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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306432/methods-for-the-detection-study-and-dynamic-profiling-of-o-glcnac-glycosylation
#1
John W Thompson, Matthew E Griffin, Linda C Hsieh-Wilson
The addition of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to serine/threonine residues of proteins is a ubiquitous posttranslational modification found in all multicellular organisms. Like phosphorylation, O-GlcNAc glycosylation (O-GlcNAcylation) is inducible and regulates a myriad of physiological and pathological processes. However, understanding the diverse functions of O-GlcNAcylation is often challenging due to the difficulty of detecting and quantifying the modification. Thus, robust methods to study O-GlcNAcylation are essential to elucidate its key roles in the regulation of individual proteins, complex cellular processes, and disease...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232896/dietary-animal-plasma-proteins-improve-the-intestinal-immune-response-in-senescent-mice
#2
Lluïsa Miró, Alba Garcia-Just, Concepció Amat, Javier Polo, Miquel Moretó, Anna Pérez-Bosque
Increased life expectancy has promoted research on healthy aging. Aging is accompanied by increased non-specific immune activation (inflammaging) which favors the appearance of several disorders. Here, we study whether dietary supplementation with spray-dried animal plasma (SDP), which has been shown to reduce the activation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) in rodents challenged by S. aureus enterotoxin B (SEB), and can also prevent the effects of aging on immune system homeostasis. We first characterized GALT in a mouse model of accelerated senescence (SAMP8) at different ages (compared to mice resistant to accelerated senescence; SAMR1)...
December 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215431/galt-deficiency-galactosemia
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215423/galt-deficiency-galactosemia
#4
Sharon Anderson
Galactosemia is an inborn error of galactose metabolism that results from a deficiency in one of three enzymes, uridine diphosphate galactose 4'epimerase, galactokinase, or galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT). This article focuses on classical, clinical variant, and biochemical variant (Duarte) galactosemias caused by GALT enzyme deficiency. A brief overview of galactosemia and newborn screening is presented, followed by detailed information about each of the conditions. Confirmatory testing, acute and long-term management, and outcome for these galactosemia types are discussed as well as the importance of genetic counseling and testing for the infant and family to refine reproductive risk...
January 2018: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201946/cell-free-fluorescent-intra-golgi-retrograde-vesicle-trafficking-assay
#5
Nathanael P Cottam, Daniel Ungar
Intra-Golgi retrograde vesicle transport is used to traffic and sort resident Golgi enzymes to their appropriate cisternal locations. An assay was established to investigate the molecular details of vesicle targeting in a cell-free system. Stable cell lines were generated in which the trans-Golgi enzyme galactosyltransferase (GalT) was tagged with either CFP or YFP. Given that GalT is recycled to the cisterna where it is located at steady state, GalT-containing vesicles target GalT-containing cisternal membranes...
November 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187442/updated-histologic-classification-of-adenomas-and-carcinomas-in-the-colon-of-carcinogen-treated-sprague-dawley-rats
#6
Carlos A Rubio
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have disclosed novel histological phenotypes of colon tumours in carcinogen-treated rats. The aim of this study was to update the current histological classification of colonic neoplasias in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Archival sections from 398 SD rats having 408 neoplasias in previous experiments were re-evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 408 colonic neoplasias, 11% (44/408) were adenomas without invasive growth and 89% (364/408) invasive carcinomas...
December 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106570/the-ucsc-genome-browser-database-2018-update
#7
Jonathan Casper, Ann S Zweig, Chris Villarreal, Cath Tyner, Matthew L Speir, Kate R Rosenbloom, Brian J Raney, Christopher M Lee, Brian T Lee, Donna Karolchik, Angie S Hinrichs, Maximilian Haeussler, Luvina Guruvadoo, Jairo Navarro Gonzalez, David Gibson, Ian T Fiddes, Christopher Eisenhart, Mark Diekhans, Hiram Clawson, Galt P Barber, Joel Armstrong, David Haussler, Robert M Kuhn, W James Kent
The UCSC Genome Browser (https://genome.ucsc.edu) provides a web interface for exploring annotated genome assemblies. The assemblies and annotation tracks are updated on an ongoing basis-12 assemblies and more than 28 tracks were added in the past year. Two recent additions are a display of CRISPR/Cas9 guide sequences and an interactive navigator for gene interactions. Other upgrades from the past year include a command-line version of the Variant Annotation Integrator, support for Human Genome Variation Society variant nomenclature input and output, and a revised highlighting tool that now supports multiple simultaneous regions and colors...
November 2, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084246/prevalence-risk-factors-and-virulence-genes-of-helicobacter-pylori-among-dyspeptic-patients-in-two-different-gastric-cancer-risk-regions-of-thailand
#8
Phawinee Subsomwong, Muhammad Miftahussurur, Tomohisa Uchida, Ratha-Korn Vilaichone, Thawee Ratanachu-Ek, Varocha Mahachai, Yoshio Yamaoka
Gastric cancer risk is varied among different regions of Thailand. We examined the characteristics of Helicobacter pylori infection in two regions of Thailand. The H. pylori status of 273 dyspeptic patients (136 from the South and 137 from the North; a low and high incidence of gastric cancer region, respectively) was evaluated, and virulence genotypes (cagA, vacA, hrgA and jhp0562-positive/β-(1,3)galT) were determined. The overall H. pylori infection rate was 34.1% (93/273). The prevalence was higher in the North than in the South (50...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072057/nepalese-helicobacter-pylori-genotypes-reflects-a-geographical-diversity-than-a-true-virulence-factor
#9
Rabi Prakash Sharma, Muhammad Miftahussurur, Pradeep Krishna Shrestha, Phawinee Subsomwong, Tomohisa Uchida, Yoshio Yamaoka
Background: The data about the association between Helicobacter pylori putative virulence factors; iceA and jhp0562/β-(1,3)galT with clinical outcomes are still controversial. We identified and analyzed two putative H. pylori virulence factors in Nepalese strains. Methods: The iceA and jhp0562/β-(1,3)galT allelic types were determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Histological analysis were classified according to the updated Sydney system and the Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment (OLGA) system...
October 26, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067747/effects-of-carbon-monoxide-on-early-dysfunction-and-microangiopathy-following-galt-ko-porcine-pulmonary-xenotransplantation-in-cynomolgus-monkeys
#10
Hisashi Sahara, Mitsuhiro Sekijima, Yuichi Ariyoshi, Akihiro Kawai, Kohei Miura, Shiori Waki, Louras Nathan, Yusuke Tomita, Takehiro Iwanaga, Kazuaki Nakano, Hitomi Matsunari, Hiroshi Date, Hiroshi Nagashima, Akira Shimizu, Kazuhiko Yamada
BACKGROUND: Despite progress in the current genetic manipulation of donor pigs, most non-human primates were lost within a day of receiving porcine lung transplants. We previously reported that carbon monoxide (CO) treatment improved pulmonary function in an allogeneic lung transplant (LTx) model using miniature swine. In this study, we evaluated whether the perioperative treatment with low-dose inhalation of CO has beneficial effects on porcine lung xenografts in cynomolgus monkeys (cynos)...
October 25, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053834/effect-of-feed-supplementation-with-zinc-glycine-chelate-and-zinc-sulfate-on-cytokine-and-immunoglobulin-gene-expression-profiles-in-chicken-intestinal-tissue
#11
L Jarosz, A Marek, Z Gradzki, M Kwiecien, B Zylinska, B Kaczmarek
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of inorganic and organic forms of Zn on the expression of cytokines (IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-17, IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β) and immunoglobulins (IgA and IgG) in the tissues of the small intestine (jejunum and ileum) of broiler chickens. In the experiment, 90 broiler chickens were divided into 4 experimental groups and a control group, with 18 birds each. The birds received Zn supplements in inorganic form with and without phytase (ZnSO4 and ZnSO4 + F), and in organic form with glycine, with and without phytase (Zn-Gly and Zn-Gly + F)...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990060/microrna-expression-profiling-of-intestinal-mucosa-tissue-predicts-multiple-crucial-regulatory-molecules-and-signaling-pathways-for-gut-barrier-dysfunction-of-aids-patients
#12
Yu Xu, Hua-Wei Wang, Hua-You Luo, Ruo Shu, Jia Liu, Liang Sun, Xue-Fei Han, Na Lin, Ting-Hua Wang, Yu-Jian Zeng, Kun-Hua Wang
Human immunodeficiency virus‑1 (HIV‑1) infection severely damages the gut‑associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), the immune system and the gut barrier, which leads to accelerating the disease progression for patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to this process. However, few studies have investigated the importance of miRNAs in AIDS pathogenesis and progression. The whole miRNA profile of patients with HIV infection from southwest P.R...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971364/genetic-testing-in-pediatric-ophthalmology
#13
REVIEW
Ishwar Chander Verma, Preeti Paliwal, Kanika Singh
The authors review the utility of genetic testing in ophthalmic disorders - precise diagnosis, accurate prognosis, genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis, and entry into gene-specific therapeutic trials. The prerequisites for a successful outcome of a genetic test are an accurate clinical diagnosis, a careful family history that guides which genes to study, and genetic counseling (both pre-test and post-test). The common eye disorders for which genetic testing is commonly requested are briefly discussed - anophthalmia, microphthalmia, coloboma, anterior segment dysgenesis, corneal dystrophies, cataracts, optic atrophy, congenital glaucoma, congenital amaurosis, retinitis pigmentosa, color blindness, juvenile retinoshisis, retinoblastoma etc...
October 2, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968888/tissue-pharmacologic-and-virologic-determinants-of-duodenal-and-rectal-gastrointestinal-associated-lymphoid-tissue-immune-reconstitution-in-hiv-infected-patients-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
David M Asmuth, Corbin G Thompson, Tae-Wook Chun, Zhong-Min Ma, Surinder Mann, Talia Sainz, Sergio Serrano-Villar, Netanya S Utay, Juan Carlos Garcia, Paolo Troia-Cancio, Richard B Pollard, Christopher J Miller, Alan Landay, Angela D Kashuba
Plasma, duodenal, and rectal tissue antiretroviral therapy (ART) drug concentrations, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA and HIV DNA copy numbers, and recovery of mucosal immunity were measured before and 9 months after initiation of 3 different ART regimens in 26 subjects. Plasma and tissue HIV RNA correlated at baseline and when 9-month declines were compared, suggesting that these compartments are tightly associated. Antiretroviral tissue:blood penetration ratios were above the 50% inhibitory concentration values in almost 100% of cases...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961353/the-evolution-of-a-web-resource-the-galactosemia-proteins-database-2-0
#15
Antonio d'Acierno, Bernardina Scafuri, Angelo Facchiano, Anna Marabotti
Galactosemia Proteins Database 2.0 is a Web-accessible resource collecting information about the structural and functional effects of the known variations associated to the three different enzymes of the Leloir pathway encoded by the genes GALT, GALE, and GALK1 and involved in the different forms of the genetic disease globally called "galactosemia." It represents an evolution of two available online resources we previously developed, with new data deriving from new structures, new analysis tools, and new interfaces and filters in order to improve the quality and quantity of information available for different categories of users...
September 29, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949001/forearm-pronation-efficiency-in-a-l-288-1-australopithecus-afarensis-and-mh2-australopithecus-sediba-insights-into-their-locomotor-and-manipulative-habits
#16
Pere Ibáñez-Gimeno, Joan Manyosa, Ignasi Galtés, Xavier Jordana, Salvador Moyà-Solà, Assumpció Malgosa
OBJECTIVES: The locomotor and manipulative abilities of australopithecines are highly debated in the paleoanthropological context. Australopithecus afarensis and Australopithecus sediba likely engaged in arboreal locomotion and, especially the latter, in certain activities implying manipulation. Nevertheless, their degree of arboreality and the relevance of their manipulative skills remain unclear. Here we calculate the pronation efficiency of the forearm (Erot ) in these taxa to explore their arboreal and manipulative capabilities using a biomechanical approach...
September 26, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921534/exploring-cellular-behaviour-under-transient-gene-expression-and-its-impact-on-mab-productivity-and-fc-glycosylation
#17
Si Nga Sou, Ken Lee, Kalpana Nayyar, Karen M Polizzi, Christopher Sellick, Cleo Kontoravdi
Transient gene expression (TGE) is a methodology employed in bioprocessing for the fast provision of recombinant protein material. Mild hypothermia is often introduced to overcome the low yield typically achieved with TGE and improve specific protein productivity. It is therefore of interest to examine the impact of mild hypothermic temperatures on both the yield and quality of transiently-expressed proteins and the relationship to changes in cellular processes and metabolism. In this study, we focus on the ability of a Chinese hamster ovary cell line to galactosylate a recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) product...
September 16, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913702/impaired-fertility-and-motor-function-in-a-zebrafish-model-for-classic-galactosemia
#18
Jo M Vanoevelen, M Estela Rubio-Gozalbo, Britt van Erven, Jörgen Bierau, Xiaoping Huang, Gerard T Berry, Rein Vos, Ana I Coelho
Classic galactosemia is a genetic disorder of galactose metabolism, caused by severe deficiency of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT) enzyme activity due to mutations of the GALT gene. Its pathogenesis is still not fully elucidated, and a therapy that prevents chronic impairments is lacking. In order to move research forward, there is a high need for a novel animal model, which allows organ studies throughout development and high-throughput screening of pharmacologic compounds. Here, we describe the generation of a galt knockout zebrafish model and present its phenotypical characterization...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910600/an-acceptor-analogue-of-%C3%AE-1-4-galactosyltransferase-substrate-inhibitor-or-both
#19
Jingqian Jiang, Gerd K Wagner
Many glycosyltransferase inhibitors in the literature are structurally derived from the donor or acceptor substrate of the respective enzyme. A representative example is 2-naphthyl β-d-GlcNAc, a synthetic GlcNAc glycoside that has been reported as a galactosyltransferase inhibitor. This GlcNAc derivative is attractive as a chemical tool compound for biological and biochemical studies because of its reported potency as an inhibitor, and its short and straightforward synthesis from readily available starting materials...
October 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882590/targeted-deletion-of-rankl-in-m-cell-inducer-cells-by-the-col6a1-cre-driver
#20
Kazuki Nagashima, Shinichiro Sawa, Takeshi Nitta, Alejandro Prados, Vasiliki Koliaraki, George Kollias, Tomoki Nakashima, Hiroshi Takayanagi
The gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs), including Peyer's patches (PPs), cryptopatches (CPs) and isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs), establish a host-microbe symbiosis by the promotion of immune reactions against gut microbes. Microfold cell inducer (MCi) cells in GALTs are the recently identified mesenchymal cells that express the cytokine RANKL and initiate bacteria-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) production via induction of microfold (M) cell differentiation. In the previous study, the Twist2-Cre driver was utilized for gene deletion in mesenchymal cells including MCi cells...
November 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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