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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725880/role-of-intrinsic-factors-in-the-growth-of-transplanted-organs-following-transplantation
#1
Jigesh A Shah, Tatsu Tanabe, Kazuhiko Yamada
Shortages in the availability of transplantable organs have forced the transplant community to seek alternative methods to increase the supply of available organs. In our recent study following α-1,3-galactocyltransferase knockout (GalT-KO) pig-to-baboon kidney xenotransplantation, we found that certain recipients developed increased serum creatinine, possibly due to the rapid growth of orthotopic pig grafts in smaller baboon recipients. To test our hypothesis, we assessed whether the growth of outbred (Yorkshire) organ transplants (kidney and lung) in miniature swine was regulated by intrinsic (graft) factors...
June 2017: Journal of Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718185/congenital-pulmonary-lymphangiectasia-a-disorder-not-only-of-fetoneonates
#2
Shi-Min Yuan
Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia (CPL) is a rare developmental disorder of the lung, characterized by dilation of pulmonary subpleural, interlobar, perivascular and peribronchial lymphatics. The incidence of CPL among stillborn and neonates was estimated to be <1%. The etiology of CPL is unknown. However, it has been suspected to be of a genetic background. Recent basic studies revealed that it might be caused by the FOXC2, Vegfr-3 and integrin α9β1gene mutations. A clinical diagnosis of CPL can be made much easier in full-term neonates who present with respiratory distress, pleural (especially chylous) effusions with or without generalized edema...
July 2017: Klinische Pädiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708466/a-bidirectional-association-between-the-gut-microbiota-and-cns-disease-in-a-biphasic-murine-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Sara L Colpitts, Eli J Kasper, Abigail Keever, Caleb Liljenberg, Trevor Kirby, Krisztian Magori, Lloyd H Kasper, Javier Ochoa-Repáraz
The gut microbiome plays an important role in the development of inflammatory disease as shown using experimental models of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. Gut microbes influence the response of regulatory immune cell populations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), which drive protection in acute and chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Recent observations suggest that communication between the host and the gut microbiome is bidirectional. We hypothesized that the gut microbiota differs between the acute inflammatory and chronic progressive stages of a murine model of secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (SP-MS)...
July 14, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697651/mucosal-immune-system-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-maintaining-balance-between-the-good-and-the-bad
#4
Bani Ahluwalia, Maria K Magnusson, Lena Öhman
The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) is a unique organ inhabited by a range of commensal microbes, while also being exposed to an overwhelming load of antigens in the form of dietary antigens on a daily basis. The GI tract has dual roles in the body, in that it performs digestion and uptake of nutrients while also carrying out the complex and important task of maintaining immune homeostasis, i.e., keeping the balance between the good and the bad. It is equally important that we protect ourselves from reacting against the good, meaning that we stay tolerant to harmless food, commensal bacteria and self-antigens, as well as react with force against the bad, meaning induction of immune responses against harmful microorganisms...
July 12, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656602/rapid-response-team-calls-to-obstetric-patients-in-a-busy-quaternary-maternity-hospital
#5
Timothy M Crozier, Pauline Galt, Stuart J Wilson, Euan M Wallace
AIMS: There is limited published information regarding intensive care unit (ICU) led rapid response team (RRT) calls to obstetric patients. We examined the characteristics of RRT calls to obstetric patients at a tertiary teaching hospital. METHODS: Details of calls to pregnant and postpartum patients between October 2010 and June 2014 were obtained from the hospital RRT database. Each was retrospectively examined for data on patient demographics, call trigger, interventions and outcomes...
June 28, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644047/mutational-analysis-of-galt-gene-in-greek-patients-with-galactosaemia-identification-of-two-novel-mutations-and-clinical-evaluation
#6
Kleopatra H Schulpis, Georgia Thodi, Konstantinos Iakovou, Maria Chatzidaki, Yannis Dotsikas, Elina Molou, Olga Triantafylli, Yannis L Loukas
Classical galactosaemia is an inborn error of metabolism due to the deficiency of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT). The aim of the study was to identify the underlying mutations in Greek patients with GALT deficiency and evaluate their psychomotor and speech development. Patients with GALT deficiency (n = 17) were picked up through neonatal screening. Mutational analysis was conducted via Sanger sequencing, while in silico analysis was used in the cases of novel missense mutations...
June 23, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639977/topical-delivery-of-immunosuppression-to-prolong-xenogeneic-and-allogeneic-split-thickness-skin-graft-survival
#7
Melissa Mastroianni, Zhi Yang Ng, Ritu Goyal, Christopher Mallard, Evan A Farkash, David A Leonard, Alexander Albritton, Kumaran Shanmugarajah, Josef M Kurtz, David H Sachs, Lauren K Macri, Joachim Kohn, Curtis L Cetrulo
Cadaveric skin allograft is the current standard of treatment for temporary coverage of large burn wounds. Porcine xenografts are viable alternatives but undergo α-1,3-galactose (Gal)-mediated hyperacute rejection and are lost by POD 3 because of naturally occurring antibodies to Gal in primate recipients. Using baboons, we previously demonstrated that xenografts from GalT-KO swine (lacking Gal) provided wound coverage comparable with allografts with systemic immunosuppression. In this study, we investigate topical immunosuppression as an alternative to prolong xenograft survival...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621726/microbiota-and-probiotics-in-health-and-hiv-infection
#8
REVIEW
Chiara D'Angelo, Marcella Reale, Erica Costantini
Microbiota play a key role in various body functions, as well as in physiological, metabolic, and immunological processes, through different mechanisms such as the regulation of the development and/or functions of different types of immune cells in the intestines. Evidence indicates that alteration in the gut microbiota can influence infectious and non-infectious diseases. Bacteria that reside on the mucosal surface or within the mucus layer interact with the host immune system, thus, a healthy gut microbiota is essential for the development of mucosal immunity...
June 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616811/black-cracks-staining-of-fracture-lines
#9
Sarah Scheirs, Assumpció Malgosa, Ignasi Galtés
During the investigation of fresh bone fractures, it might be difficult to visualize all the fracture lines that could contribute to the interpretation of the biomechanics behind a fracture. To optimize the examination of the fracture, the bones should first be defleshed to expose the osseous surface. To reveal small fracture lines more clearly, we developed two easy, fast, cheap and non-destructive methods to enhance fracture lines and bone defects by coloring the fracture lines with ink. One method consists of cooking the bone in ink, and the second method uses capillary action for ink penetration...
June 15, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602741/disease-resistance-and-response-against-vibrio-anguillarum-intestinal-infection-in-european-seabass-dicentrarchus-labrax-fed-low-fish-meal-and-fish-oil-diets
#10
S Torrecillas, M J Caballero, D Mompel, D Montero, M J Zamorano, L Robaina, F Rivero-Ramírez, V Karalazos, S Kaushik, M Izquierdo
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of low levels of dietary fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) on disease resistance and gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) response after an experimental intestinal infection with V. anguillarum in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) For that purpose, sea bass juveniles were fed one of four diets containing combined levels of FO and FM as follows: 20%FM/6%FO, 20%FM/3%FO, 5%FM/6%FO and 5%FM/3%FO during 153 days. At the end of the feeding trial, fish were subjected to either an in vivo exposure to a sub-lethal dose of V...
August 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602591/skin-grafts-from-genetically-modified-%C3%AE-1-3-galactosyltransferase-knockout-miniature-swine-a-functional-equivalent-to-allografts
#11
D A Leonard, C Mallard, A Albritton, R Torabi, M Mastroianni, D H Sachs, J M Kurtz, C L Cetrulo
Burn is associated with a considerable burden of morbidity worldwide. Early excision of burned tissue and skin grafting of the resultant wound has been established as a mainstay of modern burn therapy. However, in large burns, donor sites for autologous skin may be limited. Numerous alternatives, from cadaver skin to synthetic substitutes have been described, each with varying benefits and limitations. We previously proposed the use of genetically modified (alpha-1,3-galactosyl transferase knockout, GalT-KO) porcine skin as a viable skin alternative...
June 8, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601415/brain-autoimmunity-and-intestinal-microbiota-100-trillion-game-changers
#12
REVIEW
Hartmut Wekerle
T cells play a critical role in autoimmune diseases in the brain, particularly in multiple sclerosis (MS). Since T cells are normally prevented from crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB), autoimmunity requires prior activation of naturally occurring autoreactive T cells in peripheral tissue. Recently, a critical role for the microbiota in this activation process has emerged. Here, we review the role of gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) as a major site for the phenotypic changes that allow the migration of autoreactive T cells to the brain...
July 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588575/gut-associated-lymphoid-tissue-a-key-tissue-inside-the-mucosal-immune-system-of-hens-immunized-with-escherichia-coli-f4
#13
Maria F Peralta, Alejandra Magnoli, Fabrisio Alustiza, Armando Nilson, Raúl Miazzo, Adriana Vivas
Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is the predominant antibody found in hen's (Gallus domesticus) egg yolk. This antibody, developed against several microorganisms in hen egg yolk, has been successfully used as an alternative to immunoglobulins from mammals for use in immunodiagnostics and immunotherapy. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E.coli) F4 is the main etiological agent associated with swine neonatal diarrhea, and it causes notable economic losses in swine production. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between humoral immune response and the activation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) in laying hens intramuscularly immunized with E...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545161/classic-galactosemia-study-on-the-late-prenatal-development-of-galt-specific-activity-in-a-sheep-model
#14
Ana I Coelho, Jörgen Bierau, Martijn Lindhout, Jelle Achten, Boris W Kramer, M Estela Rubio-Gozalbo
Classic galactosemia results from deficient activity of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT), a key enzyme of galactose metabolism. Despite early diagnosis and early postnatal therapeutic intervention, patients still develop neurologic and fertility impairments. Prenatal developmental toxicity has been hypothesized as a determinant factor of disease. In order to shed light on the importance of prenatal GALT activity, several studies have examined GALT activity throughout development. GALT was shown to increase with gestational age in 7-28 weeks human fetuses; later stages were not investigated...
May 25, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513595/hiv-2-infection-is-associated-with-preserved-galt-homeostasis-and-epithelial-integrity-despite-ongoing-mucosal-viral-replication
#15
S M Fernandes, A R Pires, P Matoso, C Ferreira, H Nunes-Cabaço, L Correia, E Valadas, J Poças, P Pacheco, H Veiga-Fernandes, R B Foxall, A E Sousa
The mechanisms that enable preservation of gut mucosal integrity during persistent viral replication and inherent inflammation remain unclear. Here, we investigated, for the first time, gut homeostasis in HIV-2 infection, a naturally occurring form of attenuated HIV disease. We found viral replication in both sigmoid and ileum of asymptomatic HIV-2+ patients (range: 240-851 circulating CD4+T-cells per μl) despite their undetectable viremia, accompanied by interferon-γ-producing CD8 T-cell expansion, irrespective of antiretroviral treatment...
May 17, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503933/highly-human-immunodeficiency-virus-exposed-seronegative-men-have-lower-mucosal-innate-immune-reactivity
#16
Jennifer A Fulcher, Laura Romas, Jennifer C Hoffman, Julie Elliott, Terry Saunders, Adam D Burgener, Peter A Anton, Otto O Yang
Risk of HIV acquisition varies, and some individuals are highly HIV-1-exposed, yet, persistently seronegative (HESN). The immunologic mechanisms contributing to this phenomenon are an area of intense interest. As immune activation and inflammation facilitate disease progression in HIV-1-infected persons and gastrointestinal-associated lymphoid tissue is a highly susceptible site for transmission, we hypothesized that reduced gut mucosal immune reactivity may contribute to reduced HIV-1 susceptibility in HESN men with a history of numerous rectal sexual exposures...
June 19, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474815/probiotic-supplementation-promotes-a-reduction-in-t-cell-activation-an-increase-in-th17-frequencies-and-a-recovery-of-intestinal-epithelium-integrity-and-mitochondrial-morphology-in-art-treated-hiv-1-positive-patients
#17
Gabriella d'Ettorre, Giacomo Rossi, Carolina Scagnolari, Mauro Andreotti, Noemi Giustini, Sara Serafino, Ivan Schietroma, Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Saeid Najafi Fard, Vito Trinchieri, Paola Mastromarino, Carla Selvaggi, Silvia Scarpona, Gianfranco Fanello, Fausto Fiocca, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Guido Antonelli, Jason M Brenchley, Vincenzo Vullo
INTRODUCTION: HIV infection is characterized by a persistent immune activation associated to a compromised gut barrier immunity and alterations in the profile of the fecal flora linked with the progression of inflammatory symptoms. The effects of high concentration multistrain probiotic (Vivomixx®, Viale del Policlinico 155, Rome, Italy in EU; Visbiome®, Dupont, Madison, Wisconsin in USA) on several aspects of intestinal immunity in ART-experienced HIV-1 patients was evaluated. METHODS: A sub-study of a longitudinal pilot study was performed in HIV-1 patients who received the probiotic supplement twice a day for 6 months (T6)...
April 20, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474193/new-techniques-distinctive-population-unique-normal-databases
#18
EDITORIAL
James R Galt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453589/-effects-of-prebiotics-and-probiotics-on-gastrointestinal-tract-lymphoid-tissue-in-hiv-infected-patients
#19
Manuel G Feria, Natalia A Taborda, Juan C Hernandez, María T Rugeles
HIV infection induces alterations in almost all immune cell populations, mainly in CD4+ T cells, leading to the development of opportunistic infections. The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) constitutes the most important site for viral replication, because the main target cells, memory T-cells, reside in this tissue. It is currently known that alterations in GALT are critical during the course of the infection, as HIV-1 induces loss of tissue integrity and promotes translocation of microbial products from the intestinal lumen to the systemic circulation, leading to a persistent immune activation state and immune exhaustion...
February 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450132/a-novel-splicing-mutation-in-galt-gene-causing-galactosemia-in-ecuadorian-family
#20
M De Lucca, C Barba, L Casique
Classic Galactosemia (OMIM 230400) is an autosomal recessive disorder of galactose metabolism caused by mutations in the galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) gene. This disease caused by the inability to metabolize galactose is potentially life-threatening but its pathophysiology has not been clearly defined. GALT gene presents high allelic heterogeneity and around 336 variations have been identified. Here, we report the case of a patient with Classic Galactosemia who was detected during a neonatal screening in Ecuador...
July 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
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