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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323006/the-role-of-sumoylation-in-cerebral-hypoxia-and-ischemia
#1
REVIEW
Myriam Peters, Betty Wielsch, Johannes Boltze
The process of protein modification by adding or detaching small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO) proteins, called SUMOylation, contributes to the regulation of numerous processes in eukaryotic cells. SUMOylation also represents a key response and adaption mechanism to different forms of metabolic stress. The central nervous system (CNS) and neurons in particular are highly susceptible to hypoxic-ischemic stress due to the lack of significant oxygen and energy reserves. SUMOylation is observed in many molecular responses to metabolic stress in the brain, and is therefore supposed to represent an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism...
March 17, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322920/stem-cell-transplantation-therapy-for-multifaceted-therapeutic-benefits-after-stroke
#2
REVIEW
Ling Wei, Zheng Z Wei, Michael Qize Jiang, Osama Mohamad, Shan Ping Yu
One of the exciting advances in modern medicine and life science is cell-based neurovascular regeneration of damaged brain tissues and repair of neuronal structures. The progress in stem cell biology and creation of adult induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has significantly improved basic and pre-clinical research in disease mechanisms and generated enthusiasm for potential applications in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases including stroke. Endogenous neural stem cells and cultured stem cells are capable of self-renewal and give rise to virtually all types of cells essential for the makeup of neuronal structures...
March 16, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320941/potent-neuroprotection-after-stroke-afforded-by-a-double-knot-spider-venom-peptide-that-inhibits-acid-sensing-ion-channel-1a
#3
Irène R Chassagnon, Claudia A McCarthy, Yanni K-Y Chin, Sandy S Pineda, Angelo Keramidas, Mehdi Mobli, Vi Pham, T Michael De Silva, Joseph W Lynch, Robert E Widdop, Lachlan D Rash, Glenn F King
Stroke is the second-leading cause of death worldwide, yet there are no drugs available to protect the brain from stroke-induced neuronal injury. Acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) is the primary acid sensor in mammalian brain and a key mediator of acidosis-induced neuronal damage following cerebral ischemia. Genetic ablation and selective pharmacologic inhibition of ASIC1a reduces neuronal death following ischemic stroke in rodents. Here, we demonstrate that Hi1a, a disulfide-rich spider venom peptide, is highly neuroprotective in a focal model of ischemic stroke...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317920/kus121-a-vcp-modulator-attenuates-ischemic-retinal-cell-death-via-suppressing-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#4
Masayuki Hata, Hanako O Ikeda, Chinami Kikkawa, Sachiko Iwai, Yuki Muraoka, Tomoko Hasegawa, Akira Kakizuka, Nagahisa Yoshimura
Ischemic neural damages cause several devastating diseases, including brain stroke and ischemic retinopathies, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been proposed to be the underlying mechanism of the neuronal cell death of these conditions. We previously synthesized Kyoto University substances (KUSs) as modulators of valosin-containing protein (VCP); KUSs inhibit VCP ATPase activity and protect cells from different cell death-inducing insults. Here, we examined the efficacy of KUS121 in a rat model of retinal ischemic injury...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303738/neural-stem-cell-transplantation-in-ischemic-stroke-a-role-for-preconditioning-and-cellular-engineering
#5
Joshua D Bernstock, Luca Peruzzotti-Jametti, Daniel Ye, Florian A Gessler, Dragan Maric, Nunzio Vicario, Yang-Ja Lee, Stefano Pluchino, John M Hallenbeck
Ischemic stroke continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. To protect and/or repair the ischemic brain, a multitiered approach may be centered on neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation. Transplanted NSCs exert beneficial effects not only via structural replacement, but also via immunomodulatory and/or neurotrophic actions. Unfortunately, the clinical translation of such promising therapies remains elusive, in part due to their limited persistence/survivability within the hostile ischemic microenvironment...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294064/knockdown-of-c-c-chemokine-receptor-5-ccr5-is-protective-against-cerebral-ischemia-and-reperfusion-injury
#6
Edna Constanza Gómez Victoria, Eliana Cristina de Brito Toscano, Ana Clara de Sousa Cardoso, Daniele Gonçalves da Silva, Aline Silva de Miranda, Lucíola da Silva Barcelos, Michelle Adriane Sugimoto, Lirlândia Pires Sousa, Isabel Vieira de Assis Lima, Antônio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira, Fátima Brant, Fabiana Simão Machado, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira, Milene Alvarenga Rachid
BACKGROUND: Stroke is the second leading cause of death and a major cause of disability of adults worldwide. Inflammatory processes are known to contribute to the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, especially following reperfusion. Chemokines and their receptors are involved in migration of leukocytes and have been implicated in pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we investigated the effects of C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) deficiency on neurological outcome, brain damage and expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines: chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), chemokine (CC motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5), and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...
March 13, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285429/hypothermia-decreased-the-expression-of-heat-shock-proteins-in-neonatal-rat-model-of-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#7
Byong Sop Lee, Euiseok Jung, Yeonjoo Lee, Sung-Hoon Chung
Hypothermia (HT) is a well-established neuroprotective strategy against neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). The overexpression of heat shock proteins (HSP) has been shown to provide neuroprotection in animal models of stroke. We aimed to investigate the effect of HT on HSP70 and HSP27 expression in a neonatal rat model of HIE. Seven-day-old rat pups were exposed to hypoxia for 90 min to establish the Rice-Vannucci model and were assigned to the following four groups: hypoxic injury (HI)-normothermia (NT, 36 °C), HI-HT (30 °C), sham-NT, and sham-HT...
March 11, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281385/electroacupuncture-brain-protection-during-ischemic-stroke-a-role-for-the-parasympathetic-nervous-system
#8
Laiting Chi, Kairong Du, Dongdong Liu, Yulong Bo, Wenzhi Li
The demand for using parasympathetic activation for stroke therapy is unmet. In the current study, we investigated whether the neuroprotection provided by electroacupuncture (EA) in an experimental stroke model was associated with activation of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). The results showed that parasympathetic dysfunction (PD), performed as unilateral vagotomy combined with peripheral atropine, attenuated both the functional benefits of EA and its effects in improving cerebral perfusion, reducing infarct volume, and hindering apoptosis, neuronal and peripheral inflammation, and oxidative stress...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279762/process-optimization-by-use-of-design-of-experiments-application-for-liposomalization-of-fk506
#9
Hiroyasu Toyota, Tomohiro Asai, Naoto Oku
Design of experiments (DoE) can accelerate the optimization of drug formulations, especially complexed formulas such as those of drugs, using delivery systems. Administration of FK506 encapsulated in liposomes (FK506 liposomes) is an effective approach to treat acute stroke in animal studies. To provide FK506 liposomes as a brain protective agent, it is necessary to manufacture these liposomes with good reproducibility. The objective of this study was to confirm the usefulness of DoE for the process-optimization study of FK506 liposomes...
March 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269164/an-integrated-neuroprotective-intervention-for-brain-ischemia-validated-by-ecog-fpam
#10
Yu-Hang Liu, Lun-De Liao, Su Jing Chan, Aishwarya Bandla, Nitish V Thakor
Brain ischemia is a neurological deficit caused by a reduction in the blood supply to tissue, and one of the leading causes of disability in the world. Currently, the most well-known therapeutic agent for ischemia recovery is recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), but it is viable for only a small portion (approximately 3.6%) of ischemic patients and may cause side effects such as tissue damage. Thus, introducing a new therapeutic concept for ischemia, we proposed an integrated intervention combining global and focal stimulations in this article...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267563/protective-effects-of-angiopoietin-like-4-on-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-treated-with-thrombolysis-in-mice
#11
Bin Zhang, Xiaofeng Xu, Xiuli Chu, Xiaoyang Yu, Yuwu Zhao
AIMS: Given the risk of blood-brain barrier damage (BBB) caused by ischemic and tissue plasminogen activator thrombolysis, the preservation of vascular integrity is important. Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), a protein secreted in hypoxia, is involved in the regulation of vascular permeability. We hypothesized that Angptl4 might exert a protective effect in thrombolysis through stabilizing blood-brain barrier and inhibit hyper-permeability. METHODS: We investigated the role of Angptl4 in stroke using a transient focal cerebral ischemia mouse model...
March 4, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261199/inflammatory-regulation-by-driving-microglial-m2-polarization-neuroprotective-effects-of-cannabinoid-receptor-2-activation-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#12
Li Lin, Tao Yihao, Feng Zhou, Niu Yin, Tan Qiang, Zheng Haowen, Chen Qianwei, Tang Jun, Zhang Yuan, Zhu Gang, Feng Hua, Yang Yunfeng, Chen Zhi
The cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2R) was initially thought to be the "peripheral cannabinoid receptor." Recent studies, however, have documented CB2R expression in the brain in both glial and neuronal cells, and increasing evidence suggests an important role for CB2R in the central nervous system inflammatory response. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), which occurs when a diseased cerebral vessel ruptures, accounts for 10-15% of all strokes. Although surgical techniques have significantly advanced in the past two decades, ICH continues to have a high mortality rate...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260801/regulation-of-microglial-activation-in-stroke
#13
REVIEW
Shou-Cai Zhao, Ling-Song Ma, Zhao-Hu Chu, Heng Xu, Wen-Qian Wu, Fudong Liu
When ischemic stroke occurs, oxygen and energy depletion triggers a cascade of events, including inflammatory responses, glutamate excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and apoptosis that result in a profound brain injury. The inflammatory response contributes to secondary neuronal damage, which exerts a substantial impact on both acute ischemic injury and the chronic recovery of the brain function. Microglia are the resident immune cells in the brain that constantly monitor brain microenvironment under normal conditions...
March 6, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256111/sirt1-dependent-ampk-pathway-in-the-protection-of-estrogen-against-ischemic-brain-injury
#14
Jin-Min Guo, He Shu, Lei Wang, Jian-Jiang Xu, Xue-Cai Niu, Li Zhang
AIMS: Stroke is a major cause of mortality and disability, especially for postmenopausal women. In view of the protective action of estrogen, hormone therapy remains the only effective way to limit this risk. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency and underlying mechanisms of estrogen neuroprotection. METHODS: Subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol in rats after ovariectomy (OVX) was used to manipulate estrogen level and explore the effects of estrogen in cerebral ischemic damage both in vivo and in vitro...
March 2, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255762/semax-an-analog-of-acth-4-7-regulates-expression-of-immune-response-genes-during-ischemic-brain-injury-in-rats
#15
Ekaterina V Medvedeva, Veronika G Dmitrieva, Svetlana A Limborska, Nikolay F Myasoedov, Lyudmila V Dergunova
Brain stroke continues to claim the lives of million people every year. To build the effective strategies for stroke treatment it is necessary to understand the neuroprotective mechanisms that are able to prevent the ischemic injury. Consisting of the ACTH(4-7) fragment and the tripeptide Pro-Gly-Pro (PGP), the synthetic peptide Semax effectively protects brain against ischemic stroke. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its neuroprotection and participation of PGP in them are still needed to be clarified...
March 2, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254815/ephrinb2-activation-enhances-vascular-repair-mechanisms-and-reduces-brain-swelling-after-mild-cerebral-ischemia
#16
Adnan Ghori, Florian B Freimann, Melina Nieminen-Kehlä, Irina Kremenetskaia, Karen Gertz, Matthias Endres, Peter Vajkoczy
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral edema caused by the disruption of the blood-brain barrier is a major complication after stroke. Therefore, strategies to accelerate and enhance neurovascular recovery after stroke are of prime interest. Our main aim was to study the role of ephrinB2/EphB4 signaling in mediating the vascular repair and in blood-brain barrier restoration after mild cerebral ischemia occlusion/reperfusion. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Here, we show that the guidance molecule ephrinB2 plays a key role in neurovascular protection and blood-brain barrier restoration after stroke...
March 2, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254448/effects-of-pioglitazone-on-the-incidence-of-dementia-in-patients-with-diabetes
#17
Ping-Song Chou, Bo-Lin Ho, Yuan-Han Yang
AIMS: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonists exert neuroprotective effects in the brain. Therefore, in this population-based cohort study, we investigated the effects of pioglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist, on the risk of dementia. METHODS: By using claims data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we included 6401 patients with diabetes who were treated with pioglitazone and 12,802 age- and sex-matched patients with diabetes who were never treated with pioglitazone from 2004 to 2009 and who were free of dementia at baseline...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253550/olig1-is-required-for-noggin-induced-neonatal-myelin-repair
#18
Jennifer K Sabo, Vivi Heine, John C Silbereis, Lucas Schirmer, Steven W Levison, David H Rowitch
Objective - Neonatal white matter injury (NWMI) is a lesion found in preterm infants that can lead to cerebral palsy. Although antagonists of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, such as Noggin, promote oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) production after hypoxic-ischemic injury, the downstream functional targets are poorly understood. The bHLH protein Olig1 promotes oligodendrocyte (OL) development and is essential during remyelination in adult mice. Here, we investigated whether Olig1 function is required downstream of BMP antagonism for the response to injury in the neonatal brain...
March 2, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247179/neuroprotective-effect-of-3-naphthalen-2-yl-propoxy-methyl-azetidine-hydrochloride-on-brain-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury
#19
Eun-A Kim, Jung-Min Na, Jiae Kim, Soo Young Choi, Jee-Yin Ahn, Sung-Woo Cho
Because ischaemic stroke is one of the most common brain disorders, diverse effective therapies are urgently required. Recent studies reported a variety of azetidine-based scaffolds for the development of central nervous system-focused lead-like libraries. However, their mechanisms of action and in vivo functions remain unclear. Here, we investigated the potential mechanism and beneficial effects of 3-(naphthalen-2-yl(propoxy)methyl)azetidine hydrochloride (KHG26792), a novel azetidine derivative, on ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) brain injury...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246278/renal-denervation-in-the-acute-phase-of-ischemic-stroke-provides-brain-protection-in-hypertensive-rats
#20
Yu Hasegawa, Takashi Nakagawa, Kunihiko Matsui, Shokei Kim-Mitsuyama
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Renal denervation (RD) may protect against cardiovascular diseases regardless of blood pressure (BP)-lowering effect. We hypothesized that RD can improve the outcome of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in hypertensive rats. METHODS: An AIS model of spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSPs) was prepared by 90-minute middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. At 30 minutes poststroke, the SHRSPs were subjected to (1) sham operation or (2) RD to determine the beneficial effects of RD posttreatment...
February 28, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
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