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis in wild-type recipient mice...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351932/megaduodenum-in-a-59-year-old-man-a-very-late-postoperative-complication-after-duodenal-atresia
#12
Jessica Rueff, Oliver Söllner, Markus Zuber, Benjamin Weixler
Intestinal malformations are common defects of the newborn, treated in experienced centres. Reports on long-term follow-up and associated complications are scarce, possibly leading to misinterpretation of clinical signs and symptoms in adulthood. To prevent treatment errors, it is important that physicians are aware of long-term complications of intestinal malformations.
January 18, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351816/effects-of-gut-derived-endotoxin-on-anxiety-like-and-repetitive-behaviors-in-male-and-female-mice
#13
Christopher T Fields, Benoit Chassaing, Alexandra Castillo-Ruiz, Remus Osan, Andrew T Gewirtz, Geert J de Vries
BACKGROUND: Gut dysbiosis is observed in several neuropsychiatric disorders exhibiting increases in anxiety behavior, and recent work suggests links between gut inflammation and such disorders. One source of this inflammation may be lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a toxic component of gram-negative bacteria. Here, we (1) determine whether oral gavage of LPS, as a model of gut-derived endotoxemia, affects anxiety-like and/or repetitive behaviors; (2) test whether these changes depend on TLR4 signaling; and (3) test the extent to which gut-derived endotoxin and TLR4 antagonism affects males and females differently...
January 19, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351670/comparison-of-two-methods-for-determination-of-intestinal-villus-to-crypt-ratios-and-documentation-of-early-age-associated-ratio-changes-in-broiler-chickens
#14
F D Wilson, T S Cummings, T M Barbosa, C J Williams, P D Gerard, E D Peebles
The determination of intestinal villus to crypt ratios (VCR) is a common method utilized to evaluate effects of various diet regimens on gut microanatomy and for the histologic quantification of intestinal responses to disease processes. Two methods for the determination of small intestinal VCR were compared in early age chickens. A standard method for VCR determination based on 10 villus and crypt length measurements in the jejunal region of the small intestine was employed for the calculation of villus to crypt length ratio (VCLR)...
January 17, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351430/dynamic-changes-in-nitric-oxide-synthase-expression-are-involved-in-seawater-acclimation-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#15
Lucie Gerber, Frank B Jensen, Steffen S Madsen
Recent research has shown that nitric oxide (NO) produced by nitric oxide synthases (Nos) is an inhibitor of ion transporter activity and a modulator of epithelial ion transport in fish but little is known on changes in the Nos/NO system during osmotic stress. We hypothesized that the Nos/NO system responds to salinity changes as an integrated part of the acclimation process. Expression and localization of nos1/Nos1 and nos2/Nos2 were investigated in gill, kidney and intestine of FW- and SW-transferred trout using qPCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, along with expressional changes of major ion transporters in the gill...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351397/acute-small-intestinal-inflammation-results-in-persistent-lymphatic-alterations
#16
Sonia Rehal, Matthew Stephens, Simon Roizes, Shan Liao, Pierre-Yves von der Weid
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has a complex pathophysiology with limited treatments. Structural and functional changes in the intestinal lymphatic system have been associated with the disease, with increased risk of IBD occurrence linked to a history of acute intestinal injury. To examine the potential role of the lymphatic system in inflammation recurrence, we evaluated morphological and functional changes in mouse mucosal and mesenteric lymphatic vessels, and within the mesenteric lymph nodes during acute ileitis caused by a 7-day treatment with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351394/bile-acid-profiles-within-the-enterohepatic-circulation-in-a-diabetic-rat-model-after-bariatric-surgeries
#17
Meng Wei, Yi Shao, Qiao-Ran Liu, Qun-Zheng Wu, Xiang Zhang, Ming-Wei Zhong, Shao-Zhuang Liu, Guang-Yong Zhang, San-Yuan Hu
Bile acids (BAs), which are synthesized in the liver and cycled in the enterohepatic circulation, have been recognized as signaling molecules by activating their receptors in the intestine and liver. Serum taurine-conjugated BAs have been shown to be elevated after bariatric surgeries, although the postoperative BA profiles within the enterohepatic circulation have not been investigated. Clarification of these profiles could help explain the mechanisms by which bariatric surgery leads to BA profile alterations and subsequent metabolic effects...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351391/the-bile-acids-deoxycholic-acid-and-ursodeoxycholic-acid-regulate-colonic-epithelial-wound-healing
#18
Magdalena S Mroz, Natalia K Lajczak, Bridie J Goggins, Simon Keely, Stephen Joseph Keely
The intestinal epithelium constitutes an innate barrier which, upon injury, undergoes self-repair processes known as restitution. Although, bile acids are known as important regulators of epithelial function in health and disease, their effects on wound healing processes are not yet clear. Here we set out to investigate the effects of the colonic bile acids, deoxycholic acid (DCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on epithelial restitution. Wound healing in T84 cell monolayers grown on transparent, permeable, supports was assessed over 48 hrs {plus minus} bile acids...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351288/environmental-enteric-dysfunction-pathways-and-child-stunting-a-systematic-review
#19
Kaitlyn M Harper, Maxine Mutasa, Andrew J Prendergast, Jean Humphrey, Amee R Manges
BACKGROUND: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is commonly defined as an acquired subclinical disorder of the small intestine, characterized by villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia. EED has been proposed to underlie stunted growth among children in developing countries. A collection of biomarkers, organized into distinct domains, has been used to measure different aspects of EED. Here, we examine whether these hypothesized relationships, among EED domains and between each domain and stunting, are supported by data from recent studies...
January 19, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351131/quality-of-life-on-long-term-parenteral-nutrition-can-it-be-an-indication-for-intestinal-transplantation
#20
Yaron Avitzur, Mar Miserachs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Long-term outcomes in patients with intestinal failure and following intestine transplantation have improved significantly over the last decade. With these improvements, listing criteria for intestine transplantation are reevaluated and the role of quality of life (QoL) in patients' outcome is increasingly studied and emphasized. Here, we review the recent literature on QoL before and after intestine transplantation and discuss whether QoL should be considered as a listing criterion for intestine transplantation...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
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