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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243873/a-comprehensive-review-of-genetic-and-epigenetic-mechanisms-that-regulate-bdnf-expression-and-function-with-relevance-to-major-depressive-disorder
#1
REVIEW
Benjamin Hing, Leela Sathyaputri, James B Potash
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mood disorder that affects behavior and impairs cognition. A gene potentially important to this disorder is the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as it is involved in processes controlling neuroplasticity. Various mechanisms exist to regulate BDNF's expression level, subcellular localization, and sorting to appropriate secretory pathways. Alterations to these processes by genetic factors and negative stressors can dysregulate its expression, with possible implications for MDD...
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241651/distinct-roles-of-prelimbic-and-infralimbic-probdnf-in-extinction-of-conditioned-fear
#2
Wei Sun, Xiaoliang Li, Lei An
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been investigated for its positive role in regulation of fear acquisition and memory. The precursor of BDNF, proBDNF, has been identified as different protein from its mature form. The prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) sub-regions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are functionally distinct in fear behavior. However, the role of PL and IL proBDNF in fear memory is unclear. Here, through the infusion of cleavage-resistant proBDNF and its antibody, we identified the dissociable roles of PL and IL proBDNF in fear expression and extinction memory as well as explored proBDNF's potential mechanism of action...
December 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241138/effects-of-fluoride-on-synapse-morphology-and-myelin-damage-in-mouse-hippocampus
#3
Ruiyan Niu, Huijuan Chen, Ram Kumar Manthari, Zilong Sun, Jinming Wang, Jianhai Zhang, Jundong Wang
To investigate the fluoride-induced neurotoxicity on mice hippocampus, healthy adult mice were exposed to 25, 50, and 100 mg NaF/L for 60 days. The results showed that medium and high fluoride administration induced ultrastructural alterations in the structure of neuron synapse, including indistinct and short synaptic cleft, and thickened postsynaptic density (PSD). The significant reduced mRNA expressions of proteolipid protein (PLP) in medium and high fluoride groups suggested that myelin damage occurred in hippocampus...
December 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237550/the-effects-of-dna-methylation-on-human-psychology
#4
REVIEW
Farzeen Kader, Meenu Ghai, Leah Maharaj
DNA methylation is a fundamental epigenetic modification in the human genome; pivotal in development, genomic imprinting, X inactivation, chromosome stability, gene expression and methylation aberrations are involved in an array of human diseases. Methylation at promoters is associated with transcriptional repression, whereas gene body methylation is generally associated with gene expression. Extrinsic factors such as age, diets and lifestyle affect DNA methylation which consequently alters gene expression...
December 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237268/sesquiterpenoids-from-the-root-of-panax-ginseng-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-depressive-like-behavior-through-the-bdnf-trkb-and-sirt-1-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#5
Weidong Wang, Xiaofeng Liu, Jinping Liu, Enbo Cai, Yan Zhao, Haijun Li, Lianxue Zhang, Pingya Li, Yugang Gao
The previous study indicated sesquiterpenoids from the root of Panax ginseng (SPG) exhibited significant antidepressant-like effect, which might be mediated by the modification of the dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems. This study was to investigate SPG's antidepressant effects and mechanisms on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depression-like behavior. In the tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST), SPG (0.25 and 1 mg/kg, i.g.) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) effectively reduced the immobility time...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235396/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-serum-level-in-women-with-first-episode-depression-correlation-with-clinical-and-metabolic-parameters
#6
Maria Skibinska, Pawel Kapelski, Aleksandra Rajewska-Rager, Joanna Pawlak, Aleksandra Szczepankiewicz, Beata Narozna, Joanna Twarowska-Hauser, Monika Dmitrzak-Weglarz
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) influences neuron differentiation during development, as well as the synaptic plasticity and neuron survival in adulthood. BDNF has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and its serum level is a potential biomarker for depression. The aim of this study was to examine serum levels of BDNF in first-episode depression and its correlation with clinical and metabolic parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed on a group of 60 women: 30 diagnosed with a first-episode of depression and 30 healthy controls...
December 13, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234149/effect-of-maternal-iron-deficiency-anemia-on-fetal-neural-development
#7
Sriparna Basu, Dinesh Kumar, Shampa Anupurba, Ashish Verma, Ashok Kumar
OBJECTIVE: Perinatal iron deficiency may have deleterious consequences on fetal neural development. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of maternal iron deficiency anemia (IDA) on fetal hippocampal morphogenesis and production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). STUDY DESIGN: Seventy term, singleton neonates born to mothers with IDA (hemoglobin <110g/L and serum ferritin <12 μg/L) formed the study group. Twenty gestational age-matched neonates born to healthy mothers without IDA (hemoglobin ≥110 g/L and serum ferritin >12 μg/L) served as controls...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233783/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-of-20-and-30-minutes-combined-with-sertraline-for-the-treatment-of-depression
#8
Elena L Pavlova, Alexandra A Menshikova, Roman V Semenov, Ekaterina N Bocharnikova, Galina N Gotovtseva, Tatiana A Druzhkova, Anna G Gersamia, Anna A Gudkova, Alla B Guekht
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can be an effective treatment for depression, however, the duration of the stimulation session, among other parameters, needs to be optimized. METHODS: 69 mild to moderately depressed patients (age 37.6±10.5years, 19 men) were randomized into three groups - 30-, 20-minute or sham tDCS. 10 daily sessions of anodal/sham tDCS of the left DLPFC (0.5mA; electrode 3,5×7cm) combined with 50mg/day of sertraline were performed...
December 9, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233654/trophic-modulation-of-gamma-oscillations-the-key-role-of-processing-protease-for-neuregulin-1-and-bdnf-precursors
#9
Hideki Tamura, Sadao Shiosaka, Shota Morikawa
Gamma oscillations within the cerebral cortex and hippocampus are associated with cognitive processes, including attention, sensory perception, and memory formation; a deficit in gamma regulation is a common symptom of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Accumulating evidence has suggested that gamma oscillations result from the synchronized activity of cell assemblies coordinated mainly by parvalbumin-positive inhibitory interneurons. The modulator molecules for parvalbumin-positive interneurons are major research targets and have the potential to control the specific oscillatory rhythm and behavior originating from neural coordination...
December 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233555/human-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-rescues-functional-deficits-in-r6-2-and-q140-huntington-s-disease-mice
#10
Jack C Reidling, Aroa Relaño-Ginés, Sandra M Holley, Joseph Ochaba, Cindy Moore, Brian Fury, Alice Lau, Andrew H Tran, Sylvia Yeung, Delaram Salamati, Chunni Zhu, Asa Hatami, Carlos Cepeda, Joshua A Barry, Talia Kamdjou, Alvin King, Dane Coleal-Bergum, Nicholas R Franich, Frank M LaFerla, Joan S Steffan, Mathew Blurton-Jones, Charles K Meshul, Gerhard Bauer, Michael S Levine, Marie-Francoise Chesselet, Leslie M Thompson
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder with no disease-modifying treatment. Expansion of the glutamine-encoding repeat in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene causes broad effects that are a challenge for single treatment strategies. Strategies based on human stem cells offer a promising option. We evaluated efficacy of transplanting a good manufacturing practice (GMP)-grade human embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cell (hNSC) line into striatum of HD modeled mice. In HD fragment model R6/2 mice, transplants improve motor deficits, rescue synaptic alterations, and are contacted by nerve terminals from mouse cells...
December 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232822/microglia-m2a-polarization-as-potential-link-between-food-allergy-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Hans O Kalkman, Dominik Feuerbach
Atopic diseases are frequently co-morbid with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Allergic responses are associated with an activation of mast cells, innate lymphoid cells, and Th2 cells. These cells produce type-2 cytokines (IL4 and IL13), which stimulate microglia and macrophages to adopt a phenotype referred to as 'alternative activation' or 'M2A'. M2A-polarized macrophages and microglia play a physiological role in tissue repair by secreting growth factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1...
December 9, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231595/-effects-of-electroacupuncture-on-activation-of-microglia-cells-in-spinal-cord-in-rats-with-neuropathic-pain
#12
Sisi Li, Pengpeng Gu, Wenzhan Tu, Xia Jiang, Wenci Chen, Qimiao Hu, Songhe Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on the activation of microglia cells in the L4 to L6 spinal cord in rats with neuropathic pain, so as to investigate whether EA could inhibit the activation of spinal microglial cells and regulate the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to achieve the analgesic effect. METHODS: Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into a normal group, a sham-model group, a model group and an EA group, 10 rats in each one...
April 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231147/neuroendocrine-and-metabolic-disorders-in-bulimia-nervosa
#13
Walter Milano, Anna Capasso
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bulimia nervosa, is an eating disorder characterized by excessive influence of weight and body shape on the levels of self-esteem, with pervasive feelings of failure and inadequacy. The eating is characterized by the presence of episodes of uncontrolled eating (Binge), during which the person ingests mass wide variety of foods and the feeling of not being able to stop eating. This review focuses on the metabolic and hormonal alterations in the in bulimia nervosa...
December 11, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230173/blueberry-phenolics-reduce-gastrointestinal-infection-of-patients-with-cerebral-venous-thrombosis-by-improving-depressant-induced-autoimmune-disorder-via-mir-155-mediated-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#14
Ning Xu, Hao Meng, Tianyi Liu, Yingli Feng, Yuan Qi, Donghuan Zhang, Honglei Wang
Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) often causes human depression, whereas depression-induced low immunity makes the patients susceptible to gastrointestinal infection. Blueberry possesses antidepressant properties which may improve autoimmunity and reduce gastrointestinal infection. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) performs antidepressant function and can be regulated by miR-155, which may be affected by blueberry. To explore the possible molecular mechanism, blueberry compounds were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230099/the-effect-of-co-transplantation-of-nerve-fibroblasts-and-schwann-cells-on-peripheral-nerve-repair
#15
Yang Wang, Dong Li, Gangyang Wang, Lulu Chen, Jun Chen, Zhangyin Liu, Zhaofeng Zhang, Hua Shen, Yuqing Jin, Zunli Shen
Combinations of fibroblasts (Fbs) and corresponding epithelial cells have been widely used in many tissues, such as the skin and breast tissues, to augment tissue repair and remodeling. Recently, a large amount of new data has indicated that nerve Fbs play critical roles in Schwann cells (SCs) and axons in vitro. However, little is known regarding the effects of co-transplanting nerve Fbs and SCs on peripheral nerve repair in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of co-transplanting sciatic nerve Fbs (SN-Fbs) and sciatic nerve SCs (SN-SCs) on nerve regeneration...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228731/impact-of-anger-emotional-stress-before-pregnancy-on-adult-male-offspring
#16
Sheng Wei, Xinyang Xiao, Jieqiong Wang, Shiguang Sun, Zifa Li, Kaiyong Xu, Fang Li, Jie Gao, Dehao Zhu, Mingqi Qiao
Previous studies have reported that maternal chronic stress or depression is linked to an increased risk of affective disorders in progeny. However, the impact of maternal chronic stress before pregnancy on the progeny of animal models is unknown. We investigated the behaviors and the neurobiology of 60-day-old male offspring of female rats subjected to 21 days of resident-intruder stress before pregnancy. An anger stressed parental rat model was established using the resident-intruder paradigm and it was evaluated using behavioral tests...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228215/mitochondria-are-critical-for-bdnf-mediated-synaptic-and-vascular-plasticity-of-hippocampus-following-repeated-electroconvulsive-seizures
#17
Fenghua Chen, Maryam Ardalan, Betina Elfving, Gregers Wegener, Torsten M Madsen, Jens R Nyengaard
Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a fast acting and efficient treatment of depression used in the clinic. The underlying mechanism of its therapeutic effect is still unclear. However, recovery of synaptic connections and synaptic remodeling is thought to play a critical role for the clinical efficacy obtained from a rapid antidepressant response. Here, we investigated the relationship between, synaptic changes and concomitant non-neuronal changes in microvasculature and mitochondria, and it relationship to Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level changes after repeated electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), an animal model of ECT...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224968/adjunctive-treatment-with-brexpiprazole-and-escitalopram-reduces-behavioral-stress-responses-and-increase-hypothalamic-npy-immunoreactivity-in-a-rat-model-of-ptsd-like-symptoms
#18
Hagit Cohen, Joseph Zohar, Zeev Kaplan, Jørn Arnt
The study explored effects of brexpiprazole (partial D2/5-HT1A agonist, 5-HT2A and α1B/2C-adrenoceptor antagonist) in rats exposed to predator scent stress (PSS), a proposed model of PTSD-like phenotype. Brexpiprazole (3.0mg/kg, PO), escitalopram (5.0mg/kg, IP) and their combination were administered twice daily for 14 days, starting 14 days after exposure to PSS or sham-PSS, shortly after a situational stress reminder. One day after last treatment behavioral responsivity was assessed. Brexpiprazole+escitalopram-treated rats spent more time in open arms, entered open arms more often and exhibited a lower anxiety index in the elevated plus maze than vehicle-treated, PSS-exposed rats...
December 7, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224504/mechanisms-of-carnosine-induced-activation-of-neuronal-cells
#19
Shuntaro Yamashita, Mikako Sato, Takashi Matsumoto, Keishi Kadooka, Takanori Hasegawa, Tatsuya Fujimura, Yoshinori Katakura
Carnosine (β-Ala-l-His), an imidazole dipeptide, is known to have many functions. Recently, we demonstrated in a double-blind randomized controlled trial that carnosine is capable of preserving cognitive function in elderly people. In the current study, we assessed the ability of carnosine to activate the brain, and we tried to clarify the molecular mechanisms behind this activation. Our results demonstrate that carnosine permeates the blood brain barrier and activates glial cells within the brain, causing them to secrete neurotrophins, including BDNF and NGF...
December 11, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221855/toll-like-receptor-4-regulates-anxiety-like-behavior-and-darpp-32-phosphorylation
#20
T Femenia, Y Qian, T Arentsen, H Forssberg, R Diaz Heijtz
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in early innate immune responses to inflammatory agents and pathogens. In the brain, some members of the TLR family are expressed in glial cells and neurons. In particular, TLR4 has been involved in learning and memory processes, stress-induced adaptations, and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. However, the role of TLR4 in emotional behaviors and their underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of TLR4 in emotional and social behavior by using different behavioral approaches, and assessed potential molecular alterations in important brain areas involved in emotional responses...
December 5, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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