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Hao Sun, Frederic Lagarrigue, Alexandre R Gingras, Zhichao Fan, Klaus Ley, Mark H Ginsberg
Integrin activation regulates adhesion, extracellular matrix assembly, and cell migration, thereby playing an indispensable role in development and in many pathological processes. A proline mutation in the central integrin β3 transmembrane domain (TMD) creates a flexible kink that uncouples the topology of the inner half of the TMD from the outer half. In this study, using leukocyte integrin α4β7, which enables development of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), we examined the biological effect of such a proline mutation and report that it impairs agonist-induced talin-mediated activation of integrin α4β7, thereby inhibiting rolling lymphocyte arrest, a key step in transmigration...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Hironosuke Watanabe, Hisashi Sahara, Shunichiro Nomura, Tatsu Tanabe, Dilrukshi K Ekanayake-Alper, Lennan K Boyd, Nathan J Louras, Arsenoi Asfour, Makenzie A Danton, Siu-Hong Ho, Scott J Arn, Robert J Hawley, Akira Shimizu, Takeshi Nagayasu, David Ayares, Marc I Lorber, Megan Sykes, David H Sachs, Kazuhiko Yamada
BACKGROUND: Despite recent progress in survival times of xenografts in non-human primates, there are no reports of survival beyond 5 days of histologically well-aerated porcine lung grafts in baboons. Here, we report our initial results of pig-to-baboon xeno-lung transplantation (XLTx). METHODS: Eleven baboons received genetically modified porcine left lungs from either GalT-KO alone (n = 3), GalT-KO/humanCD47(hCD47)/hCD55 (n = 3), GalT-KO/hD47/hCD46 (n = 4), or GalT-KO/hCD39/hCD46/hCD55/TBM/EPCR (n = 1) swine...
March 12, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Sarah Scheirs, Willeke Langenhorst, Assumpció Malgosa, Marisa Ortega-Sánchez, Hannah McGlynn, Cristina Santos, Xavier Jordana, Alfonso Rodriguez-Baeza, Ignasi Galtés
Literature on timing of rib trauma is scarce but remains challenging during forensic cases. This study analysed the macroscopic fracture patterns of perimortem rib fractures and compared them to experimentally reproduced rib fractures on fresh and dry ribs. Six distinctive macroscopic traits were found in ribs that might provide information about the timing of trauma, fracture mechanism and/or trauma circumstances. These traits are peels, folds, differential fracture edges, incomplete fractures, plastic deformation and longitudinal lines...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Tomofumi Uto, Hideaki Takagi, Tomohiro Fukaya, Junta Nasu, Takehito Fukui, Noriaki Miyanaga, Keiichi Arimura, Takeshi Nakamura, Narantsog Choijookhuu, Yoshitaka Hishikawa, Katsuaki Sato
BACKGROUND: Exposure to dietary constituents through the mucosal surface of the gastrointestinal tract generates oral tolerance that prevents deleterious T cell-mediated immunity. Although oral tolerance is an active process that involves emergence of CD4+ forkhead box p3 (Foxp3)+ regulatory T (Treg) cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs) for suppression of effector T (Teff) cells, how antigen-presenting cells initiate this process remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), which are known as unconventional antigen-presenting cells, in establishment of oral tolerance...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Sabarinath Subramanian Peruvemba, Ponnusamy Babu, Dasaradhi Palakodeti, Ramaswamy Subramanian
Cell surface-associated glycans mediate many cellular processes, including adhesion, migration, signaling, and extracellular matrix organization. The galactosylation of core fucose (GalFuc epitope) in paucimannose and complex-type N-glycans is characteristic of protostome organisms, including flatworms (planarians). Though uninvestigated, the structures of these glycans may play a role in planarian regeneration. Whole-organism MALDI-MS analysis of N-linked oligosaccharides from the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea were found to contain multiple isomeric high mannose and paucimannose structures with unusual mono-, di- and poly-galactosylated(n=3-5) core fucose structures - the latter structures unreported in other systems...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Didem Demirbas, Ana I Coelho, M Estrela Rubio-Gozalbo, Gerard T Berry
Hereditary galactosemia is an inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism. Galactose is metabolized by Leloir pathway enzymes; galactokinase (GALK), galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT) and UDP-galactose 4-epimerase (GALE). The defects in these enzymes cause galactosemia in an autosomal recessive manner. The common and severe GALT deficiency, or classic galactosemia, is life-threatening in the newborn period. The treatment for classic galactosemia is dietary restriction of lactose. Although implementation of lactose restricted diet is efficient in resolving the acute complications, it is not sufficient to prevent long-term complications affecting the brain and female gonads, the two main target organs of damage...
January 30, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Li Li, Tereza Kubasová, Ivan Rychlik, Frederic J Hoerr, Silke Rautenschlein
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious and immunosuppressive poultry disease. IBD virus (IBDV) is the causative agent, which may lead to high morbidity and mortality rates in susceptible birds. IBDV-pathogenesis studies have focused mainly on primary lymphoid organs. It is not known if IBDV infection may modify the development of the gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) as well as the microbiota composition. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of IBDV-infection on the bursa of Fabricius (BF), caecal tonsils (CT) and caecum, and to determine the effects on the gut microbiota composition in the caecum...
2018: PloS One
Carlos A Rubio, Giovanni DE Petris, Giacomo Puppa
BACKGROUND: In ulcerative colitis (UC), the majority of colorectal carcinomas (CRC) arise in the vast colorectal mucosal domain built with mucus-producing goblet cells and columnar cells. Conversely, CRC in UC rarely evolve in the tiny, spotty gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) mucosal domain. Here we review the four reported cases of colonic carcinoma developing in GALT mucosa in UC, searching for possible precursor lesions connected with the evolution of these tumours. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical history, age, gender, endoscopic descriptions, and the pathology (localization, gross and histological descriptions of the luminal surface) of the four UC-GALT carcinomas reported in the literature were reviewed...
February 2018: Anticancer Research
Y Shi, R Li, D J White, A R Biesbrock
A genome-wide transcriptional analysis was performed to elucidate the bacterial cellular response of Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces viscosus to NaF and SnF2. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of SnF2 were predetermined before microarray study. Gene expression profiling microarray experiments were carried out in the absence (control) and presence (experimental) of 10 ppm and 100 ppm Sn2+ (in the form of SnF2) and fluoride controls for 10-min exposures (4 biological replicates/treatment)...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
Tatiana Yuzyuk, Krista Viau, Ashley Andrews, Marzia Pasquali, Nicola Longo
Impaired activity of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) causes galactosemia, an autosomal recessive disorder of galactose metabolism. Early initiation of a galactose-restricted diet can prevent or resolve neonatal complications. Despite therapy, patients often experience long-term complications including speech impairment, learning disabilities, and premature ovarian insufficiency in females. This study evaluates clinical outcomes in 34 galactosemia patients with markedly reduced GALT activity and compares outcomes between patients with different levels of mean galactose-1-phosphate in red blood cells (GAL1P) using logistic regression: group 1 (n = 13) GAL1P ≤1...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
John W Thompson, Matthew E Griffin, Linda C Hsieh-Wilson
The addition of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to serine/threonine residues of proteins is a ubiquitous posttranslational modification found in all multicellular organisms. Like phosphorylation, O-GlcNAc glycosylation (O-GlcNAcylation) is inducible and regulates a myriad of physiological and pathological processes. However, understanding the diverse functions of O-GlcNAcylation is often challenging due to the difficulty of detecting and quantifying the modification. Thus, robust methods to study O-GlcNAcylation are essential to elucidate its key roles in the regulation of individual proteins, complex cellular processes, and disease...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Lluïsa Miró, Alba Garcia-Just, Concepció Amat, Javier Polo, Miquel Moretó, Anna Pérez-Bosque
Increased life expectancy has promoted research on healthy aging. Aging is accompanied by increased non-specific immune activation (inflammaging) which favors the appearance of several disorders. Here, we study whether dietary supplementation with spray-dried animal plasma (SDP), which has been shown to reduce the activation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) in rodents challenged by S. aureus enterotoxin B (SEB), and can also prevent the effects of aging on immune system homeostasis. We first characterized GALT in a mouse model of accelerated senescence (SAMP8) at different ages (compared to mice resistant to accelerated senescence; SAMR1)...
December 11, 2017: Nutrients
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
Sharon Anderson
Galactosemia is an inborn error of galactose metabolism that results from a deficiency in one of three enzymes, uridine diphosphate galactose 4'epimerase, galactokinase, or galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT). This article focuses on classical, clinical variant, and biochemical variant (Duarte) galactosemias caused by GALT enzyme deficiency. A brief overview of galactosemia and newborn screening is presented, followed by detailed information about each of the conditions. Confirmatory testing, acute and long-term management, and outcome for these galactosemia types are discussed as well as the importance of genetic counseling and testing for the infant and family to refine reproductive risk...
January 2018: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
Nathanael P Cottam, Daniel Ungar
Intra-Golgi retrograde vesicle transport is used to traffic and sort resident Golgi enzymes to their appropriate cisternal locations. An assay was established to investigate the molecular details of vesicle targeting in a cell-free system. Stable cell lines were generated in which the trans -Golgi enzyme galactosyltransferase (GalT) was tagged with either CFP or YFP. Given that GalT is recycled to the cisterna where it is located at steady state, GalT-containing vesicles target GalT-containing cisternal membranes...
November 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
Carlos A Rubio
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have disclosed novel histological phenotypes of colon tumours in carcinogen-treated rats. The aim of this study was to update the current histological classification of colonic neoplasias in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Archival sections from 398 SD rats having 408 neoplasias in previous experiments were re-evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 408 colonic neoplasias, 11% (44/408) were adenomas without invasive growth and 89% (364/408) invasive carcinomas...
December 2017: Anticancer Research
Jonathan Casper, Ann S Zweig, Chris Villarreal, Cath Tyner, Matthew L Speir, Kate R Rosenbloom, Brian J Raney, Christopher M Lee, Brian T Lee, Donna Karolchik, Angie S Hinrichs, Maximilian Haeussler, Luvina Guruvadoo, Jairo Navarro Gonzalez, David Gibson, Ian T Fiddes, Christopher Eisenhart, Mark Diekhans, Hiram Clawson, Galt P Barber, Joel Armstrong, David Haussler, Robert M Kuhn, W James Kent
The UCSC Genome Browser ( provides a web interface for exploring annotated genome assemblies. The assemblies and annotation tracks are updated on an ongoing basis-12 assemblies and more than 28 tracks were added in the past year. Two recent additions are a display of CRISPR/Cas9 guide sequences and an interactive navigator for gene interactions. Other upgrades from the past year include a command-line version of the Variant Annotation Integrator, support for Human Genome Variation Society variant nomenclature input and output, and a revised highlighting tool that now supports multiple simultaneous regions and colors...
November 2, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Phawinee Subsomwong, Muhammad Miftahussurur, Tomohisa Uchida, Ratha-Korn Vilaichone, Thawee Ratanachu-Ek, Varocha Mahachai, Yoshio Yamaoka
Gastric cancer risk is varied among different regions of Thailand. We examined the characteristics of Helicobacter pylori infection in two regions of Thailand. The H. pylori status of 273 dyspeptic patients (136 from the South and 137 from the North; a low and high incidence of gastric cancer region, respectively) was evaluated, and virulence genotypes (cagA, vacA, hrgA and jhp0562-positive/β-(1,3)galT) were determined. The overall H. pylori infection rate was 34.1% (93/273). The prevalence was higher in the North than in the South (50...
2017: PloS One
Rabi Prakash Sharma, Muhammad Miftahussurur, Pradeep Krishna Shrestha, Phawinee Subsomwong, Tomohisa Uchida, Yoshio Yamaoka
Background: The data about the association between Helicobacter pylori putative virulence factors; iceA and jhp0562/β-(1,3)galT with clinical outcomes are still controversial. We identified and analyzed two putative H. pylori virulence factors in Nepalese strains. Methods: The iceA and jhp0562/β-(1,3)galT allelic types were determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Histological analysis were classified according to the updated Sydney system and the Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment (OLGA) system...
October 26, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Hisashi Sahara, Mitsuhiro Sekijima, Yuichi Ariyoshi, Akihiro Kawai, Kohei Miura, Shiori Waki, Louras Nathan, Yusuke Tomita, Takehiro Iwanaga, Kazuaki Nakano, Hitomi Matsunari, Hiroshi Date, Hiroshi Nagashima, Akira Shimizu, Kazuhiko Yamada
BACKGROUND: Despite progress in the current genetic manipulation of donor pigs, most non-human primates were lost within a day of receiving porcine lung transplants. We previously reported that carbon monoxide (CO) treatment improved pulmonary function in an allogeneic lung transplant (LTx) model using miniature swine. In this study, we evaluated whether the perioperative treatment with low-dose inhalation of CO has beneficial effects on porcine lung xenografts in cynomolgus monkeys (cynos)...
October 25, 2017: Xenotransplantation
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