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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770137/gut-microbiota-confers-resistance-of-albino-oxford-rats-to-the-induction-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#1
Suzana Stanisavljević, Miroslav Dinić, Bojan Jevtić, Neda Đedović, Miljana Momčilović, Jelena Đokić, Nataša Golić, Marija Mostarica Stojković, Đorđe Miljković
Albino Oxford (AO) rats are extremely resistant to induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE is an animal model of multiple sclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), with established autoimmune pathogenesis. The autoimmune response against the antigens of the CNS is initiated in the peripheral lymphoid tissues after immunization of AO rats with CNS antigens. Subsequently, limited infiltration of the CNS occurs, yet without clinical sequels. It has recently become increasingly appreciated that gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) and gut microbiota play an important role in regulation and propagation of encephalitogenic immune response...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731087/seven-years-of-experiences-of-preclinical-experiments-of-xeno-heart-transplantation-of-pig-to-non-human-primate-cynomolgus-monkey
#2
S J Lee, J S Kim, H K Chee, I J Yun, K S Park, H S Yang, J H Park
BACKGROUND: The absolute shortage of donors compared with patients requiring transplantation is currently an unsolved problem, and the only possible solution may be xenotransplantation. To establish a successful clinical trial, a preclinical study using nonhuman primates is essential. Starting in November 2011, our team initiated heterotopic abdominal heart xenotransplantation, the first in the Republic of Korea. We present here the initial 7-year results. METHODS: A total of 22 xenotransplantation procedures have been performed since 2011...
May 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714167/virological-and-immunological-responses-to-raltegravir-and-dolutegravir-in-the-gut-associated-lymphoid-tissue-of-hiv-infected-men-and-women
#3
Michael D Weber, Elizabeth Andrews, Heather A Prince, Craig Sykes, Elias P Rosen, Camden Bay, Nicholas J Shaheen, Ryan D Madanick, Evan S Dellon, Kristina De Paris, Julie Ae Nelson, Cynthia L Gay, Angela Dm Kashuba
BACKGROUND: Raltegravir (RTG) and dolutegravir (DTG) have different pharmacokinetic patterns in the gastrointestinal tract. To determine if this results in pharmacodynamic differences, we compared HIV RNA, HIV DNA, and immunological markers in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of HIV-infected participants receiving RTG or DTG with tenofovir+emtricitabine (TDF/FTC). METHODS: GALT specimens from the terminal ileum, splenic flexure, and rectum were obtained by colonoscopy at a single time point in 20 adults treated with RTG (n=10) or DTG (n=10) with HIV RNA <50 copies/mL...
May 1, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692653/hptlc-profiling-of-eleutherosides-mechanism-of-antioxidative-action-of-eleutheroside-e1-the-pampa-test-with-lc-ms-detection-and-the-structure-activity-relationship
#4
Daniel Załuski, Rafał Kuźniewski, Zbigniew Janeczko
Human body is constantly generating free radicals, which causes oxidative stress. Despite naturally occurring antioxidant systems in human body, free radicals cause lipid, proteins and DNA oxidation. New antioxidants are still urgent as well as their mechanisms of action should be explained. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which eleutherosides B, E and E1 may act as antioxidants, identified eleutherosides in Eleutherococcus lasiogyne and Eleutherococcus giraldii , and explained in vitro the absorption of eleutheroside E1 based on passive transport...
March 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688587/galt-carcinoma-three-case-reports-with-glycoprotein-2-immunohistochemistry-and-electron-microscopic-observations
#5
Hiroko Hayashi, Masashi Ohtani, Yuki Sada, Keisuke Iwasaki, Isao Shimokawa
Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) carcinoma is a rare colorectal tumor that arises in the epithelium covering GALT. GALT carcinoma is a differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma with dense lymphoid tissue with a characteristically well-demarcated margin. To date, twenty-six cases of GALT carcinoma, including the three cases discussed here, have been reported. Most of them (24/26) were discovered at early stages and none of the cases have documented any metastases. This suggests that GALT carcinoma may have a favorable prognosis...
April 24, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680633/multiplex-tandem-mass-spectrometry-assay-for-newborn-screening-of-x-linked-adrenoleukodystrophy-biotinidase-deficiency-and-galactosemia-with-flexibility-to-assay-other-enzyme-assays-and-biomarkers
#6
Xinying Hong, Arun Babu Kumar, C Ronald Scott, Michael H Gelb
All States screen for biotinidase deficiency and galactosemia, and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) has recently been added to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP).We sought to consolidate these tests by combining them into a single multiplex tandem mass spectrometry assay as well as to improve the current protocol for newborn screening of galactosemia.A 3 mm punch of a dried blood spot (DBS) was extracted with organic solvent for analysis of the C26:0-lysophosphatidylcholine biomarker for X-ALD...
March 29, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672590/hiv-replication-is-associated-to-inflammasomes-activation-il-1%C3%AE-il-18-and-caspase-1-expression-in-galt-and-peripheral-blood
#7
Manuel Gerónimo Feria, Natalia Andrea Taborda, Juan C Hernandez, Maria Teresa Rugeles
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) promotes an inflammatory process, leading to the progressive loss of the functional capacity of the immune system. The HIV infection induces alterations in several tissues, but mainly in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). However, the degree of GALT deterioration varies among infected individuals. In fact, it has been shown that HIV-controllers, who spontaneously control viral replication, exhibit a lower inflammatory response, and a relative normal frequency and function of most of the immune cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667480/the-human-gut-microbiota-metabolism-and-perspective-in-obesity
#8
Aline Corado Gomes, Christian Hoffmann, João Felipe Mota
The gut microbiota has been recognized as an important factor in the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity and is considered an endocrine organ involved in the maintenance of energy homeostasis and host immunity. Dysbiosis can change the functioning of the intestinal barrier and the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) by allowing the passage of structural components of bacteria, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which activate inflammatory pathways that may contribute to the development of insulin resistance...
April 18, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653003/-diagnosis-of-two-neonates-with-galactosemia-by-using-next-generation-sequencing
#9
Haiyan Zhang, Dong Chen, Chen Liu, Xingfeng Liu, Zhongtao Gai, Yi Liu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the genetic basis of two neonates suspected for galactosemia. METHODS: Next generation sequencing(NGS) was used to screen the whole exome of the neonates. Suspected mutation was validated by PCR and Sanger sequencing. Potential impact of novel mutation was predicted by using PolyPhen-2, MutationTaste and SIFT software. RESULTS: Both neonates harbored compound heterozygous mutations of the GALT gene inherited from their parents...
April 10, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615259/new-trends-in-innovative-vaccine-development-against-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae
#10
REVIEW
Abraham Loera-Muro, Carlos Angulo
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a respiratory disease leading to severe economic losses in the swine industry. The most widely used commercial vaccines are bacterins comprising inactivated whole cells of A. pleuropneumoniae but these have only been partially effective in preventing disease. Innovative immuno-prophylactic preparations of A. pleuropneumoniae based on ApxI, ApxII, ApxIII, ApxIV toxins and outer membrane proteins, among others (i.e. RnhB, GalU, GalT, HflX, ComL, LolB, LppC), have high protective efficacy in mice and pigs...
April 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580649/recommendations-for-newborn-screening-for-galactokinase-deficiency-a-systematic-review-and-evaluation-of-dutch-newborn-screening-data
#11
Kevin Stroek, Marelle J Bouva, Peter C J I Schielen, Frédéric M Vaz, Annemieke C Heijboer, Robert de Jonge, Anita Boelen, Annet M Bosch
INTRODUCTION: Galactokinase (GALK) deficiency causes cataract leading to severe developmental consequences unless treated early. Because of the easy prevention and rapid reversibility of cataract with treatment, the Dutch Health Council advised to include GALK deficiency in the Dutch newborn screening program. The aim of this study is to establish the optimal screening method and cut-off value (COV) for GALK deficiency screening by performing a systematic review of the literature of screening strategies and total galactose (TGAL) values and by evaluating TGAL values in the first week of life in a cohort of screened newborns in the Netherlands...
March 21, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535192/transmission-of-integrin-%C3%AE-7-transmembrane-domain-topology-enables-gut-lymphoid-tissue-development
#12
Hao Sun, Frederic Lagarrigue, Alexandre R Gingras, Zhichao Fan, Klaus Ley, Mark H Ginsberg
Integrin activation regulates adhesion, extracellular matrix assembly, and cell migration, thereby playing an indispensable role in development and in many pathological processes. A proline mutation in the central integrin β3 transmembrane domain (TMD) creates a flexible kink that uncouples the topology of the inner half of the TMD from the outer half. In this study, using leukocyte integrin α4β7, which enables development of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), we examined the biological effect of such a proline mutation and report that it impairs agonist-induced talin-mediated activation of integrin α4β7, thereby inhibiting rolling lymphocyte arrest, a key step in transmigration...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527745/galt-ko-pig-lungs-are-highly-susceptible-to-acute-vascular-rejection-in-baboons-which-may-be-mitigated-by-transgenic-expression-of-hcd47-on-porcine-blood-vessels
#13
Hironosuke Watanabe, Hisashi Sahara, Shunichiro Nomura, Tatsu Tanabe, Dilrukshi K Ekanayake-Alper, Lennan K Boyd, Nathan J Louras, Arsenoi Asfour, Makenzie A Danton, Siu-Hong Ho, Scott J Arn, Robert J Hawley, Akira Shimizu, Takeshi Nagayasu, David Ayares, Marc I Lorber, Megan Sykes, David H Sachs, Kazuhiko Yamada
BACKGROUND: Despite recent progress in survival times of xenografts in non-human primates, there are no reports of survival beyond 5 days of histologically well-aerated porcine lung grafts in baboons. Here, we report our initial results of pig-to-baboon xeno-lung transplantation (XLTx). METHODS: Eleven baboons received genetically modified porcine left lungs from either GalT-KO alone (n = 3), GalT-KO/humanCD47(hCD47)/hCD55 (n = 3), GalT-KO/hD47/hCD46 (n = 4), or GalT-KO/hCD39/hCD46/hCD55/TBM/EPCR (n = 1) swine...
March 12, 2018: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502222/perimortem-fracture-pattern-in-ribs-by-blunt-force-trauma
#14
Sarah Scheirs, Willeke Langenhorst, Assumpció Malgosa, Marisa Ortega-Sánchez, Hannah McGlynn, Cristina Santos, Xavier Jordana, Alfonso Rodriguez-Baeza, Ignasi Galtés
Literature on timing of rib trauma is scarce but remains challenging during forensic cases. This study analysed the macroscopic fracture patterns of perimortem rib fractures and compared them to experimentally reproduced rib fractures on fresh and dry ribs. Six distinctive macroscopic traits were found in ribs that might provide information about the timing of trauma, fracture mechanism and/or trauma circumstances. These traits are peels, folds, differential fracture edges, incomplete fractures, plastic deformation and longitudinal lines...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477579/critical-role-of-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-in-induction-of-oral-tolerance
#15
Tomofumi Uto, Hideaki Takagi, Tomohiro Fukaya, Junta Nasu, Takehito Fukui, Noriaki Miyanaga, Keiichi Arimura, Takeshi Nakamura, Narantsog Choijookhuu, Yoshitaka Hishikawa, Katsuaki Sato
BACKGROUND: Exposure to dietary constituents through the mucosal surface of the gastrointestinal tract generates oral tolerance that prevents deleterious T cell-mediated immunity. Although oral tolerance is an active process that involves emergence of CD4+ forkhead box p3 (Foxp3)+ regulatory T (Treg) cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs) for suppression of effector T (Teff) cells, how antigen-presenting cells initiate this process remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), which are known as unconventional antigen-presenting cells, in establishment of oral tolerance...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475940/identification-of-multiple-isomeric-core-chitobiose-modified-high-mannose-and-paucimannose-n-glycans-in-the-planarian-schmidtea-mediterranea
#16
Sabarinath Peruvemba Subramanian, Ponnusamy Babu, Dasaradhi Palakodeti, Ramaswamy Subramanian
Cell surface-associated glycans mediate many cellular processes, including adhesion, migration, signaling, and extracellular matrix organization. The galactosylation of core fucose (GalFuc epitope) in paucimannose and complex-type N -glycans is characteristic of protostome organisms, including flatworms (planarians). Although uninvestigated, the structures of these glycans may play a role in planarian regeneration. Whole-organism MALDI-MS analysis of N -linked oligosaccharides from the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea revealed the presence of multiple isomeric high-mannose and paucimannose structures with unusual mono-, di-, and polygalactosylated ( n = 3-5) core fucose structures; the latter structures have not been reported in other systems...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409891/hereditary-galactosemia
#17
REVIEW
Didem Demirbas, Ana I Coelho, M Estrela Rubio-Gozalbo, Gerard T Berry
Hereditary galactosemia is an inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism. Galactose is metabolized by Leloir pathway enzymes; galactokinase (GALK), galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT) and UDP-galactose 4-epimerase (GALE). The defects in these enzymes cause galactosemia in an autosomal recessive manner. The common and severe GALT deficiency, or classic galactosemia, is life-threatening in the newborn period. The treatment for classic galactosemia is dietary restriction of lactose. Although implementation of lactose restricted diet is efficient in resolving the acute complications, it is not sufficient to prevent long-term complications affecting the brain and female gonads, the two main target organs of damage...
January 30, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390031/infectious-bursal-disease-virus-infection-leads-to-changes-in-the-gut-associated-lymphoid-tissue-and-the-microbiota-composition
#18
Li Li, Tereza Kubasová, Ivan Rychlik, Frederic J Hoerr, Silke Rautenschlein
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious and immunosuppressive poultry disease. IBD virus (IBDV) is the causative agent, which may lead to high morbidity and mortality rates in susceptible birds. IBDV-pathogenesis studies have focused mainly on primary lymphoid organs. It is not known if IBDV infection may modify the development of the gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) as well as the microbiota composition. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of IBDV-infection on the bursa of Fabricius (BF), caecal tonsils (CT) and caecum, and to determine the effects on the gut microbiota composition in the caecum...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374721/gut-associated-lymphoid-tissue-galt-carcinoma-in-ulcerative-colitis
#19
Carlos A Rubio, Giovanni DE Petris, Giacomo Puppa
BACKGROUND: In ulcerative colitis (UC), the majority of colorectal carcinomas (CRC) arise in the vast colorectal mucosal domain built with mucus-producing goblet cells and columnar cells. Conversely, CRC in UC rarely evolve in the tiny, spotty gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) mucosal domain. Here we review the four reported cases of colonic carcinoma developing in GALT mucosa in UC, searching for possible precursor lesions connected with the evolution of these tumours. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical history, age, gender, endoscopic descriptions, and the pathology (localization, gross and histological descriptions of the luminal surface) of the four UC-GALT carcinomas reported in the literature were reviewed...
February 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355427/stannous-fluoride-effects-on-gene-expression-of-streptococcus-mutans-and-actinomyces-viscosus
#20
Y Shi, R Li, D J White, A R Biesbrock
A genome-wide transcriptional analysis was performed to elucidate the bacterial cellular response of Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces viscosus to NaF and SnF2 . The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of SnF2 were predetermined before microarray study. Gene expression profiling microarray experiments were carried out in the absence (control) and presence (experimental) of 10 ppm and 100 ppm Sn2+ (in the form of SnF2 ) and fluoride controls for 10-min exposures (4 biological replicates/treatment)...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
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